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International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139

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International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhff

Influence of tip clearance on flow behavior and noise generation
of centrifugal compressors in near-surge conditions
J. Galindo, A. Tiseira, R. Navarro ⇑, M.A. López
CMT – Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, 46022 Valencia, Spain

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 3 May 2014
Received in revised form 14 November 2014
Accepted 17 December 2014

Keywords:
CFD simulation
Turbocharger
Shaft motion
Aeroacoustics
DES
URANS

a b s t r a c t
CFD has become an essential tool for researchers to analyze centrifugal compressors. Tip leakage flow is
usually considered one of the main mechanisms that dictate compressor flow field and stability. However, it is a common practice to rely on CAD tip clearance, even though the gap between blades and
shroud changes when compressor is running. In this paper, sensitivity of centrifugal compressor flow
field and noise prediction to tip clearance ratio is investigated. 3D CFD simulations are performed with
three different tip clearance ratios in accordance to expected operating values, extracted from shaft
motion measurements and FEM predictions of temperature and rotational deformation. Near-surge operating conditions are simulated with URANS and DES. DES shows superior performance for acoustic predictions. Cases with reduced tip clearance present higher pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, but no
significant changes in compressor acoustic signature are found when varying clearance. In this working
point, tip clearance is immersed in a region of strongly swirling backflow. Therefore, tip leakage cannot
establish any coherent noise source mechanism.
Ó 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Turbochargers are present in almost all diesel engines and its
use in gasoline engines has been steadily increasing in the last
years. Turbocharging allows reductions of engine displacement
and weight without reducing the power and torque produced, in
a trend known as downsizing. This approach reduces fuel consumption and emissions, which is a must for successfully fulfilling
the current regulations.
Yet strongly downsizing of engines and increase of low speed
torque raises an issue with turbocharger airborne noise (Evans
and Ward, 2005), since compressor operating points are shifted
towards surge region (Teng and Homco, 2009).
Leakage flow from blade PS to SS across tip clearance is often
considered as a key point in the stability and noise production of
centrifugal compressors. Raitor and Neise (2008) conducted an
experimental study to analyze the sound generation mechanisms
of centrifugal compressors. Tip clearance noise (TCN) predominates over BPF tone for subsonic flow conditions at low compressor
speeds. TCN is a narrow-band noise observed at frequencies about
half the blade passing frequency (BPF), which increase with speed.
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 963 877 650.
E-mail addresses: galindo@mot.upv.es (J. Galindo), anti1@mot.upv.es (A. Tiseira),
ronagar1@mot.upv.es (R. Navarro), milpehi@mot.upv.es (M.A. López).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.004
0142-727X/Ó 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Raitor and Neise considered that secondary flow through blade tip
clearance is the source of TCN.
In this frame, CFD is a tool used by researchers to investigate
centrifugal compressor flow field and particularly tip leakage flow.
Mendonça et al. (2012) analyzed flow-induced aeroacoustics of
an automotive radial compressor using DES. A narrow band noise
at a frequency about 70% of rotational speed was detected. Rotating stall was found to be the source of the narrow band noise.
Tip leakage allows the stalled passages to recover by pushing the
low momentum region to the rotation-trailing passage, according
to Mendonça et al.
Tomita et al. (2013) studied two compressors with similar map
except in surge vicinity. Unsteady pressure measurements performed just upstream the impeller leading edge at low mass flow
rate revealed differences between compressors: the one with the
narrowest operating range showed large pressure fluctuations at
subsynchronous speeds moving circumferentially at about
50–80% of compressor speed, whereas compressor with wide operating range did not exhibit this large amplitude fluctuations. 3D
CFD numerical simulations were also performed in order to analyze fluid phenomena at this low mass flow rate conditions.
