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AncientIndiaCulture

Friday,July42014,3:58PM
IndusValleyCivilization
Science&Technology
Astronomy
1. They were aware of directions given they had trade routes, their dead were buried in NS directions, their town planning made use of
directionsetc.Sotheymusthaveusedastronomicalbodiestogaugedirection.
2. RecentlyobservatorieswereexcavatedfromLothalandDholavira.
MedicalScience
1. TheywereawareofsurgeryasevidenceofskullsurgeryhasbeenfoundfromKalibanganandLothal.
ChemicalScience
1. Theyuseddifferentcolorsontheirpots.
Mathematics
1. Weightsandmeasuresofspecificstandardswereused.
2. Thebrisktradeindicatessomeknowledgeofbasicmathematics.
Metallurgy
1. Bronzeworking+copper,gold,silverandtinworking.
CivilEngineering
1. Theyconstructedpublicbuildings,embankments,drains,usedburntbricks.
2. Theyknewthetechniqueofwaterproofing.
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. Industry:Sealmaking,preciousstoneworking,beadmakingandterracottamakingwerequiteadvanced.
2. Agriculture: They used toploughtheirfields withwoodenploughsasis evidentfrom terracottaplough figurinesfrom Banwali.Ploughfurrows
discoveredinKalibangan.Theyalsohadirrigationandwaterconduits(undergroundinsomeareas)andsmallscaleinundationcanals(toleadthe
waterwheredesired)havebeenfound.
Architecture(READFROMNCERTALSO)
Features
1. Usedpermanentmaterialonalargescale:Invillagesmudbrickswereusedwithstonebeingusedinfoundationsanddrains.Incities,burntbricks
wereused.InKutch,stoneswereusedonalargescale.
2. Planned: The bricks were laid in English bond style. The bricks had standard ratio. There is no correlation between planning and size of the
settlement.
3. Technicalknowhow:Theyknewthetechniqueofwaterproofing.Houseshadseparatebathroomsnearthewellandthebathingareawassloping
towardsthedrainandwaterproof.
4. Secular.
5. Housestructure:Housessizesdifferfromlargetosmallones.Peoplegenerallylivedinhouseswithacentralcourtyardandroomssurroundingit.
Doors and windows opened in side streets not the main street. There were double storied houses and staircases as well. Doors were sometimes
paintedorcarved.
Monuments
1. Citieswerefortified.Theyhadwelllaidoutroadsanddrains.
2. Greatbath,assemblyhall,granaries.
Pillars
1. RemainsofstonepillarshavebeenfoundfromDholavira.
Paintings
1. Theyusedtopainttheoutersideoftheirpotswithgeometricaldesigns,birds,animalsetc.Theoutersurfaceoftheirpotsusedtoberedonwhich
paintingsweremadeinblack.
Sculpture
1. Theymadeuseofmetal,alloys,stonesandterracottafigurines.Terracottamasksandfaiencebangleswerealsomade.
2. The images were both secular and religious in nature. Examples are numerous terracotta figurines of mother goddess, animals etc., the bearded
priest,thebronzedancinggirl,theredtorsoetc.

Music&Dance
1. Thestatueofdancinggirlshowstheywereawareofmusicanddance.
2. Imagesofastringedmusicalinstrumenttoohavebeenfoundonsomepots.
Pottery
1. Thepotterywasblackonredwarewherebothinnerandoutersurfaceswerered.Ontheouterredsurface,designsofbirds,animals,geometrywere
paintedinblackcolor.
2. Therimsofthepotsarestrongtohelpinliftingthemandmovingaround.Thebottomportionhasadditionalclayaswell.
VedicAge
Science&Technology
Astronomy
1. Variousastronomicalbodieslikesun,moon,jupiter,venus,mars,saturnarementionedinVedasbutperhapstheirastronomicalsignificancewas
missingandtheyweremoreforastrological/religioususe.
MedicalScience
1. ThesystemofAyurvedaemergedinthisage.
ChemicalScience
1. Theyknewfermentationtechniquesandmadesomaras.
2. Theyknewtanningofleather.
3. Theyuseddifferentcolorsonpots.
Mathematics
1. Firealtars.
Metallurgy
1. Techniqueofbronzemakingandlaterironmakingwerepresent.
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. Industry:Carpentryandchariotmakingwereadvancedprofessions.
Architecture
Monuments
1. Vedictextscontainreferencesofhugepalacesofkingsbutnosuchimposingstructureshavebeenfound.
2. Wood,mudbricksandthatchedroofswereused.
Stupas
1. ThetermstupahasbeenreferredtoinRigVedabutnotinthecontextasweknowit.Thetermthenreferredtothefirecomingoutofthesacrificial
altar.
Paintings
1. Theyusedtopainttheirpots.Theoutersurfaceofthepotswasgreyonwhichtheypaintedfloralandgeometricaldesigns.
2. Onthegreysurface,bluecolorwasusedtomakethedesigns.
Dance&Music
1. MusicwitnessedprogressintheformofthehymnsofSamVeda.
Pottery
1. PGWwasthedistinctivepottery.Itwascoarsewithmediumfabric.Theoutsidesurfacewasgreyonwhichbluefloralandgeometricaldesignswere
made.
PreMauryanAge
Science&Technology
Astronomy
1. Astrologicalchartsetc.wereprepared.
MedicalScience
1. Taxilawasafamouscentreofmedicalscience.Aitrayawasafamousteacherthere.
2. Bimbisara'spersonaldoctorDhanvantriwasafamousdoctor.
ChemicalScience

1. ThepolishofNBPWwasveryglossy.Themethodtomakethispolishisalsodescribedindetailincontemporaryworks.
Mathematics
1. Sulvasutraisatextongeometry.Ittalksaboutcircles,triangles,squaresandrectangles.Ittellshowtomakeacircleequalinareatoasquareora
rectangle.
CivilEngineering
1. Wefindevidencesoffortificationsandembankments.
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. Agriculture&industry:Theuseofironbecamewidespread.
2. Trade:Punchedmarkedcoinscameintoexistence.TheyalongwithNBPWdistributionhelpusintrackingthetraderoutesoftheage.
Architecture
Features
1. Wood,mudbricks,thatchedroofsetc.wereused.
2. Stonefortificationswerealsoused.
Monuments
1. WefindevidencesofwoodenpalisadeinPP.StonefortificationsexistedinRajgirandLicchavirepublic.
Dance&Music
1. Theywerepatronizedbythecourtwhichmaintainedcourtesans.AmrapaliwasafamouscourtesaninLicchavi.
Sculpture
1. ThereisareferenceinKingKharvela'sHathigumphainscriptionthatNandakingtookawayajinaimagewhenheconqueredKalinga.
Pottery
1. ThedistinctivepotteryoftheagewasNBPW.Itwashighlyglossy,mediumtofinefabricandwouldhavebeenusedbyrich.
MauryanAge
Architecture
SEETHETRIANGLESINTHISMAPMAJORROCKEDICTS

