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NUS geotechnical engineering - CE5101

© All Rights Reserved

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NUS geotechnical engineering - CE5101

© All Rights Reserved

- Truss Structure FEA NX
- CE5101 Lecture 4 - Seepage Analysis by FEM (SEP 2011)
- CE5101 Lecture 10 - Consolidation Monitoring Using Hyperbolic Method (OCT 2013) [Compatibility Mode]
- Reese, Lymon C._ Van Impe, William-Single Piles and Pile Groups Under Lateral Loading (2nd Edition)-Taylor _ Francis (2011)
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- Wrana-2015-4
- Dynamic Analysis .pdf
- FEM02
- Practical Soil Mechanics at Muskingum IV-Knappen & Philippe
- Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

You are on page 1of 38

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

CE 5101 Lecture 6 1D

Consolidation

Sep 2010

Prof Harry Tan

Outline

Terzaghi Theory

U f l Elastic

Useful

El ti S

Solutions

l ti

Oedometer Tests

FEM Theory

FEM compared with Terzaghi

Consolidation of Realistic Soils

Example of Consolidation in Reclaimed Land

Secondary Compression and Creep

2

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Formulation of Theory

Useful Approximations

Elastic Solutions

1D CONSOLIDATION

Assumptions made:

soil is fully saturated

pore water is incompressible

Darcy's law is valid

isotropic (constant) permeability

linear elastic soil behaviour

load

applied instantaneously

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION

initial

ground surface

fully saturated

pw = pw, o

t=0

pw, t=o =

settlement s

settlement st

pw = pw, o + pw, t

t=

pw = pw, o

pw, t = t

= +

0<t<

= + t

5

1D CONSOLIDATION

the change in pore pressure (pw) with time and

position within the layer can be expressed by the

partial differential equation

p w

2 p w

cv

t

z 2

with

cv

k E oed

w

cv . coefficient of consolidation

pw = 0

no flow

pw =

pw = 0

Ut 1

at bottom of layer

y

at t = 0 (independent of z)

at t = (independent of z)

Me

m 0

M 2 Tv

1

2m 1

2

6

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION

Ut average degree of consolidation

Tv dimensionless time factor

Ut

p w ,o p w , t

p w , 0

s t

s

Tv

cv t

D

k E oed

t

w D2

NOTE:

D .... drainage

g p

path,, NOT thickness of layer

y !

U .... depends on Tv and boundary conditions

Tv ... depends on problem (pw, o - distribution)

1D CONSOLIDATION

t1: bottom of layer not yet influenced

by consolidation process

surcharge load

t=0

slope of Isochrones

> hydraulic gradient

t = t1 t = t2

t = t3

/ w

horizontal tangent > dv/dz = 0

(no flow) at bottom boundary

t=

clay layer

fully saturated

D

45

impermeable

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION

permeable

Tv

D

permeable

degree of consolidation Ut

Isochrones: lines of excess pore pressures (pw, t) at a given time

Consolidation

For

Then

For

Then

Uv 2

cv is

i C

Coeficient

fi i t off

Consolidation

Tv

cv t

H2

k

cv v

mv w

Tv

Uv 1

Tv is Time factor

2

Tv

4

1 e

Tv 0.21

4

10

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Drainage Boundaries

11

Distributions

Case 0

Case 0

Case 0

Case 1

Case 0

Case 2

12

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

13

14

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

15

Case 1

Case 0

drained

A0

+

A1

undrained

For a given Tv, find U0 and U1

Combined U = U0(A0/A) + U1(A1/A)

What may produce this initial Excess PP??

Reclaimed Clay Fill self weight combined with

Imposed Sand Capping weight above reclaimed clay fill

16

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Let ultimate settlement be SAf

S(A) S(A0) S(A1)

SAf

SAf

SAf

S ( A1)

S ( A0)

By definition:

;U

U

A0

Therefore:

U A U A0

S A0 f

S A0 f

S Af

A1

U A1

S A1 f

S A1 f

S Af

pore pressure isochrones. Thus the ultimate settlement is

proportional to the area of the initial excess PP isochrones:

S A0 f

S A1 f

A

A

A0 ;

A1

S Af

AA S Af

AA

Therefore,

U A U A0

AA0

A

U A1 A1

AA

AA

17

increment is calculated backwards from final water content and

final thickness readings

18

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

deposition gives normal curve (Normally Consolidated Soils)

unloading by erosion or removal of soil load gives swelling

curve (Over-consolidated Soils)

19

20

10

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

21

22

11

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

23

Determine Pc - Janbu

Pc

24

12

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

25

26

13

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

27

Sample Disturbance

28

14

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Load Increment Duration

Related to the influence of

secondary compression on

test results

29

Theory Curve

Experimental Curve

0 848

Tv90 = 0.848

Correction ratio

=0.9209/0.7976=

1.15

30

15

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Correction for U0

based on parabolic

relation upto U50

31

Example of

Use of Sqrt

time and log

time

methods

32

16

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Sridharan and Prakash 1981,1985