Compressor with less surge margin presented a tornado-type
vortex between blades, blocking the incoming flow. This vortex is
convected downstream and a new one is created in the adjacent
blade, in a rotating stall pattern. Conversely, spiral-type tip leakage

t total-to-total pressure ratio (–) s compressor torque (kg m2 s2) Sub. (2012) performed steady simulations using the same impeller with six different tip clearance profiles. Danish et al. Section 2 is devoted to the estimation of tip clearance reduction during actual compressor operation. a two-way coupled fluid–structure simulation should be . CFD can provide a deeper insight into the issue. Section 6 includes the main findings of the paper. in these sensitivity studies. pressure ratio is reduced by 13% and efficiency by 8.and superscripts  corrected variable 0 stagnation variable 1/3. 2012. but clearance sensitivity to noise generation must be first assessed to decide if clearance variations from baseline CAD conditions can be safely neglected. Measurements performed by Wang et al. A reduced tip leakage flow was found to significantly improve the diffusion process downstream the impeller. Nevertheless.130 J.. Deformations due to temperature. Numerical simulations were performed with frozen rotor technique. However. thus modeling a cold tip clearance that is not representative of actual working conditions. Many researchers have performed studies of tip clearance sensitivity on global variables and local flow features. particular TCRs are not usually justified by expected values of compressor actual working conditions and effect on noise generation is not assessed. Particularly. but not as severe as the rotating stall experienced as in the other compressor. Tomita et al. Some rotating instability was observed in this compressor. rotation or pressure are usually neglected. Reductions in tip clearance caused an increase in pressure ratio and efficiency. Estimation of actual tip clearance In Section 1. Jung et al. In such a sensitivity study. some effects usually not considered when simulating turbocharger compressors were introduced. maximum increase of TCR by decrease of blade height caused a loss of 15% in pressure ratio and 10% in efficiency. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 Nomenclature List of symbols a speed of sound (m s1) cp specific heat capacity at constant pressure (J kg1 K1) _ mass flow rate (kg s1) m N compressor rotational speed (rpm) p pressure (Pa) t time (s) T temperature (K) u axial velocity (m s1) _ W compressor absorbed power (kg m2 s3) Wu compressor specific work (m2 s2) g efficiency (%)  relative difference (%) c ratio of specific heats (–) / generic variable Pt. In this paper. Galindo et al.. tip leakage flow may play a role in noise generation and stability of centrifugal compressors. (2011) indicated that variations of tip clearance caused small influence on stall inception. However. TCRs should be set in accordance to expected values while compressor is operating. 2/3. Flow field is investigated in Section 5 in order to explain the spectra obtained by different TCRs. For operating conditions close to best efficiency point. (2006) conducted a numerical study in which overall performance and flow field were investigated for nine tip clearance levels from no gap to 16% tip clearance ratio (TCR). a decrease in tip clearance at the trailing edge improved the compressor performance more than implementing the same exp in forw out s ref related to experimental measurement inlet duct forward traveling wave outlet duct isentropic reference value List of abbreviations BPF blade passing frequency CAD computer-aided design CFD computational fluid dynamics DDES delayed DES DES Detached Eddy Simulation FEM finite element method IDDES improved DDES LES Large Eddy Simulation LIC Line Integral Convolution MoC Method of Characteristics PS (blade) pressure side PSD power spectral density RANS Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes TCN tip clearance noise TCR tip clearance ratio SS (blade) suction side URANS Unsteady RANS WMLES wall-modeled LES reduction in leading edge tip clearance. compressor geometry is often obtained from reverse engineering or manufacturer’s CAD. two thirds or three thirds of original clearance. the reasons could not be investigated because their mixing-plane. Increased computational resources have made possible to include tip clearance in most of the current CFD simulations of centrifugal compressor (Mendonça et al.5%. respectively back backward traveling wave CFD related to simulation vortex breakdown occurred at all blades for compressor with higher surge margin. According to the literature review. and shaft motion is not considered. Tip clearance size impact on global variables and noise generation is evaluated in Section 4 by means of PSD comparison. However. steady simulations failed to converge at near surge conditions. Two different clearance increase approaches were used: reduction of blade height while keeping same housing dimensions and increase of shroud diameter with same blade height. 2013). Including these effects will led to coupled fluid–structure simulations. the effect of tip clearance size on fluid flow and noise spectra of a 49 mm exducer diameter turbocharger compressor is studied. which are very expensive. Tomita et al. (2013) concluded that tip leakage vortex breakdown could stabilize the flow structure and thus increase surge margin. the numerical set-up is described and the approach to perform the clearance sensitivity analysis is explained. 3/3 related to one third. For the sake of accuracy. Finally. If shroud size is increased instead. 2. the effect of these factors should be studied to assess the validity of simulations using CAD clearance. In Section 3.

