NUS geotechnical engineering - CE5101

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NUS geotechnical engineering - CE5101

© All Rights Reserved

- Deep basements & cut & cover - 3
- Sieve Analysis
- The Mechanics of Soils ATKINSON
- CE5101 Lecture 10 - Consolidation Monitoring Using Hyperbolic Method (OCT 2013) [Compatibility Mode]
- Case Histories and Consolidation Monitoring
- CE5101 Lecture 8 - Radial Consolidation_ PVD and Surcharge (OCT 2013) [Compatibility Mode]
- Ce4257 1 Introduction
- Mooring Study
- Darcy Law and Soil Permeability
- CE5101 Lecture 4 - Seepage Analysis by FEM (SEP 2011)
- Sample Revision Test Oct 2010
- Contents
- Cow Shed Staad Pro Model
- CE-Syllabus.doc
- Constant Head
- Tunnel construction programme
- CE5107 Lecture 3 Print Version
- L08-1 d Settlement
- Syllabus
- Soil behavior and critical state soil mechanics by Wood.pdf

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OCT 2010

Consolidation and PVD

October 2011

Prof Harry Tan

Outline

Radial Consolidation Barron Theory

Carillo Theory Combined vertical and

radial Flow

PVD Design

Preload Surcharge Design

FEM Model of PVD and Surcharge

Some Cases

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

3 - D Governing Equation in radial coords :

2u 1 u

u

2u

c v 2

c h 2

t

r r

z

r

where

ch

kh

kv

, cv

m v w

m v w

2u 1 u

u

c h 2

t

r r

r

Boundary Conditions :

1. u u 0 at t 0

2. u(rw ) 0 for t 0

3.

u(re )

0 (impervious due to symmetry)

r

u u

4U12 e 4 n Th

Ur 1 r ; r 2 2

u 0 u0

(n 1 ) n 2U 02 n U12

2 2

where : n

de

ct

and Th h2 ; U 0 and U1 are Bessel Functions

dw

de

Note :

Free strain means

non - uniform

settlement as soil

closest to drain

settle fastest

U r is a function

of n and Th only

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

with

r

the local degree of consolidation Ur at (D-d) point of soil

cylinder, best place for piezometer to monitor progress of

consolidation

Like Ur

Ur 1 e

8Th

f (n)

8T

where : f (n)

h

ur

e f (n)

u0

n2

3n 2 1

ln(

n

)

n2 1

4n 2

Comparison

p

show very small

differences

between freestrain and equalstrain, esp for

n>10

For n=5,

significant

difference in

first 50% of

consolidation

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Square spacing :

s2

4

D 1.13s

Traingular spacing :

D 2

4

D 1.05s

8Th

ct

U r 1 exp

; Th h 2

D

n2

3n 2 1

where : 2 ln(n)

n 1

4n 2

ct

8Th

U rz 1 exp

; Th h 2

D

s

where : s ln

k

n kc

3

ln(m) z 2 L z c

m k 'c

qw

4

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

and radial Flow

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

If u1 f1 r , t is a solution to

2u 1 u

u

ch 2

t

r r

r

u

2u

cv 2

t

z

then u1u 2 is a solutionof the combined flow problem

and u 2 f 2 z , t is a solution to

u

t

2 u1u 2 1 u1u 2

u1u 2

2 u1u 2

cv

ch

r 2

t

z 2

r r

u 2 u1 u1 u 2

2 u 2

2 u1 1 u1

u1cv

u 2 ch

2

r r

t

t

z 2

r

This means that :

Pr oof : Substitute u u1u 2 into

u 2

2 u 2

2 u1 1 u1

u1

ch

and

c

QED

v

2

t

r r

t

z 2

r

The previous discussion lead to :

u uh uv

u0 u0 u0

That means :