T / U MT C

t/

mt c

t / Amt

Therefore ,

c

BmH 2

and cv

m( A 1 )

c

where

A 2.04 for t 60

A 1.35 for t 90

B 0.2972

33

34

17

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

35

compare to NC state

36

18

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

FEM Theory

Formulation

Stress Equilibrium Deformation Part

Continuity Equilibrium Hydraulic Part

Global Assembly

Step by step Integration (Implicit Method)

Output

37

Effective stresses

Constitutive law

Discretization

same shape functions for

displacements and pore pressures

38

19

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Stiffness matrix

Coupling matrix

Incremental load vector

39

Flow matrix

Coupling matrix

Water compressibility matrix

40

20

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

41

Time step

Automatic time stepping is required

Critical time step

H2

80cv

H2

40cv

Consolidation analysis

Prescribed time

Maximum excess pore pressure

42

21

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

43

Load = 100 kPa

44

22

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Terzhagi theory

Plaxis Ver 9.0

45

Terzhagi theory

Plaxis

46

23

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

47

Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

48

24

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

Results for Terzaghis 1D Consolidation Test

49

Cv is not constant with consolidation

process

Both kv and mv (or Eoed) are varied as

consolidation progress

Cv is one order larger for OC state

compared to NC state

50

25

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL

SIMULATION

applied load = 100 kPa

soil layer 2D = 10 m

drainage at top and bottom

compressibility of pore water

(by means of B-value)

elastic-plastic soil behaviour

(by means of changing constitutive model)

51

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL

SIMULATION

0

reference elastic

pore water compressible

((B=0.85))

permeability e-dependent

Hardening Soil model

settlement [mm]

20

40

60

80

100

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

time [days]

52

26

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL

SIMULATION

exces

ss pore pressure [k

kPa]

-100

-80

80

-60

-40

reference elastic

pore water compressible

p

p

(B=0.85)

permeability e-dependent

Hardening Soil model

-20

0

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

time [days]

53

elastic

54

27

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

vertica

al displacements [mm]

-20

-40

-60

HS_ref

B=0.85

E50 <

-80

E50 >

Ko_nc >

-100

Ko_nc <

-120

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]

55

excess

s pore pressure [kPa]

-100

-80

-60

HS_ref

B=0.85

E50 <

-40

E50 >

Eoed <

-20

Ko_nc >

Ko_nc <

0

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]

56

28

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

degree

e of consolidation [%

%]

20

40

60

HS_ref

B=0.85

E50 <

E50 >

80

Eoed >

Ko_nc >

Ko_nc <

100

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]

57

Consolidation Modeling in a

Reclaimed Land

Why a Mohr-Coulomb Model is

grossly incorrect ?

58

29

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Sand Loading in 365 days

Sea Bed

Closed

consolidation

boundaries all

round

59

Soil Parameters

Cc=1.0 Cs=0.1 eo=2.0 and m=1.0 for logarithmic compression response

60

30

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

61

HS = 4,350

4 350 mm in 12

12,700

700 days

62

31

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Amount of Settlement

Single layer 1-D compression Estimate:

Cc=1.0, eo=2.0, Ho=15m

Po = 7.5m*5 = 37.5 kPa

P_inc = 10m*18 = 180 kPa

Pf = Po+P_inc = 217.5 kPa

Sett = Ho*Cc/(1+eo)*log(Pf/Po) = 15000*0.254 = 3,817 mm

g layer

y computation

p

and it g

grossly

y under-estimate

This is a single

amount of settlements; but 3,817 mm >> 400 mm by MC Model, and

is much closer to 4,330 mm by HS Model

Thus HS Model gave realistic answer and MC Model is grossly

incorrect

63

Using same oedometer

parameters of Cc=1.0,

eo=2.0;;

UniSettle = 4428 mm

HS = 4350 mm

UniSettle 15-layer

computation gave same

results as Plaxis HS model

64

32

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Conclusions

MC Model cannot be used for consolidation

analysis of soft soils

The linear elastic model in MC cannot predict

both the rate and amount of consolidation

settlements of highly nonlinear soft clays

The HS Model with equivalent oedometer

parameters will give very good predictions of

both rate and amount of consolidation

settlements

65

continued settlements under constant

effective stress

66

33

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

e

log t

e ep

t

log

t

p

where t p time at

67

Oedometer Test

Apparent Pc

68

34

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

compression (a) for different thickness (b) for

given thickness

thickness for most cases

69

secondary to primary compression is largest when

stress increment to initial stress is small

70

35

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

and C

71

NC Clays 00.005-0.02

005 0 02

Values of C/ Cc

plastic >0.03

OCR>2 <0.001

Peats 0.035-0.085

Singapore MC 0.04-0.06

SF Baymud 0.04-0.06

Leda Clay 0.03-0.06

72

36

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

Can identify 3 different phases for 3

different mechanisms of settlements:

Compression

Consolidation is Drained (elastic

plus plastic) Cap Compression

Creep is time-dependent secondary

compression at constant effective

stress

73

74

37

Lecture 6

SEP 2010

75

38

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