only one main blade and one . In this paper. The possible effect of shaft precession on noise generation is thus neglected in this paper. sensitivity of TCR to centrifugal compressor aeroacoustics will be first investigated. The processing algorithm identifies the shaft tip and its center (in blue in Fig. Two screws are placed at the impeller’s eye plane (see Fig.2 to assess maximum clearance reduction due to shaft motion. the maximum reduction of the original tip clearance is between 33% and 45%. If noise happens to be highly dependent on TCR. For more details. which do suffer from phenomena such as flutter. 3. Fig.000 quad/tri elements. This motion represents a 22–34% of reduction of the original clearance. First. 2 depicts the layout of the image recording apparatus.5°. Leakage flowrate is thus affected by impeller deformation. positioning it as coaxial as possible to the turbocharger shaft and focused to the shaft tip. this approach would lead to unaffordable computational times. 2011).J. along with impeller and housing deformations caused by temperature. which computed the nodal displacement. Then. A structured-light 3D scanner provided a point cloud of the bodies. 2. (2012) showed that this technique requires a less intrusive apparatus than infrared sensor measurements. whose coordinates are calculated using the reference points for the subsequent determination of the shaft motion. Eccentricity due to shaft motion In order to estimate the tip clearance variation due to shaft motion. over all at trailing edge. in accordance with compressor speed. the flow field was recalculated with the deformed impeller estimated with FEM. as López (2014) indicated. Besides. Galindo et al. The impeller’s eye can be seen along with the reference points (left and right screws). Thermal and rotational deformation To estimate decrease of tip clearance due to impeller deformation. They are used as reference points to calculate the relative position of the shaft. rotation and pressure differences. The shaft motion describes a zone with a radius between 100 lm and 150 lm regarding the center of the impeller’s plane eye. The distance between the compressor and the camera is approximately 300 mm. (2011).. Impeller deformation due to rotational and thermal loads. The resolution obtained with this layout is approximately 5 lm per pixel. The maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger is obtained by manually achieving the physical limit of shaft motion. which were processed by reverse engineering software to reconstruct smooth surfaces. (2013) used this methodology to improve the knowledge of the behavior of the turbochargers in critical conditions of lubrication. because. (2011) used a two-step calculation procedure to take into account impeller deformation when simulating centrifugal compressor flow.2. so as to be considered in the subsequent sensitivity analysis. 3 shows a photograph of the shaft motion. Wang et al. tip clearance changed from a uniform clearance ratio of 7. The equations are then solved using the preconditioned conjugate gradient solved implemented in ANSYS Structural. Numerical model 3. In order to avoid influence of manufacturing variability. 3). image recording is better suited than standard inductive sensors for shaft motion measurements in these lubrication conditions. the deformation of the compressor blades were simulated with finite element method (FEM). Deformation due to thermal and pressure loads and centrifugal forces can be taken into account with a one-way fluid-mechanical simulation. please refer to the work of López (2014). The impeller is meshed with more than 12. 3). The camera is placed in front of the turbocharger on the compressor side.1. Images are taken with a PCO Pixelfly 12-bit CCD Camera with spatial resolution of 1280  1024 pixels. avoiding errors due to structural vibrations. This would imply a great increase in computational effort compared to traditional sliding mesh technique. Therefore. It consists in an image recording methodology with a processing algorithm to estimate the shaft motion. Aeroelasticity is neglected because centrifugal compressor blades are not as long and slender as in their axial counterparts. which is the material of most compressor wheels (Sotome and Sakoda. Domain and numerical set-up Fig. Particularly. 