Features
1. Stonemasonryreachednewheights.
2. ShiningpolishofNBPWwasalsoappliedtothestonepillars.
3. Permanentmateriallikeburntbricks,stonebegantobeusedagainalongwithwood.Itenabledthemtoconstructlargeranddurablestructurewhich
madedenserhabitationspossibleandhencegrowthoftownsandspreadofMauryanculture.
4. Ringwellswereanotherdistinctfeature.Watercouldbestoredintheseandalsotheycouldbeusedforsanitation.Henceitbecamepossibletohave
denserhabitationsfartherawayfromtherivers.
5. Itwasbothreligiousandsecularincharacter.
6. ItwaspanIndianincharacter.
7. Artandarchitecturereceivedcourtpatronage.Privatemerchantsadcraftsmenalsodonatedforreligiouscauses.
8. Largemonumentsshowthatarchitecturewastechnologicallyadvanced.
Foreign(Iranian)InfluenceonMauryanArchitecture


(a)Similarities
1. TherearesimilaritiesbetweenCGM'spalaceandDarius'.
2. BothAsokanandArchimideanpillarsusestone,glossypolishandhaveabellshapedpart.BecausetheArchimideanpillarswereolder,theconcept
ofpillarsitselfwasborrowedbyAsokafromIran.
(b)Differences
1. CGM'spalacewasmadeofwoodbutDarius'palacewasmadeofstone.
2. Inpillars,theshaftofAsokanpillarsismonolithicwhereastheArchimideanpillarshavejoints.
3. TheshaftofAsokanpillarstapersfrombottomtotopwhereasArchimideanpillarsarecylindrical.
4. TheshaftofAsokanpillarsissmoothwhereasthatofArchimideanpillarshasgotgrooves.
5. AsokanpillarsareerectedwithoutanysupportbasewhereasArchimideanpillarshaveasupportbase.
6. ThebellshapedpartofAsokanpillarsisattopwhilethatinArchimideanpillarsisatbottom.Inreality,thesocalledbellshapedpartofAsokan
pillarsisaninvertedlotus.
7. TheAsokanpillarswerenotapartofanyotherstructure.Thepurposebehindtheirconstructionwastoengraveinstructionsandcarrythemfat.But
Archimideanpillarswerepartofpalaceandtheirjobwastosupporttheroof.
8. TheAsokanpillarshavecapitalswhichhavesculpturesoflions,elephantsandbulls.ButtheArchimideanpillarshavenocapitalsandonlyimages
ofhumansareengravedontheirshafts.
9. TheglosspolishwasknowntoIndiansfromNBPWindependentofIran.

Monuments
1. Stonemasonrywasintroducedonawidescale.ThepalaceofCGMatKumrahar(Patna)had80stonepillars.
2. DuringAsokantime,thetraditionofwoodenarchgavewaytostonearch.
Pillars
1. AsokanpillarsmadeuseofwhitespottedredsandstoneinMathuraandgreycoloredsandstoneinChunarandweremonolithinstyle.Onlytheir
capitalsinformoflions,elephantsandbullswerejoinedfromthetop.StonepolishingwasasshinyasNBPW.
Caves
1. ThepracticeofcuttingcavesintorocksbeganwiththeLomarishicavesinBarabarhillsandalsoNagarjuniHillswhichweredonatedtoAjivika
sect.Thesecaves,however,weresimpleandwithoutmuchornamentation.Buttheirgateswerecarvedoutasifwooden.
Stupas
1. Initially stupas were Buddha's relic places. Then it got extended to his followers as well and gradually stupa itself became an object of
worship.AccordingtoBuddhisttradition,Asokabuilt84Kstupas.
2. SomestupashavebeenfoundinSanchi,Sarnath,Deorkothar,Lumbini.HuenTsangmentionsseeingstupasatTamralipti,Karnasuvarna,Samtata.
Painting
1. 63rocksheltershavebeenfoundinDeorkothar(Rewa,MP)withpaintings.Oneofthemhadapaintingofstupaandatreetogetherenclosedina
railing.
Dance&Music
1. Itwaspatronizedbythecourtandcourtesansweremaintainedbythecourt.
2. Nuts,acrobats,singers,musicians,dancerslivedinthesocietyandentertainedthepublicspeciallyonfairsandfestivals.
Sculpture
1. MultipleimagesofthefolkdeitiessuchasyakshaandyakshiniandanimalssuchaselephantshavebeenfoundfromParkham(Mathura)andPP.
2. ThecapitalsofAsokanpillarswerebeautifulcarvedimagesandwereaddedlatertothetopofthepillars.
3. FromDhauli(Odisha),rocksculptureoffrontpartofanelephanthasbeenmade.Itlooksliketheelephantisinforwardmotionandiscomingout
oftherock.
4. AnakedandheadlesstorsoofajinatirthankarahasbeenrecoveredfromLohanipur(Patna).ThisistheearliestJainaimagefound.
Pottery
1. NBPWcontinued.
TheLeisurelyActivities
1. Fairsandfestivalswereorganizedwheremagicians,acrobats,dancers,musiciansandactorsperformed.
2. Bullfights,chariotraces,horseracesandelephantfights,huntingwerepopularsport.
3. Bothmenandwomenworeornaments.
4. Courtesansweremaintainedintheroyalcourt.
Science&Technology
ChemicalScience
1. TheglossypolishofNBPWcontinued.Inaddition,theglossypolishappearedonAsokanpillars.
CivilEngineering
1. Useofburntbricksandringwells.
2. Stonemasonryreachednewheights.
3. Palaceswereconstructed.Sudarshanlakewasbuilt.
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. Trade:TherewasgreatdevelopmentinmeansoftransportasisevidentfromthetransportationofAsokanpillars.
PostMauryanAge(NorthIndia)
Architecture
Features
1. Burntbrickswerenowusedforflooringandtilesforbothflooringandroofing.Thiswasofindigenousorigin.
Temples
1. Hindu temples followed 3 main architectural designs oblong, apsidal or square. Examples of oblong are Vishnu temple @ Besnagar, Siva and
Vishnutemples@Dangwada,Vishnutemple@Nagari.ExamplesofapsidalareLakshmitemple@Atiranjikhera,MatrikasandNagatemples@
Sonkh.ExampleofsquaretempleisSivatemple@Gudimallam.Nagarjunkondacontainstemplesofallthreetypes.
2. Intheoblongtemples,therewere2ellipse.Themainshrinewasintheinnerellipsewhichwasseparatedfromtheouterellipsebyagapwhich