1 - U 1 U 1 U

h

U h from Barron' s or Hansbo' s theory

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

with Plaxis 2D-FEM

Outline

Barron 1D Radial Flow Consolidation

Carillo Combined Flow Consolidation

Equivalent Plane Strain Consolidation for

2D-FEM

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Consolidation

For

Then

For

Then

Uv 2

Tv is Time factor

cv is

i Coeficient

C fi i t off

Consolidation

Tv

cv t

H2

k

cv v

mv w

Tv

Uv 1

2

Tv

4

1 e

Tv 0.21

4

Consolidation

Equal Vertical Strain Condition

8Th

U h 1

1 e

ch is Coeficient of

Consolidation

n2

3 1

1

ln n 2 1 2

2

n 1

4 n 4n

Th is Time factor

ln(n)

3

4

discharge

di

h

k

n k

3

s ln( ) h ln(s) z ( 2 L z ) h

s kr

qw

4

ch t

D2

k

ch h

mv w

Th

and z = L/2 for double drainage at top and bottom

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

ct

8Th

U r 1 exp

; Th h 2

D

where :

n2

3n 2 1

ln(n)

n 1

4n 2

2

8Th

ct

U rz 1 exp

; Th h 2

s

D

where : s ln

k

n kc

3

ln(m) z 2 L z c

m k 'c

4

qw

top,

top

z=L

For double drainage at

top and bottom, z=L/2

U vh 1 (1 U v )(1 U h )

For Tv > 0.2

Uv > 50%

1Uv e

1Uh e

Tv 0.21

4

8Th

U vh 1 e

For Tv 0.2

Uv 50%

2

8T

Tv 0.21 h

U vh 1 1 2 Tv / e

8Th

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Plane Strain FEM Model CUR 191 or Tan 1981

Interested only in solution > 50% consolidation

For Axisymmetric Unit Cell

U vh 1 e

U v' 1 e

2

8T

Tv 0.21 h

2

Tv ' 0.21

4

U v ' U vh

U v' 1 e

Tv ' Tv

kv ' kv

Tv ' 0.21

4

32 Th

1 e

Tv

32 H 2

kh

2 D 2

2

8T

Tv 0.21 h

cv t

k

and cv v

H2

mv w

Th

ch t

k

and ch h

D2

mv w

cluster with enhanced vertical kv model

Practical Vertical Drain Design (by Prof Harry Tan SEP 2008)

Terzaghi 1D Vertical Consolidation

INPUT

cv(m2/y)

2

2

Case

1

2

H(m)

5

5

t(y)

0.25

0.25

Tv

0.02

0.02

U h 1 exp

Uv

0.16

0.16

where

h : s ln

l

INPUT

ch(m2/y) S (m)

5

1.30

5

1.50

Case

1

2

D(m)

1.365

1.575

t(y)

0.25

0.25

Th

0.67

0.50

8Th

d(m)

0.050

0.050

ds(m)

0.100

0.100

kh (m/y)

0.0050

0.0050

ks (m/y)

0.0020

0.0020

qw (m3/y)

100

100

; Th

ch t

D2

k

3

n kh

lln(( s ) z 2 L z h

s ks

4

qw

z=L single drainage and z=L/2 double drainage

L(m)

z(m)

n

s

mu

10

5

27.3

2

3.61

10

5

31.5

2

3.75

Uh

0.77

0.66

Case

1

2

Uv

0.16

0.16

Uh

0.77

0.66

Uvh

0.81

0.71

Case

1

2

100

60

0.81

0.204

1.786

18.6

1.0

100

60

0.71

0.204

1.933

33.3

1.9

U sr

Sf

S f s

P Pf

log 0

P0

P0 Pf Ps

log

P0

Note: D=1.05s for triangular grid or 1.13s for square grid pattern

and z=L drain at top; or z=L/2 drain top and bottom of PVD

Use Excel spreadsheet to determine: Uv, Uh and Uvh for design inputs

If Uvh meets or exceeds requirements, design is adequate

20

10

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Johnson ASCE 1970

Assumptions:

a. Primary and secondary compression

are separate

b. Instant load applied at end of

load period

c. Time

Ti rate

r t off settlement

ttl

t determine

d t r i bby

Terzaghi theory

21

Johnson ASCE 1970

Objective: To determine amount of surcharge needed to achieve desired

degree of consolidation?