1 shows the total deformation of the compressor wheel. Selection of mean value instead of temperature distribution is justified by high thermal diffusivity of aluminum. Moreover. the technique developed by Pastor et al. Fig. 2. 4 shows the maximum eccentricity (ellipse with solid black line) and the shaft motion at 160 krpm (blue dot markers). Fig.1. Pastor et al.3% into a non-uniform profile that presents greater reduction with increasing meridional coordinate (TCR is 50% larger at the leading edge than at the trailing edge). Instead. avoiding a two-way coupled fluid– structure simulation. Maximum deformation of the inducer blades is 11% of CAD tip clearance. The processing algorithm consists on differentiating specific zones of the image in order to obtain their coordinates. following the approach of Wang et al. 131 Pressure deformation was not considered because its contribution to impeller deformation is marginal (Wang et al. eccentricity measurements are performed in Section 2. (2012) is applied. tip outlet angle at trailing edge increased 3. Galindo et al. Young’s Modulus = 71 GPa). in which rotor region is meshed only once and it is rotated across sliding interfaces. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 performed to take into account potential aeroelastic effects. 1. In this way. mean wheel temperature (120 °C) predicted by CFD and rotational speed (160 krpm) were used as an input to a structural simulation with FEM. 2007). incident and exit blade metal angles were also deformed. This resolution allows the observation of shaft movements. A 90° elbow is attached at the inlet of the compressor housing with a glass window to allow the proper display of the shaft through the camera. The simulation was done with characteristics of the Aluminum Alloy (density = 2770 kg/m3. the flow field should be recalculated with the actual tip clearance geometry. Fig. vaneless diffuser and volute of the compressor were digitalized. dynamic mesh approach should be employed to consider the complex shaft motion pattern described (see for example the explanation of Nelson (2007)). also providing direct observation of shaft motion phenomenon. However. The impeller.

inlet and outlet cross sections were extruded 5 diameters long to obtain the CFD domain shown in Fig. Shaft motion at 160 krpm. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are rejected due to their infeasibility in terms of computational cost. creating the rest by revolution. Secondorder accurate transient solver was used with a time-step size so that the impeller mesh turns 1° per time step. hub cavity. three approaches to model turbulence could be thus considered: . impeller. Fig. 2. since Navarro (2014) proved that this time-step is sufficient to accurately resolve pressure spectra within human hearing range. splitter blade were digitalized. Turbulence modeling plays an important role in flow field and noise prediction of a centrifugal compressor. Smooth walls were considered. In this paper.5 million polyhedral cells. The full domain (inlet pipe. In order to predict compressor aeroacoustics. 4. constant compressor speed of about 160 krpm and mass flow rate corresponding to 1. 5. Backplate cavity along with (cold) tip clearance are also provided by the digitalization process. in which heat transfer with the surroundings was neglected. Rigid body motion approach was employed for the computations. CFD domain. 5. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 Fig. showing the estimated position of the shaft center. Photograph of shaft motion. Galindo et al. showing that a mesh twice as fine does not provide significant differences in terms of global variables and noise predictions. Fig.132 J. In addition. The impeller and the diffuser are thus 360° modeled. Fixed outlet pressure.4 times surge mass flow at this compressor speed were set to represent a near-stall operating condition. vaneless diffuser. particularly at nearsurge conditions. discharge volute and outlet duct) is meshed with 9. 3. Fig. Camera layout for shaft motion observation. Navarro (2014) performed a mesh independence analysis.