usuallywasthecircumambulatorypath.Theouterellipsehadrectangularprojectionleadingouttotheentrance.Thetempleusuallyhadaplinth
madeofbricksormudorstonesandthesuperstructurewasmadeofwoodandmud.Thetempleswereusuallyeastfacing.
3. Theapsidaltempleshadapsidalrooms,plinthsofbrickormudorstoneandsuperstructureofwoodandmud.
4. TheNagarjunkondatemplesapartfromhavingallthreedesigns,sometimeshadmultipleshrinesinwhichcaseeachshrinehadamandapa(pillared
hall)too.Thepillarsweremadeofstoneandbrickwasusedforthetemplesuperstructure.
Caves
(a)EvolutionofBuddhistCaveArchitecture
1. Phase1: It began with the construction of Lomarishi and Sudama caves in Barabar Hills by Asoka. These were simple caves and the cave ran
paralleltotherockfaceafterentry.Therewasonelargerectangularroomfollowedbyasmallercircularroom.
2. Phase2:Thesecondstage(100BC)showedupatKonditve.Thecavewascutperpendiculartotherockfaceandtheinnerroomnowcontaineda
stupaandacircumambulatorypatharoundit.
3. Phase3: The next stage was when rows of pillars were built parallel to the walls creating a circumambulatory passage right after entering. The
centralroofwashigh,vaultedandsideroofwaslowandhalfvaulted.Bhaja,Pitalkhora,Bedsacavesareexamples.Sometimescells,rockcutbeds
werecutaroundthecentralhall.AnexampleisBedsacaves.
4. Phase4:DuringtheKshatrapSatvahnakings,cavesgotroyalpatronageandbecamemoreelaborateandornamented.Thebasicfeaturesofprevious
phasecontinued.Avarietyofmithuncoupleswerecarvedonthegates,thepillarscametohaveelaboratecapitals,thesideroofbecameflat.Multi
storiedcavescameup.DoublestoriedviharascameupatKarleandtriplestoriedatAjanta.OtherexamplesareNasikcaves,Junnar,Kanhericaves,
Pitalkhora.
(b)JainaCavesvsBuddhistCaves
1. Jainacaveswerecutinsandstonewhichiseasytocutbutnotgoodforsculpting.ButBuddhistcaveswerecutintohardrocksandwerebetterfor
sculpting.
2. TheJainacaveshadnocongregationhallsorrockcutshrines.Later,however,somecellswereenlargedintoshrines.TheBuddhistcavesonthe
otherhandhadclearhallsandtheshrinearea.
3. TheJainacavecellswerecutwherevertherockpermitted.Therewasnoplanning.TheBuddhistcavestructureontheotherhandwaswelllaidout.
4. TheJainacavesweresimpleandreflectedtheasceticismofjinamonks.Thecellsweretiny(nottallenoughtostand,notlongenoughtostretch
whilesleeping,smallentrancessoastobendverylow).Theonlyluxurywasoccasionalshelvescutintorocksandslopingflooractingasapillow
butactuallydesignedtokeepofwaterfromaccumulating.Onlytheouterportionswerecarvedsometimes.TheBuddhistcavesontheotherhand
wereanelaborateandspaciousaffair.
5. The Jina caves are of two types those without pillars in verandah or those with pillars. Without pillars had cells cut along three sides of the
verandah.Pillarsweresquareattopandbottomandoctagonalatmiddle.
6. In terms of similarities, the sculptures use similar motifs like animals, plants. The honeysuckle style is similar too. Examples of such caves are
KhandgiriandUdaigiriinPuri.
Stupas
1. Newlargestupaswerebuilt.Thenewstupashadacircumambulatorypath,astonerailingaroundit,twostaircasesleadinguptoit,thesummitand
astoneumbrellaoverit.Theentirestructurewasenclosedinstonerailingsandtorandwarsonallfoursides.Sculpturedecorationwasfoundonthe
railingsandthegateways.ExamplesarethestupasatSanchi,Bharhut,Nagarjunkonda,Amrawati.
2. Mostearlierstupasusedtohaveasolidcore.However,atransitionwasmadetowardshavingaspokewheelplanatthecentremadeofbricksand
the spaces filled with mud. Spoked wheel is a symbol of Buddha's first sermon. Bhattiprolu stupa (200 BC) is from intermediate phase having
centralwheelplan(nospokes).
3. InAPstupas,atthe4cardinalpointsoftheraisedplatform,5freestandingpillarswereerected.Theserepresentthe5importanteventsinBuddha's
lifebirth,renunciation,enlightenment,firstsermon,death.
4. JainastupaisalsofoundinKankali@MathurawhichiscalledDevanirmitStupa.
Pillars
1. TheBesnagarpillarerectedbytheGreekambassadorHeliodorusisanexample.HewasanambassadortotheSungaking.Itsshaftcontains4parts
andithasaninvertedlotusandacapital.
Pottery
1. Thepotterywasredware,bothplainandpolishedwithfineandmediumfabric.TheredpotterywasofCentralAsianorigin.
2. Sprinklersandspoutedchannelsarethedistinctivepotsofthisage.
Sculpture
ImageWorship
1. Thetraditionofimageworshipbecamepopularandnumerousidolsweremade.ImagesofyakshahavebeenfoundfromPawaya,Besnagarwhich
represents Kuber. Colossal images of yakshas and yakshis were built in Mathura which disappeared later as the religion got absorbed into the
dominantreligion.NagaimageshavebeenfoundatMathuraandKarimnagar.GajaLakshmistoneplaquefromAtiranjikheraandmukhalingafrom
Gudimallamareanotherexamples.InBuddhism,earlierthetraditionofimageworshipwasabsentandinsteadsymbolsofBuddhawereworshipped
alongwiththestupa.Nowimagesbegantobebuilt.
2. TerracottaimagesweremadeandChandraketugarh,Mathuraemergedasgreatcenters.
BuddhistReliefSculpture
1. TherailingsandgatewaysofBuddhiststructureswereelaboratelyworkedupon.Humanbodiesalongwithanimals,birdsandotherscameup.The
landscapedidn'tformabackgroundbutwasverymuchapartofthesculpture.
2. ThesculpturewasmainlymeanttobeseenfromonesideasagainsttheMauryansculpturewhichwassameasviewedfromanyside.
3. Thesculpturewasnarratoryinnature.ItnarratedincidentsfromBuddha'slifeandJatakstories.Sometimesthesenarrationswerejustonesingle

screenshotofastoryorsometimesitwasacontinuousnarrationofasequenceofeventswithonescenemergingseamlesslyintothenext.
4. Itmadeuseofsymbolstotellthestories.Example,wheelforfirstsermon,birthofbuddhaasMayasittingonalotus,enlightenmentasbodhitree.
5. TheBuddhistsculpturealsodrewheavilyfromotherreligioustraditions.Forexample,anthromorphs(ofcopperhoards),yaksha,yakshis,nagas,
pipal,animalsetc.
TheGandharaSchool
1. Thisschoolemergedfrom1centBConwards.ItwasnotpatronizedbyIndoGreeksbutbySakasandKushanas.HaddaandBamiyanweremain
centers.
2. ThiswasafusionofGreekandIndianstylesfromtheverybeginning.ThesubjectswereIndiansandthestylewasGrecoRoman.Thusthemother
ofBuddharesembledaGreekgoddesswhileBuddhahimselftoohadanApollolikeface.GreekgodsweredepictedaspayingobeisancetoBuddha.