'

v

Ps

Surcharge Ps

Pf

Clay: Ho, Po and Cc

tsr

Sf

Sf+s

(time to removal), then clay will

have compressed by amount

equal to Sf expected under fill

weight alone, ie achieved

U=100% under Pf load alone

22

11

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Preload Design

For Normally Consolidated Clay (NC) of thickness Ho:

P Pf

Cc

H 0 log 0

1 e0

P0

(1)

P0 Pf Ps

C

(2)

Fill and surcharge : S f s c H 0 log

P0

1 e0

Sf

Fill only :

P Pf

log 0

P0

Uf

1.0

U sr ( S f s )

P Pf Ps

U sr log 0

P0

Sf

(3)

U f s

P Pf

log 0

P0

1.0

U sr

(S f s )

P Pf Ps

log 0

P0

Sf

(4)

23

Surcharge Ps

Design Permanent Fill Pf

Clay: Ho, Po and Cc

Fill only : S f

Clay 10m thick drained both top and bottom: eo=1.5, Po=100 kPa, Cc=0.5,

cv=5 m2/yr

Fill: Height = 3m with Pf = 60 kPa

Aim: To get 100% consolidation in 1 year, what is Ps needed?

P0 Pf

Cc

H 0 log

1 e0

P0

0.5

100 60

10 * log

0.408m

100

1 1.5

c vt

5 *1

2 0.2

5

H2

T

0 .2

0.505 (about 50% consolidation)

Uv 2 v 2

Terzaghi theory : Tv

P Pf

160

log 0

log

P0

100

S f s

160 Ps

P Pf Ps

log

log 0

100

P0

160 Ps 0.204

log

0.404

100 0.505

160 Ps

0.404

2.54

10

100

Ps 254 160 94 kPa 94/18 5.2 m of surcharge (very large)

U sr 0.505

Sf

and we need PVD to reduce

surcharge time as well as amount of

surcharge needed

24

12

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Surcharge Ps

Design Permanent Fill Pf

Clay: Ho, Po and Cc

Clay 10m thick drained both top and bottom: eo=1.5, Po=100 kPa, Cc=0.5,

cv=2 m2/yr, ch= 5 m2/yr

PVD parameters: d=0.05m, ds=0.1m, kh=0.005 m/yr, ks=0.002 m/yr, qw=100

m3/yr

Fill: Height = 3m with Pf = 60 kPa

Aim: To get 100% improvement in 3 months, what is Ps needed?

Practical Vertical Drain Design (by Prof Harry Tan SEP 2008)

Terzaghi 1D Vertical Consolidation

INPUT

cv(m2/y)

2

2

Case

1

2

H(m)

5

5

t(y)

0.25

0.25

Tv

0.02

0.02

U h 1 exp

Uv

0.16

0.16

INPUT

ch(m2/y) S (m)

5

1 30

1.30

5

1.50

D(m)

1 365

1.365

1.575

t(y)

0 25

0.25

0.25

Th

0 67

0.67

0.50

where : s ln

Case

1

2

8Th

d(m)

0 050

0.050

0.050

ds(m)

0 100

0.100

0.100

kh (m/y)

0 0050

0.0050

0.0050

ks (m/y)

0 0020

0.0020

0.0020

qw (m3/y)

100

100

; Th

ch t

D2

k

3

n kh

ln( s ) z 2 L z h

4

s ks

qw

z=L single drainage and z=L/2 double drainage

L(m)

z(m)

n

s

mu

10

5

27 3

27.3

2

3.61

3

61

10

5

31.5

2

3.75

Uh

0 77

0.77

0.66

Case

1

2

Uv

0.16

0.16

Uh

0.77

0.66

Uvh

0.81

0.71

Case

1

2

100

60

0.81

0.204

1.786

18.6

1.0

100

60

0.71

0.204

1.933

33.3

1.9

U sr

Sf

S f s

P Pf

log 0

P0

P0 Pf Ps

log

P0

Design requires PVD triangle spacing with 1.3m grid and 1m surcharge or 1.5m grid with 1.9m surcharge 25