Hellström et al. By looking at their survey.. A comparison between predicting capabilities of URANS and DES will be performed in Section 4. DES results using the described model has been already validated against experimental measurements for aeroacoustic purposes by Broatch et al.1. The three meshes produced with this approach present a similar amount of elements. In this paper it is thus preferred to keep impeller size and reduce the shroud to obtain the desired TCRs. 1994) closure model.2. Danish et al. 2007). A comparison between turbulence models was done at one operating point. either increasing impeller size or decreasing shroud diameter. DES model is an hybrid RANS-LES approach in which the boundary layer is modeled using URANS and LES is employed for the free stream detached flow. With such a blending between turbulence approaches. Robinson et al. 6. flow features and noise production sensitivity to tip clearance. Impeller increase would mimic temperature and rotational deformation. showing the potential of LES to predict centrifugal compressor flow behavior. being about 9. and as a Reynolds-averaged model in regions where it is not’’ (Travin et al. Tip clearance reduction can be done with two opposed approaches. LES is not considered in this paper due to the computational cost that would imply using a LES-suited grid. (2012) showed that this approach improved the prediction of the compressor map compared to experimental measurements when using steady-state RANS k  x SST simulations. In this work. Simulations using URANS and DES turbulence approaches were performed using the segregated solver of Star-CCM+ (CD-Adapco. since Mendonça et al. Navarro (2014) showed that LES mode of detached eddy simulations is present in the core of the rotor passages and the recirculating flows upstream the impeller. LES are often used in computational aeroacoustics (CAA) (Wagner et al. 2000). To the authors’ knowledge. (2006). Jyothishkumar et al. concluding that the full compressor should be modeled for the sake of accuracy. Imposed geometrical periodicity was found to affect large scale 133 turbulent structures. which combines WMLES and DDES hybrid RANS-LES approaches. 3. Menter et al. it can be concluded that LES is much more extended in axial turbomachinery than in their radial counterparts. for its accuracy in predicting flow with adverse pressure gradients. including a close-up of tip clearance for the cases studied and isomeridional surfaces. three levels are considered: original (CAD) clearance. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulations (URANS). However. ‘‘which functions as a subgrid-scale model in regions where the grid density is fine enough for a large-eddy simulation. Downstream of the diffuser vane. Experimental setup Aside from the numerical comparison between turbulence models and different TCRs. (2014) reported good agreement between their large eddy simulations and experimental measurements. Tucker (2011) listed 40 turbomachinery cases with eddy-resolving turbulence models. However. Shur et al. For this reason. DES will be performed in combination with a SST k  x turbulence model. (2013) and Semlitsch et al. Dufour et al. swirl or strong flow mixing. 2008) is used. DES is intended to save computational cost when compared with LES but retaining some of the eddy-resolving capabilities. particularly at near-surge conditions. Comparison of overall performance and acoustic signatures 4. with the corresponding improvement in broadband noise predictions regarding URANS.. The experimental measurements shown in this paper were obtained installing a turbocharger test rig in an anechoic chamber. In order to assess compressor performance indicators. expected clearance reduction range is comprised in the sensitivity analysis. In any case. (2012) used DDES for simulations of an axial compressor near stall. 6. (2009) reviewed some works using large eddy simulations for predicting turbomachinery flow.J. In this work. The model proved to be good at capturing usual turbomachinery flow features such as flow separation. only 3 of them being hybrid RANS-LES. unrealistic deformation of impeller geometry may impact flow behavior more than subsequent reduction of tip clearance. Finally. 2/3 of original clearance and 1/3 of original clearance. In this way. Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES). (2007) applied the k  x SST model for the calculation of flow in a one-stage centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser. Galindo et al. 2006. (2004) applied the SST model for different turbomachinery cases. The reduction of shroud that causes the three different TCRs studied in this paper can be observed in the left-hand side of Fig. but tip clearance reduction due to shaft motion represents an approximation regardless of the method used. experimental spectra are used as a reference. A detailed description of the gas stand is given by Galindo et al.. a maximum clearance reduction of 45% is estimated. prediction quality depends on the operating point. Tip clearance reduction approach In Section 2. (2010. by reducing the issue with log-layer mismatch (LLM). Rotor region mesh: cross-section (left) and impeller (right). Low-Reynolds number near-wall resolution is used. due to their potential to capture broadband noise turbulent sources. Smirnov et al.5 million polyhedral cells. (2013) and the set of works performed by researchers from KTH and University of Cincinnati. 2012). Fig. The mesh used in this paper may not be fine enough to take advantage of the WMLES branch in IDDES. Good agreement of the computed velocity field with the measurements data at the impeller exit is obtained by Smirnov et al. although it is still not very popular in turbomachinery simulations. (2012) also used the aforementioned turbulence model to analyze the influence of the spacing between impeller and vaned diffuser in a centrifugal compressor. van Rennings et al. The SST model provided better agreement with experimental data than k   and k  x models. DES model is also used in this paper.. for which a good agreement against experimental measurements was found. concluding that IDDES extended the range of suitable applications of DDES. IDDES (Travin et al. This model is very suited for compressors. 4. Mockett (2009) studied several DES models. LES in turbocharger compressors have only been covered by Karim et al. (2014). URANS simulations are performed with k  x SST model (Menter. Particularly. 2013). . but at least this turbulence model should perform as DDES. (2006) proved that these two approaches to change tip clearance yield similar results.