3. TheBuddhaofthisschoolisdepictedwithfocusonbodilyfeaturessuchasmuscularbody,curlyhairandsemitransparentclothes.
4. Initiallytheyusedsoftmaterialsuchaswoodandstucco.Latertheybegantousebluegreystone.
TheMathuraSchool
1. Itwastheoldestandflourishedfrom2centBConwards.Itwasindigenousinoriginandwaspatronizedbylocalrulers.Butlaterwiththeadventof
Kushanas,foreigninfluencewasvisibleclearly.
2. Initial subjects were Buddha, Mahavira and Kanishka. Krishna was ignored before the Gupta period. Beautiful images of Siva as ardhnari
ishwarwerebuilt.Krishna,balramandSuryatoowereitssubjects.
3. Theimageshaveadeepspiritualoutlook.Buddhaisshowninmeditationmode.FocusisnotonhighlightingthebodilyfeaturesofBuddhabuton
his spiritualistic aura and content on face. Popular depictions of Buddha are in the Padmasanamudra (sitting crossed legged and meditating)
andDharmaChakraParivartanaMudra(givingsermons).
4. Theyusedwhitespottedredsandstone.
TheAmrawati/VengiSchool
1. Itflourishedfrom1centBConwardsinVengi,Nagarjunkonda,KurnoolandKrishnaGodavariregion.
2. ItwasindigenousthroughoutandwaspatronizedbySatvahnas,IkshavakusandlaterVakatakas.
3. ItmadeimagesofBuddhaandbrahmanicaldeities.
4. Theseimagesarefamousfortheirfemininebeautyandsensuousappeal.
5. Theyusedwhitemarbleintheirimages.
Drama
1. TheGreeksintroducedthecurtaininIndiandrama.
Painting
1. ThecavepaintingsofAjantabeganinthisperiod.TheywereBuddhistincharacter.
Science&Technology
Astronomy
1. Indian astronomy and astrology drew a great deal from the Greeks including the term horasastra (astrology in Sanskrit) itself from Greek
termhoroscope.ThenamesofsevendaysandthezodiacsignsallcomefromGreeks.
MedicalScience
1. CharakbelongedtothisperiodandwasassociatedwithTaxillaschoolofmedicine.
2. We find many brahmanical texts on medicine written which could have obviously been written by those who had a formal education and yet
brahmanicalliteratureplacesmedicalpractitionersatlowlevel.Thusdespitethetheoreticallylowlevelthesocialutilityofsuchprofessionswas
high enough to warrant formal education and medical practice. Veterinary sciences developed and books on horses and elephants were written
(obviouslydrivenbymilitaryneeds).
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. Industry:Leathershoes,glassmaking(duetocontactwithRomans).
2. Trade:TheGreekcoinswereagreatimprovementovertheilldesignedpunchmarkedcoins.PlinytellsusthatIndianshipswere75tonnesand
someothersourcestellustheycouldcarry700persons.
3. Agriculture:AhydrauliclifthasbeenfoundinSringverapurawhichmaynothavebeenusedforirrigationpersebutthetechnologyformoving
waterbyvaryingthewaterlevelsmayhavebeenderivedfromorinfluencedirrigation.Wealsofindtheuseofwheeltodrawwaterfromthewell.
Theliteratureaswellasinscriptionprovideampleevidenceoftanks,wellsandembankments.
Metallurgy
1. Indian iron and steel technologies made rapid advancements and large number of iron implements were made which were even exported to
Abyssinianports.
CivilEngineering
1. TheSudarshanlakewasrepairedbyRudradaman.
2. Cavearchitectureprogressed,highlyornamentedmultistoriedviharaswerebuilt.
PostMauryanAge(Satvahnas)

Architecture
UseofBurntBricksandTiles
1. FromPeddabankur(Karimnagar),wehavefounduseofflatbakedbricks,perforatedrooftilesand22brickwells.Thisfacilitateddensehabitation
asitaddressedtheissuesofsanitation,drinkingwateranddurabilityofstructures.
Fortifications
1. TheSatvahnatownswerefortified.Plinytalksofover30walledtowns.
Caves
1. The tradition of cutting into rocks reached new heights under Satvahnas. It became associated wit Buddhism and many chaityas (shrines)
andviharas(monasteries)werecutoutinrocks.FamouschaityaisatKarleandviharasatNasik.Chaityawasalargehallwithanumberofpillars.
Viharawasalargehallwhichwasenteredbyadoorwhichseparateditfromtheverandahinfront.
Stupas
1. FamousstupasareatAmaravatiandNagarjunkonda.
SangamStatesinTamilLand
Literature
1. TheSangamtextsarethemostimportantpiecesofwork.TheywerecomposedbybrahmansofPrakritSanskritlearning.
2. Tamil text Tolkkapiyam deals with grammar and poetics and Tirukkal with philosophy. Then there are
epicsSilappadikaranandManimekalai.SilappadikaranwaswrittenbyaJainascholarandisalovestoryofadignitarypreferringacourtesanover
hiswife.Manimekalaiistheadventurestoryofhisdaughter.TheseepicsthrowlightonthesocioeconomiclifeoftheSangamage.
GuptaAge
ReligiousPractices
1. Idolworshipreacheditstruepopularityinthisage.Theagriculturalfestivalswerealsogivenmuchoftheirreligiouscolorandfanfareinthisage.
Paintings
1. ThegreatestspecimenofBuddhistartinGuptatimesistheAjantacavepaintings.Theywerebuiltfromaperiodspanningfrom1centto7cent
AD. But most work was done in Gupta age. They depict various scenes from the life of Buddha and his previous births. They are life
like,naturalandhavebrilliantcolorsevenafterallthesecenturies.Ajantapaintingsweredominatedbybuddha,bodhistava,jatakstories,natural
scenery,animalsetc.ButitcannotbesaidthatGuptaspatronizedthesepaintings.
2. Eventhoughthethemeisreligiousinmostpaintings,wealsofindaglimpseofthelivesoftheprinces,kings,samantasetc.inthem.Butthereisno
reflectionofthecommonman'slifeinthesepaintings.Inthiswaytheyreflectthecontemporarysocietyanditsvaluesaswell.
3. Baghapaintingshaveamaterialisticthemeandtellusaboutthecontemporaryclothingstyle,hairstyles,makeup,ornamentsetc.Baghapaintings
weremadeinGuptaperiodonlyasagainsttheAjantapaintingswhichwerespreadovermultipleperiods.Sotheyhavemoreuniformity.Theyalso
havemoresecularthemeandscenesandthusaremorevaluableasahistoricalsource.
4. Boththefrescoandthetemperastyleswereused.Thefrescostylepaintingsaremadeonwetplasterandthetemperastylepaintingsaremadeon
dryplaster.
5. Kamasutratellsusthatpaintingwasanestablishedformofartandwasstudiedinasystematicway.
Sculpture
1. The Mathura, the Gandhara and the Amaravati schools continued and new school developed at Benaras / Sarnath. PP also became an important
center.
2. Statuesweremadeofbothstoneandmetalsandcarvedoncaves,templesorfreestanding.Thereliefsculptureshowedscenesfromreligionaswell
aseverydaylife.
3. StatuesofBuddhawerebuiltatMathuraandSarnath.Buddhaimagesnowhadmoremudrasandworetransparentclothes.Onebronzeimageof
Buddha has been found from Sultanganj. The Buddha images from east UP and Bihar show Buddha in a serene spiritual form (as against the
emphasis on the body as in the Gandhara form). The images had a large and clear prabhamandal as against the Gandhara images where such a
featurewasnotprominent.TheBuddhistreliefsculpturemadeanattempttoabsorbtheyaksha,gandharva,apsaratraditionsbydepictingthemon
theirreliefsculpture.
4. Images of Jina tirthankaras were also sculpted. Inscriptions at Udayagiri (Vidisha) and Kahaum (Gorakhpur) talk about establishing tirthankara
images.
5. ForthefirsttimeimagesofHindugodswerebuilt.Sometimestheseimagesweresoloandsometimestheimageofthemaingodwasaccompanied
with other minor gods. Vishnu images in human, varah as well as anthromorphic forms. Shiva images came up in linga and anthromorphic
forms.Imageswereoftenmoresymbolicthanrepresentationalthusthegodsandgoddessesmayhavemultiplehandseachholdingasymbol.