FEM Modeling of

Embankments on Soft Ground

with PVD

1. Model of single PVD Axi-symmetric

2. Model of PVD in Plane Strain

13

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Vertical Drain

Interface element in PLAXIS used

Impose specified cross-sectional area and

vertical permeability of vertical drain to

simulate well resistance

Effect of smear considered byy the

equivalent permeability of surrounding

soils

AXISYMMETRIC

z

z

r

Soil

qw

Soil

Interface

element

Soil

qw

PVD

Pore water flow

H

kh

Closed

consolidation

boundary

rw

re

(a)

Open Boundary

ti

rw

qw

re

(b)

Interface element

rw

re

(c)

Drain element

14

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

E_oed=1000 kPa

Boundary

conditions

Cv_soil = 0.01*1000/10 = 1

m2/day

Cv_drain=1*1000/10=100 m2/day

30

15

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

T=0.1day

31

Interface Element

Open Consolidation Boundary

Barron's Theory

Uh (%)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Th

16

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

PLANE STRAIN

x

s

s

m

A

P

m

2ti

(a)

2B

(b)

dw

2ti

de

2B or S

(c)

(d)

Axisymmetric model

no drainage (reference)

drainage with drain element

(sets zero pore pressure conditions)

(check on performance of drain element)

equivalent vertical permeability after CUR 191

equivalent horizontal permeability after CUR 191

equivalent horizontal permeability after Indraratna (2000)

17

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

m high

drain diameter 25 cm

applied load

10 kN/m

axisymmetric

model

CUR 191

plane strain

model

H2

kv kv 2

k

D2 h

32

kh kh

3 1

1

n2

2 lnn 2 1

4 n 4 n 2

n 1

D

d

kv , kh true permeability

kv , kh equivalent permeability

H

drainage length

diameter of drains

18

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

CUR 191

OCT 2010

k v k v

B2

k h

kh

D2

n2

3 1

lnn 2

2

n 1

4 n

U

0,5

2,26

1

2

4 n

0,75

2,75

0,9

2,94

0,95

3,01

D

d

0,99

3,09

kv , kh true permeability

kv , kh equivalent permeability

H

diameter of drains

Indraratna equivalent

horizontal permeability

k hpp

0,67

B2

k h ln n 0,75 R 2

khp

kh

R

rw

true horizontal permeability

rw

diameter of drains

19

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Excess Pore Pressure after 60% consolidation

degree of consolidation U [ - ]

d

1.0

HS - Model

models (linear-elastic)

0.8

0.6

0.4

AXI: no drainage

AXI: drainage boundary condition

AXI drainage

AXI:

d i

d

drain-element

i l

t

PS: equivalent vertical CUR 191

PS: equivalent horizontal CUR 191

PS: equivalent horizontal Indraratna

02

0.2

0.0

1e+3

1e+4

1e+5

1e+6

1e+7

1e+8

1e+9

time [sec]

20

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

degree of consolidation U [ - ]

d

1.0

OCT 2010

models (Hardening Soil model)

0.8

0.6

0.4

AXI: no drainage

AXI: drainage boundary condition

AXI: drainage

g drain-element

PS: equivalent vertical CUR 191

PS: equivalent horizontal CUR 191

PS: equivalent horizontal Indraratna

02

0.2

0.0

1e+3

1e+4

1e+5

1e+6

1e+7

1e+8

1e+9

1e+10

time [sec]

Austrian Case

B

WASSER

KANAL

A1/1

A1/9

A2/9

A1/8

PW3

A1/7

A1/6

A2/7

A2/6

PW4

A1/5

A1/3

A1/2

A2/4

A2/3

A2/1

A2/2

A3/4

A3/3

A3/2

E1

A2/5

A2/8

A1/4

A3/1

A3/7

A4/9

RS1/3

A4/8

A4/7

A5/8

A5/7

A5/5

A5/4

A5/3

A5/1

A5/2

A6/5

A6/4

A6/3

A6/1

A6/2

RS2/9

A5/9

RS2/8

A5/6

PW1

RS2/7

Z3/8

A6/7

E2

A6/6

RS2/6

A4/1

A4/2

A4/6

R/1

Z4/8

RS2/5

A7/4

RS2/4

A7/1

A7/2

A7/3

uerer Schutzstreifen

RS2/3

A8/3

5.0

5.0

A8/2

RS2/2

A8/1

RS2/1

Schttabschnitt 1

Schttabschnitt 2

HALLE

A4/3

A4/4

A4/5

BRO

A3/8

A3/5

Schttabschnitt 3

A3/9

X

A3/6

21

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

soil profile:

