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There are two magazines that are cool. Livedesign and Light and Sound America
Ligthing design has evolved over the past 30 years, then it started to be more of the
environment with rock concerts and the like, on stage it was just washes. Now it is
protocol. Even standups need lighting designer. Started with the disco era with desire for
more effects and the like.
Ligthing designers come in usually later than the rest of the design team. On a show, their
job is relatively shortlived. Freelancers are the most common, and where people make a
lions share of their money. You go where the work is.
Roray doesnt really understand why people move to Minneapolis, its isolated, its not
that big a town. He recommends big cities on the East Coast. Philadelphia, D.C. etc.
Living out there you might think its rough. Manhattan is pretty rough, especially when
there are no money. Queens is better than Manhattan. There are Midwestern-ey folk in
Vermont and the East coast. The biggest little hick town in America is NYC. Its all
neighborhood-ey. You stay in your neighborhood, however you need connections to get a
good place to live.
Connections seem to be a theme in theatre.
AA (yes, that one) is a good connection.
You can find a bit of work out there in NYC. You have to build up a reputation. When
you get a lot of work, you can join the Union. You can buy your way in for $3000. If you
take the test, you get half your money back. You dont know what the test will be, its
Lighting designers can make about $700-$1000 less than a set designer.
C2 Theatres can bank you about $2200
A Theatre - $9000
If youre good, you can negotiate.
You also have an agent, and a union to protect you.
Your job is short lived.
Things are also relative when you talk to someone who doesnt know lights. What is a
meditarannean sky? What is a dramatic shadow?

Once you get to know a director, you learn things.

Sotryboarding is somewhat common.
The first thing you do is get an equipment list as most things are rented, bought and then
written off for tax purposes.
Think of a light plot and ground plan. It shows what lights are and where they will be
hung. Its like a map.
An instrument schedule is a numbered list of instruments, it tells what circuit to plug it in,
what position it will be at, colors inside, special for this that and the other thing, etc.
Theres a hookup schedule, how you are going to patch things together.
A pigtail on an electric is a power cable on a batton and is numbered, numbered up to
how many dimmers you have. If its numbered 1, the dimmer will take it to circuit one.
Thats a Dimmer per circuit system and this is standard, however it is customizable if so
A hookup schedule tells you if you make such customizations.
All these schedules go to a MASTER ELECTRICIAN the head of the light crew.
They then do a rough focus, to make sure everything works according to a hookup
schedule. The Lighting Designer than focuses everything to make it pretty. A ME can also
be a lighting designer. Some theatres freelance their designer and hve an inhouse ME.
They work very fast at very odd hours.
They get overtime and golden time.
This is why union people dont work too hard, so they can make more money.
Lighting designers dont usually screw with moving lights, technicians do the
programming and work late hours and the like. Then the lighting designer adjusts
Light bulbs are for bedrooms, lamps are for theatre.
Incandescent and Quartz lamps are very bright, they both burn electrons and come back
together. Quartz lamps last a lot longer. Incandescents last 200 hours and Quarts last
2000. Quartz cost about and 2/3 more. Quartz lamps stay white and not yellow as
Incandescents dont. The big hangup with Quartz is that lamps burn with fingerprints.
(Little John)

Edison plugs are the big ass yellow plugs.

We have a 3 prong twist lock. Theyre cool, they have 3 prongs, they twist and lock
(Holy shit, thats intuitive!)
Carbon Arc spots are rare.
Zeon lamps, HMI and HTI lamps.
Zeon lamps are used in the big ass spots and burn very white.
HMIs are something Roray doesnt like at all, they are low wattage. They suck because
they take forever to turn on. Like the stuff in the gym. They also burn kinda lavender
They also show imperfections like zits, big ass lips that turn purple and make you look
HTIs are kinda grey, but theyre fine.
All follow spots have different functions such as a shutter.
Faders are also done. Douser
Color boomerang
There are dollies on follow spots.
There are yokes that allow movement for going up and down.
Going left to right are called panning.
Follow spots are like riding a bike.
The trick is to have good people with steady hands and sense of things.
You always need headroom and room for big arms things.
Its like using a video camera.
Once you get it, you get it.
Touring companies need them, its a steady gig in terms of freelancing, you want a good
eye for blocking. You need a strong visual memory, you just need to concentrate.

Like the sun, never look at a burning lamp, if you burn your eyes, its like a sunburn on
your eyes.
If you have an iris, dont leave it shut for too long, it can weld shut.
Ghosting is bad. Dont do it.
Lets talk about lighting instruments, shall we.
Century Strand is a big ass light company
An ER is also called an ellipsoidal reflector. It makes light come out straight. Its like
when you take a magnifying glass and concentrate it to one point and you fry a bug with
it. Shutters can help control the lights shape.
The ER itself are called facets and looks like a discoball.
Its like a slide projector.
Theres a C-Clamp on it. Along with a yoke which can be like a handle. The part of the
instrument that holds the lamp is called the housing. A nickname is called the guts. Theres
a body and the gate and the lens housing. It is very controllable. 750-1000 Watts
The cool beam is a different type of lamp that has energy saving lamp that is just as
bright.575 watts. They dont burn as hot, the reason it was designed.
They all have safety cables.
Zooms (CCTs) also have variable lens systems. When you buy an ER, essentially youve
got three sizes. The smaller are 6x16.
Flat field is where you overlap the lights as is. Beam angle and field angles. Field angles
have 100% intensity all the time.
Frenels have either cranks or knobs and you the doohickey up and down and the
doohickey is the lamp. The closer it is to the lens makes it more like a floodlight. Frenels
give fuzzy light, whereas ERs dont.
Stagewashes are where you cover the whole stage with the same intensity light.