Architecture
Features
1. Bothreligiousandsecularcharacterwasvisiblethoughreligiouswasmoreprominent.
2. Templearchitecturecameup.Thefirststylewasthenagarastyle.
3. Therewasincreasinguseofreusedorbrokenbricks.Eg.BhitainAllahbad.
4. Gupta period can be called the golden age of sculpture and image making. But the same can't be said for architecture because the temple
architecture form (nagara) just emerged in this phase and yet it peaked only in the post Gupta age. Thus while impressive buddhist viharas and
chaityascanbeseenfromtheGuptaage,wehavetowaituntilthe8thcenturytoseeimpressivetemples.

Monuments
1. TheBuddhistuniversityofNalandacameupinthisage(5centAD).Itsearlieststructuresweremadeofbricksinthisage.
2. JinatempleswereconstructedmostlyinSIndiabyKadambas.TheHoskote(Bangalore)andBanavasiinscriptionareexampleswhichmentionof
landgrantstosuchtemples.
Temples
1. Thefirstbrickandstonetempleswerebuiltinthisage.TheywereofNagarastyle.
2.

3. Theearlytemplewasbuiltonaraisedplatform.Therewasamaindeityroomcalledgarbhagrihathentworowsofpillarsleadingtoasmaller
room in the front of the garbhagriha called the mandapa. The mandapa was used to house the devotees. The garbha
grihahadaflatroofandapoleontop.Theentirecompoundwaslikeandenclosedcourtyardandwalledwithgatesforentryandexit.Templewalls
wereplainbutthedoorwayswereprofuselycarved.Templesweregenerallybuiltfromrock.
4. Examples of such brick temples are Bhitargaon (Kanpur), Paharpur (Rajshahi, Bangladesh), Sirpur (Raipur, Chattisgarh), Vishnu temple
@DeogarhandTighwa,Shivatemple@BhumraandKoh,Parvatitemple@Nachna.ThereareremainsofatemplefromDahParbatiainAssam.

5. LatertheinfluenceofDravidianstylealsobecamevisible.Thetemplehadaplinthandashikhara.Thepillarsofthesetempleshavecapitalsinthe
formofkalash.Deogarhtempleisonesuchexamplewithavimanaontop.
Caves
1. TheBuddhistcavesincludeBaghacaves,MandargiriandUdaigiri.Thepillarswererichlycarvedandonthestupa,aBuddhawascarved.Inthe
viharas,ashrineroomwasnowintroduced.
2. ShivacaveswerebuiltinElephanta.
Pillars
1. TheMehrauliironpillar.
2. TheBhitaristonepillarinscriptionofSkandagupta.
Stupas
1. The independent stupa building activity lost momentum. Few examples are Dhamekh stupa @ Sarnath, Charsada, Taxila. However, the stupa

buildinginBuddhistcavescontinued.
Drama
1. Twothingsareevidentfromplaysofthisage.First,thehigherclassesspeakSanskritwhereasshudrasandwomenspeakPrakrit.Second,noneof
themaretragedies.
2. The Sanskrit drama Mrichchakatika (by Sudrak) was composed in this age. It was the love story of a brahman in love with the daughter of a
courtesan.
3. 13playswerewrittenbyBhasa.
Literature
1. AdifferentornatestyleofSanskritwasdevelopedduringthisperiodwhichwasdifferentfromtheoldsimpleSanskrit.Greateremphasiswaslaid
onkavyathanonprose.Theaudienceofthekavyaliteraturewasmainlyanurbaniteanditwasplayedingoshtisandfestivals.Thisliteraturewas
notforreligiouspurposesbutfocusedonurbanlife.
2. ThetransitionfromPrakrittoSanskritinroyalinscriptionswascomplete.
3. PatanjalicomposedMahabhashyaandPaninicomposedAshthadhyayi.AmarsimhacomposedAmarkosha.KamandakwroteNitisaraandVatsayan
wroteKamasutra.
4. Theepics,thesutrasetc.werecompiledinthisage.PanchatantratoowaswrittenunderVakatakas.Variouscommentariesonphilosophicalschools
werewritteninthisperiod.
5. Plays were romantic comedies and tragedy was avoided. Mrichchha katika was written by Shudrak and gives a description of urban life.
MudrarakshashawaswrittenbyVishakhadutta.
Dance&Music
1. Guptarulerspatronizedmusicanddanceandsomerulersthemselveswereindulgedinit.Samudraguptaisdepictedasplayingveenainsomeofhis
coins.
2. Thegrowthoftemplesledtogrowthofdanceandmusicaswell.Theinstitutionofdevdasisbegan.
Science&Technology
Metallurgy
1. BronzeandirontechnologiesadvancedfurtherasevidentfromtheMehraulipillarandBuddha'sbronzestatues.
Astronomy
1. AryabhattacameupwithAryabhattikain5centAD.Healsogavetruereasonfortheoccurrenceofeclipsesandmeasuredthecircumferenceof
earth.Hebelievedthatearthwassphericalandrotatedonitsownaxis.
2. Varhamirain6centADexplainedthemovementofsomeheavenlybodiesinhisbookBrihadSamhita.
3. Previously the year was divided into 3 units of 4 months each. Now it came to be divided into 12 equal lunar
months.Thiswasusefulforagriculturaloperations.(MatharasofOdisha)
Mathematics
1. Aryabhattacameupwithzero,threevariableequations,conceptofplacevalueandthedecimalsystem.
MedicalScience
1. Benarasschoolwasafamousschoolofsurgery.Sushrutacamefromthere.
2. DhanvantriwasagreatphysicianandinthecourtofCGV.
3. PalkapyawroteHastiAyurveda.SialhotrawroteAsvaShastra.
4. Nagarjunadiscoveredmedicinalpropertiesofcertainmetalsandherbaljuices.
ChemicalScience
1. VarhamiraandKalidasaintheirrespectiveworkstalkaboutthemethodofpreparingvariouscoloredpastes.
2. ThepaintingsincavesofAjantaandBaghauserichcolors.
CivilEngineering
1. BricktemplesbegantobeconstructedintheNagarastyle.
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. Trade:Shipbuildingindustryflourished.Largeshipscapableofcarrying500personswerebuilt.
AnEstimateofGuptaAge
1. Aryabhatta'sandVarahmihira'sprincipleswerenotallindigenous.THeyhadalsoborrowedfromtheRomansandtheGreeks.
2. Kalidasa'sworkarenotasymbolofanyHinduintellectualrenaissancebuttheyaremerelyadevelopedformofanolderstyleofwriting.Even
puranasandepicswerecomposedinearlierage,Guptascholarsmerelycompiledthem.
3. BhaktimovementinVishnuandSivasectswasnotanewphenomenon.Itwasamerecontinuationandstrengtheningofanolderstrand.
PostGuptaAge
1. Thegrowingfeudalorderinthesocietylimitedinterregionalmobilityandgaveaboosttothedevelopmentofregionalculturalstrands.Eventhe