pre-load - drained

= 18 kN/m3

3m

2,5 m

= 19,5 kN/m3

4,5 m

2m

kx = ky = 0,0001 m/day ; kx = 1,3e-5 m/day

peat - undrained

kx = ky = 0,005 m/day ; kx = 6,6e-4 m/day

14 m

kx = ky = 0,0001 m/day ; kx = 1,3e-5 m/day

FE-MODEL

section D

D-D

D

A2/4

A4/4

A6/4

22

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

comparison measurement - Plaxis point A2/4

ssettlement [cm]

-20

calculated final

settlement

139 cm

-40

-60

-80

Plaxis

measurement

-100

-120

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

time [days]

comparison measurement - Plaxis - point A6/4

ssettlements [cm]

-10

calculated final

settlement

78 cm

-20

30

-30

Plaxis

measurements

-40

-50

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

time [days]

23

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

influence of consolidation on stability

"fast" construction: 2 days of consolidation per placement of 1 m embankment

"slow" construction: 3 days of consolidation per placement of 1 m layer embankment

"slow": max. excess pore

pressure: 86 kPa

pressure: 100 kPa

24

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

"slow": stable

"fast": failure

excess pore pressure [kPa]

Chart 1

-50

slow

fast

fast

-40

-30

-20

slow

-10

0

0

12

16

Time [day]

time [days]

25

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

vertical displacements [m]

Chart 1

Displacement [m]

0.06

Point C

Point C

fast

0.05

0.04

slow

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

0

30

60

90

120

Time [day]

time [days]

Practical Considerations

26

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Lateral spreading

Settlement with risk

for downdrag

foundations illustrate a common

problem

bl affecting

ff ti maintenance

i t

($$$!), as well as, on occasions,

one compromising safety

27

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

The problem of lateral spreading can be avoided by not installing the piles until the

consolidation is mostly completed, which also would eliminate the risk for excessive

downdrag.

However, the project can rarely wait for the consolidation to develop, and the solution

would be impractical, unless the consolidation can be accelerated by means of vertical

drains. Apart from saving time, accelerating the consolidation also reduces the magnitude

of the lateral spreading and increases soil strength.

In the past, sand drains were used. Since about 25 years, the sand drains have been

replaced with wick drains, which are pre-manufactured bandshaped drains.

28

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Drainage Layer

St

u

1 t

Sf

u0

U AVG

UAVG

St

Sf

ut

u0

where

=

=

=

=

=

Clay Layer

(consolidating)

2H

settlement

l

at Time

Ti t

final settlement at full consolidation

average pore pressure at Time t

initial average pore pressure (on application of the load at Time t = 0)

Drainage Layer

H2

cv

t Tv

where

cv = coefficient of consolidation

H = length of the longest drainage path

UAVG (%)

Tv

Tv 0.1 lg (1 U )

25

50

70

80

90

100

0.05

0.20

0.40

0.57

0.85

1.00

c/c

the presence of vertical drains

t Th

D2

ch

and

Th

c/c

1

D

1

[ln 0.75] ln

d

8

1 U h

D2

D

1

[ln 0.75] ln

8 ch

d

1U h

29

Lecture 8 PVD and Surcharge

OCT 2010

Important Points

Build-up of Back Pressure

halted if back-pressure is let to

build-up below the embankment

embankment,

falsely implying that the process is

completed

by facilitating horizontal drainage.

H

However,

where

h pervious

i

llenses

and/or horizontal seams or bands

exist, the water will drain vertically

to the pervious soil and then to the

drain. When this is at hand, the drain

spacing can be increased

significantly.

30

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