inscriptionsareinalldifferentscriptssuchthatevenifweknowGuptabrahmiscript,itwouldbedifficulttoreadvariousregionalinscriptions.
Science&Technology
Astronomy
1. Brahmagupta in 7 cent AD in his book BrahmaSphutiSiddhanta talked about various astronomical instruments and suggests observation based
astronomy.
2. Bhaskaracharyain12centADinhisbookSiddhantaShiromaniexplainedthemotionofheavenlybodies.
MedicalScience
1. Vaghavattain8centADwroteAshtangaHridayawhichexplainedthefunctioningofdifferentpartsofheart.DhanvantriwroteNighantu.
ChemicalScience
1. Indianchemistsmadegreatprogressinalchemy(duetotantricandmagicinfluence).Theyweretryingtoconvertmetalslikeiron,copperetc.into
gold.Obviouslytheydidn'tsucceedinthatbutintheprocesstheymademanyacidsandbases.
Mathematics
1. Bhaskaracharya'sbookhadanelaboratechapteronmathematicscalledLeelavati.
2. Brahmaguptadevelopedtheconceptofcyclicalquadrilaterali.e.sumofthetheoppositeanglesofaquadrilateralis180ifallitsverticeslieona
circle.
Metallurgy
1. Largeumberoffinebronzesculpturesweremadespeciallyofthenatrajatheme.
CivilEngineering
1. Largeembankments,canalsetc.werebuiltinthisperiodforirrigationalpurposes.
2. Hugetempleswerealsobuilt.
Arts&CraftsTechniques
1. AgricultureTechnology:Irrigationincreased,useofanimalsforthreshingandmillingsugarandoil,persianwheel,anduseofonehumpedcamelin
dryareas.
2. ManufacturingTechnology:Cottongincameupinweaving.
3. MilitaryTechnology:Leatherandwoodenstirrupsweretherebutironstirrups,concavesaddlesandironhorseshoewereabsent.Horsearcherywas
alsoabsent.Useoffirearmsandmangonelswasabsentaswell.
Architecture
Features
1. Religious.
2. Courtpatronage.
3. Rockcut,shapedoruseofpermanentmaterial.
4. Theydidn'tusearch,vault,domeandmortar.Sowhentheybegantoconstructhugebuildingstherewasnowayotherthanconstructingtapering
pyramidical tops or to install thick pillars to support heavy beams. So larger and larger stones had to be used and this necessitated the need for
sculptingthemforaestheticappeal.
5. Highlyornamented,elaborate,massiveandadvancedtechnology.
6. Multidimensionali.e.manyformsofarchitecturewerepursued.
7. Indigenous.
8. ThenotionthatthearchitectmustremainanonymouswasbeliedinthetemplesofthisageandthemostfamousarchitectwasKokasa.Individual
enterpriseandstylewasencouragedbutatthesametimetextswerewrittenonarchitecture(vastusastra)whichledtosomestandardization.Italso
provesthatdespitethebrahmanicalliteraryrhetoric,architectcastewasnotheldinlowesteeminreality(otherwisewhyabrahmanwouldstudy
architectureandwriteatextonit).Similarlyshilpashastraswerewrittenonsculpture.Thesutradharawasanexaltedpositionandhesupervisedthe
construction activity while the stapathi was the master builder. Some of them even received land grants and were held as belonging to the
visvakarmalineage.
Styles
1. Thedravidastyletemples:ItwasprevalentinthesouthofKrishnariver.Inthephase1,themainfeaturewasbuildingpyramidicalshikharaabove
thegarbhgriha(chiefdeityroom).Theshikharahadadomeatthetopandthisentirestructurewascalledvimana.Laterinphase2,infrontofthe
vimana was a pillared hall with elaborately cared pillars and flat roof called mandapa. A circumambulatory path was provided around the
garbhgriha and images of multiple gods were carved along this passage. The entire structure was walled and had lofty gates called gopuram.In
phase3,additionalstructuresbegantocomeupinthetemplecomplexandtheygrewhorizontallyandbecamemoremassive.AjantaandElloraare
examplesaswell.
2. ThenagarastylewasprevalentnorthofVindhyas.Itconsistsof(a)asquareelevatedplatformwithanumberofprojectionsinthemiddleofeach
sidegivingitacruciformshape,and(b)inthelateragetheflatroofedtemplesgavewaytoashikhara(whichreflectedthetemple'splan)onthe
mainshrineandsmallershikharasonthesecondaryshrines.
3. Therathtemplestyle:Intherathtemples,entirerockwascutandshapedfromoutsidetogiveittheshapeofatemple.Beautifulimageswerethen
carvedonit.
4. TheChalukyasofBadamipatronizedthevesarastyle(prevalentbetweentheKrishnaandtheVindhyas)whichwasafusionofthedravidianstyle
andthenagarastyle.Suchexamplesarefound@AiholeandPattadakal.ItwasprevalentfromVindhyastoKrishna.Likedravidianstyleithada
vimana, a mandapa and in some cases an additional open mandapa. Like nagar style the vimana was heavily sculpted. Like nagara style its

circumambulatorypathwasopen.Likenagarastyletheouterwallshadchariotscarvedoutonthem.OtherexamplesareJainatemplesinDharwad
andKalleshwartempleinKukanoor(Hyderabad).
Caves
1. ThePallavas:Theybuiltthecavetemplesof4thgenerationwithelaboratepillarsandornamentedentries.ThiswasundertheMahindrastyle(640
74AD)andtheMamallastyle(64074AD).Thecavepillarsaresquarefrombottomandtopandoctagonalinthemiddle.Thesecavesareless
complexthanthose@AjantaandEllora.
2. TheChalukyasofBadami:Theytoopatronizedcavearchitecture.4thgenerationcaveswerecut.
ElloraCaves
1. PoliticalDimension:Theyrepresentdifferentdynasties.ThefamousKailashnathtemplewasbuiltbyRashtrakutas.
2. Religious Dimension: They represent different different religions. Caves are there from Jaina, Buddhist and Hindu traditions. Even in Hindu
tradition,theyrepresentmultiplegodsandmultipleformsofthesamegodaswell.TheBuddhistcagesrepresentthelastinthetraditionofBuddhist
cave cutting. It shows a development over previous styles. They are multistoreyed and highly ornamented. The Kailashnath temple contains
imagesofShivapantheonaswellasVishnu.
3. ArchitecturalFeaturesDimension:Theyrepresentmultiplestylesofarchitecture.ThefamousKailashnathtemplehasasuperstructureinDravidian
style.Itismultistoreyedandhighlyornamented.
Temples
1. TheGangarulersofOdisha:Theypatronizedtemplesbetween812centAD.TheLingarajatemple@Bhubneswar,Jagannathtemple@Puriand
Sun temple @ Konark were all built during this period. The Odisha temples have pyramidical shikharas on their mandaps as well. They also
typicallyhavechariotscarvedoutontheirouterwalls.Moreoverthemainshikharahasmultiplesmallershikharasatthetop.Thereisagateineach
direction.ThesculptureoftheKonarktempleshowsclearevidenceoftantricinfluencelikethetemplesofKhajuraho.
2. TheSolankirulersofGujarat:TheypatronizedmanytemplesinMt.Abu.TheDilawaraandTejpalatemplesaremostfamousAbutemples.White
marblewasusedinconstruction.TheyalsobuilttheKarnamerutemple@AnhilwaraandRudramallahtemple@Siddhpur.ThetemplesofGujarat
are immensely rich and were studded with semi precious and precious stones. Such a lavish temple building was possible only due to immense
prosperitybroughtbythetrade.ItalsoreflectedthehighlevelofskillsmasteredbytheguildsofsculptorsinGujarat.Acharacteristicfeatureofthis
stylewasthepresentofbawrisinthebasementforwaterstorage.
3. The Chandela rulers of Bundelkhand: They patronized the Khajuraho temples. These temples are built of granite and red sandstone. Kanderiya
temple@KhajurahoistheonlytempleinKhajuraotohaveshikhara(reflectingDravidianinfluence).ThecentralIndiantemplesareknownfor
theirextensiveuseofrichlycarvedpillars.Eachmandapahasthinshikharas.Thekhajuraotemplesareinpanchyatanstylei.e.therearesmaller
templesonthe4cornersoftheplinth.Alltemplesarebuiltonaplinth.Thesetemplesclearlyshowtheinfluenceoftantricism.
4. ThePallavas:TheirarchitecturewasdividedintotheMahindrastyle(61040AD),theMamallastyle(64074AD),theRajsimhastyle(674800
AD) and the Nandivarman style (800875 AD). Cave temples called mandaps were cut in Mahindra style. They were essentially chaityas and
viharas of 4th generation. Examples are @ Pallavaram and Mahendrabad. In the Mamalla style, rath temples were cut in addition to the cave
templeswhichbecamemoreornamented.Thereare5Pandavarathas.Examplesofbothstylesare@Mahabalipuram.IntheRajsimhastyle,cave
and ratha temples were discontinued and independent dravidian style temples emerged. Examples are the Shore temple @ Mahabalipuram and
Kanchi.IntheNandivarmanstyle,thePallavapowerwasonadeclineandthiswasreflectedinthetemplesaswellwhichbecamesmallerandless
elaborate.Examplesare@KanchiandGudimallam.
5. TheCholas: They picked up on the the dravidian style and took it to new heights. The early Chola temples were relatively small and superb in
simplicity.OneexampleistheNarttamalaitempleof9thcentafreestandingtemplefacingsomerockcutcaves.From11thcentADthevimanas
(pyramidical shaped) and gopurams (which gradually overwhelmed the shikharas) became massive. The garbhgriha was entered by one or more
massivemandapswithmultiplepillars.Thebalancedproportionofthestructuregaveitaestheticquality.Thetemplecomplexgrewhorizontallyas
numeroussmallerstructurescameup.ThiswaslinkedtothemilitaryvictoriesoftheCholakings.Examplesare@Padupattu&Tanjore.After
theredeclinewecanseethatnoattemptwasmadetomaintainthegrandeurofthetemplesandthisisareflectionoftheeconomicdeclinewhichhad
setin.
6. Kerala:Herethetemplesweremadeofwoodinsteadofstoneandmanytempleswerecircularinformthecircularsanctumbeingsurroundedby
concentricallyarrangedareas.
7. The Chalukyas of Badami: The Chalukyan temples evolved from Gupta style and their architecture developed into the Vesara style which is a
fusionofdravidianstyleandnagarastyle.Examplesaresometemples@Aihole&Patdakal.TheDurgatemple@Aiholeisacontinuationofthe
Buddhistchaityaplan.Aiholehadmegalithicstoneworshipcentersinthevicinityandthusemergedasasacredtown.Cavetemplesarelocated@
Badami.TheLadkhantemple@Aiholehasaflatroofandapillaredmandapa.ThecomparisonofplansofLadkhantempleandtheVirupaksha
templeshowustherapidityofthechangeinarchitecturalstyles.
8. TheHosyals:TheybuiltelaboratetemplesinHalebid,SomnathpuraandBelur.Theirtemplesareknownforexcellenceinreliefsculpture.Earlier
they just picked up from the Chalukya style. Gradually they became more ornate (they began to use soapstone rather than sandstone which is
softer). The ground plan of these temples was no longer rectangle but star shaped or polygonal and the whole complex was built on a raised
platform. There was not so much emphasis (as in Chola temples) on shikharas and gopurams and thus the overall temples appear 'flat'. On the
templewallselaboratesculptingisdoneusinganimalandfloralmotifs,musicians,dancers,battlescenes,andreligiousliteratureevents.Thestar
shapedplanprovidedmorespaceforsculpting.Thewide,circularpillarsareadistinctivefeature.
Sculpture
TempleRelief
1. Thetemplewallswerecarvedwithimagesofgodsandgoddessesandtheirattendants,yakshaandyakshis,kingsandqueensetc.
2. Theyshowscenesofwars,love,danceandmusic.TheTiruparantikformofDivaispopularintheBrihadeshwaratemple@Tanjore.
3. InNIndiathesculpture@Khajurao,Odishashowscleartantricinfluences.Thesculpturesareexquisitelymaterialisticinappearanceanreflectthe
contemporarysociety.Wecanseethecosmetics,clothingstyle,hairstylesetc.ofwomeninthesociety.
4. ThePallavasculpturewasinspiredmorefromtheBuddhisttraditionofAmaravatischoolandremainedlinearandavoidedoverornamentation
somethingwhichwaspresentintheChalukyansculpture.
IndependentSculpture

1. ThebronzedancingfigureofShivai.e.NatrajabecameapopularthemeunderCholasandRashtrakutas.ThedancingSivahas2typesangryand
pacificsymbolizingthecreationanddestructionofuniverse.ThesnakeistheornamentandGangainhishairlocks.Twobackhandsholdaflame
andadrumwhilethefronthandsareinabhayamudraandonepointsdowntowardsfeet.
2. Thebronzeimagesusedlostwaxtechnique.ThesefiguresweresolidfrominsideunliketheNIndiansculpturewhichwashollowfrominside.
3. Imagesofkingsandqueenswerealsobuiltinthisperiodandplacedinthetemples.
4. World'slargestmonolithicstatueistheJinastatueofGomteswarispresentatSravanaBelgola(Hassan,Karnataka).
5. InSIndia,therewasatraditionofherostonesorviragals.Theyholdaswordinrighthand,bow/shieldinleftandarrowsonshoulder.Usually
thereisaninscriptionrecordingthedeedsofthehero.
6. InNIndiatheimageslackthegrandeuroftheGuptaageprobablybecausenowtheyweremostlyofgodsandgoddessestobeusedmostlyfor
worship.
Painting
1. The Chalukyas of Badami: The cave paintings of Ellora and Elephanta belong to this period and contain themes of secular nature, brahmanical
religion,BuddhismaswellasJainism(Ellora).OnecavepaintingshowsPulakesinIIreceivingaPersianambassador.
2. TheRashtrakutas:TheycontinuedtheElloraandElephantacavepaintings.KailashtemplewasbuiltbyKrishnaI.
Dance&Music
1. Templesplayedavitalrolethroughtheinstitutionofdevdasis,employingdancers,musicians,singersetc.andalsothroughmultiplefestivalsfrom
thePallavaperiodonwards.Thedevdasisinitiallyalsocomposedpoemsandperformedsometempleritualswhichwererelatedtotheideaofthe
specialpowerembeddedinwomen(aSIndianoriginalconcept)andritualsanddancewereanexpressionofit.Butgraduallythiswaslatermisused
toprovidingentertainmenttoinfluentialpriestsandpersons.
2. Firstbooksonmusicbegantocomeup.NaradwroteSangeetamKaranand,SomeshwarwroteManollas.
Literature
1. While Sanskrit was the language of the elites, a remarkable feature was the growth in literature of regional languages. By the end of this age,
regionallanguageshadovertakensanskrit.
2. Theliteratureofthisagealsomentionsbrahmanicalritualslessfrequentlyindicatinggrowthofbhakti.Eroticmysticismalsofindsitswayintothe
literatureoftheagereflectingtheinfluenceofbhakti.Bilhana'sChaurpanchasikaandJayadeva'sGeetGovindaareexamples.
3. MediumofinstructionofformallanguagewasSanskritwhichshowsitsgrowingdistancefromdaytodaylife.Professionaleducationwasprovided
bytheguilds.Butinsomeprofessionswedofindsanskritworksbeingwrittenindicatingsomeconfluence.
JainaLiterature
1. SanskritalsobegantobewidelyusedbyJainasandBuddhistsbythistime.Thejainaswereprolificinwritingbiographies,chroniclesofkingsand
courtsandtextsonreligion.Hemchandra(12thcent)andMerutunga(14thcent)werefamousscholars.Aninterestingaspectwaswritingstorieson
Ramafromajainaperspective.
2. The jains insisted on literacy and thus preserved and recopied their texts as a treasury in the jaina temples. These developed into impressive
libraries.Bynowanewshardascriptwasusedwhichwasclosertodevanagarithanbrahmi.
Sanskrit
1. Inmostsanskritworksoftheagewefindlackoforiginalandinnovativethinking.Theyweremerelycommentariesonoldsubjectsfromepicsetc.
ThisagealsolacksimportanttextsonpoliticslikeArthasastraandNitisara.Focuswasmoreonlinguisticproficiency.ThespreadofSanskritgrew
inSIndiaalongwiththespreadofBrahmansandbecauseoftheproximitytokingsmuchoftheliteraturehaspoliticalmotives.
2. TherewasatrendofgrowingornatestyleinSanskritchampionedbyBanabhatta.Thiswasspeciallybecauseoftheroyalpatronagescholarsusedto
receive.Thisperiodwitnessedthegrowthofkavyaaswellasgrammar.
3. TherewasagrowingtrendofwritinghistriographieslikeKalhanaandBilhana(Vikramankdevcharitahistoricalepicbutwrittentopleaseaking
whohadusurpedthethronefromhiselderbrother).Attemptsweremadetoprovidevanshavaliswheredescentwastracedfrommythologicallines.
4. Anewstyleknownas"shleshastyle"emerged.AnexampleisShrutikirti'sDwisandhanwhichwhenreadfromlefttorighttellsthestoryofRama
andwhenreadfromrighttolefttellsthestoryofKauravs.
5. Brahmagupta, Bhaskaracharya, Vaghavatta and Kalhana wrote in this age. Sanskrit dictionary was composed in this era by Amarsimha
(Amarkosha).ImportantplayswereMudrarakshahbyVishakhdatta,BalRamayanandBalBharatbyRajshekhar.
6. Sanskrit texts on various professions like krishiparashar, shilpashastras, vastushastras, veterinary sciences etc. were written reflecting social
priorities.
RegionalLanguages
1. Prakrit:ItgraduallybecameveryheavyandlostouttoPaliandSanskritandevenJainascholarsbegantowriteinSanskritwhilebuddhistscholars
inPali.
2. Tamil > Alvars and Naynar saints popularized it from 69 AD. Their writings were collectively compiled in 12th cent and called Tirumurais.
Tamilliteraturewitnessedgreatdevelopment.SometimethesubjectsweretakenfromSanskritworkslikeKambanwroteRamaynainCholaperiod
butitwasnotmerelyatranslationoftheValmikiramaynaasthestyle,treatmentofgenderandeventhenarrativewasvariedaccordingtothelocal
tradition. Thus he treats Ravan in a much more sympathetic way than Valmiki. In the Pallava age the tamil poems contain rich description of
generalcountrylifeaswellasthetownlifeinKaveripattnam.ConfidenceinTamilcanbeseeninitsusealongwithSanskritininscriptions.
3. Kannada>Amoghavarsha(Rashtrakutaking)wrotethefirstworkinKannadapoetry.ItwaspatronizedbyRashtrakutas,ChalukyasandHosyals.
Pampa,PonnaandRanna(the3Kannadajewels)wroteinthisage.
4. Apbhramsha>TheRashtrakutaspatronizeditandmanypoetsinthislanguagelivedintheircourts.Thedohastyleofwritingbegantocomeupin
thisageandspeciallypopularizedbythebhaktimovement.ThebhaktisaintsalsopopularizedotherlanguageslikeOdiya,Bengali.
5. Telugu>ItwaspatronizedbyRashtrakutas,ChalukyasandHosyals.MahabharatawaswrittenunderChalukyankings.
Vijaynagar
Architecture

Features
1. Religiousaswellassecular.
2. Courtpatronage.
3. Rockcut,shapedoruseofpermanentmaterial.
4. Highlyornamented,elaborate,massiveandadvancedtechnology.
5. Multidimensionali.e.manyformsofarchitecturewerepursued.
6. In the 14th century, it was influenced by deccani style of Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas. During 15th century, a typical Vijaynagar style
calledprovidastyleemerged.Basicallyitwasanadvancedversionofthedravidianstyle.In17thcent,thenayakstyleemerged(nayakswerethe
feudatoriesofVijaynagarkings).
Temples
1. Intheprovidastyle,thestructuresofthechiefgodandgoddesswereseparatedandthegoddessstructurewascalledshrineofthe"Amma".Anew
structurecalledkalyanmandap came up which was used for the ceremonial union of the chief god and the goddess. A thousand pillar hall was
createdinthetemplecomplexforthedevotees.Thegopuramsbecamebiggerandmoreornamented.
2. ExamplesareViruprakashtempleandHazaraswamitemple@Hampi.
3. Thenayakstyletempleswerebiggerandmoreornamented.ExampleisMeenakshitemple@Madurai.
Monuments
1. Palaces,queens'baths,stablesetc.wereconstructed.ExampleisLotuspalaceofKrishnadevrai.
Sculpture
1. Secularsculpturedevelopedwithbronzeimagesmadeofkingsandqueens.