but in DES there is not a monotonous trend. In URANS simulations.t [-] (//exp /3=3 ) Case Exp.22/–/– 121/–/– 62.8 66. (2014) is followed. (2014).5/– 2. particularly in terms of isentropic efficiency. compressor global variables are compared.7/2.26/1. Pt.1/– 63. Compressor piping layout. Planar wave range starts at lowest frequency attainable and finishes when the first asymmetric mode is cut on.0/4. as the next section will prove.1/1. Compressor performance variables 4. Decreasing tip gap improves compressor isentropic efficiency and pressure ratio.t W gs ¼ _ ¼ .0 W Pt. numerical simulations require pressure decomposition to avoid the nodes of standing waves.1/0.J.5 50 32 32 CFD domain 1 2 3 Sensor array 1495 363 210 180 1070 Fig.4/– 2. The acoustic analysis is performed dividing the spectra in two regions: planar wave range and high frequency range. defined as: exp ð%Þ ¼ /CFD  /exp  100 /exp 3=3 ð%Þ ¼ /CFD  /CFD. 7.5/6. However. 4. Hamming windowing is used at blocks with 50% overlap.0  T in. 7.27/2. to take advantage of their beamforming-based signal analysis method to decompose pressure signals into a forward-traveling wave pforw ðtÞ and a backward-traveling wave pback ðtÞ.3.21/0. Experimental signals are decomposed used the beamforming-based technique described by Piñero et al.32/4. In this range. Pressure components from the simulations are obtained by means of Eq. Long.1/4.0 Þ _ _ m m  c1  c 1 _ s T in. (2000). In each box. Galindo et al.2/3.31/4.5 62.2 2. Position of piezoelectric pressure sensor arrays are also included in the sketch. specific work and isentropic efficiency. A full description of the experimental apparatus used to obtain the acoustical measurements is presented by Broatch et al.5 124/2.3=3  100: /CFD. straight pipes were placed at the inlet and outlet of the compressor. Inlet and outlet linear arrays of three piezoelectric sensors each were designed in accordance with Piñero et al. The number of blocks is selected so as to obtain the frequency resolution closest to 150 Hz. whereas numerical monitors were stored at each case for more than 50 ms (corresponding to 140 impeller revolutions) after reaching a steady state in terms of global variables.5 122/0.0/4. Welch’s overlapped segmented average (Welch. 1967) is used to estimate pressure PSD..1 63. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 10 32 134 08 Se 53 ns 9 o 3 2 r arra 150 y 1 50 42 60.6 65. These probes were used to sample pressure signals at 100 kHz during 1 s at the desired operating condition.6/– 122/0.7 122/0. Totalto-total pressure ratio. a reduction of TCR slightly increases specific work.4/2. results than cases with reduced clearance. a better estimation of global variables does not necessarily imply that URANS is more accurate than DES in predicting compressor noise generation.3/0.2/1.2/1.6/– 65.2/0.8 122/0. Table 1 includes these global variables along with relative difference against experimental measurements and relative difference against CAD clearance case with the corresponding turbulence model. Compressor acoustic spectra In first place. (3): pout.23/0.1 .6 2.7/– 123/1. URANS case with CAD clearance predicts compressor performance parameters showing better agreement with experimental measurements than DES. the value is followed by the relative difference against experimental measurements and the relative difference against CAD clearance case with the corresponding turbulence model. although it imposes a constraint on maximum frequency (Broatch et al. as depicted in Fig.3=3 ð2Þ For both turbulence approaches. which are the tool to evaluate and compare compressor noise generation. the methodology developed by Broatch et al.0 Pt. 2014).3/5. highlighting the CFD domain and the sensor arrays (dimensions in mm). W u [kJ  kg 1 ] (//exp /3=3 ) gs [%] (//exp /3=3 ) 2.8/5. cases with original clearance provide compressor performance values closer to experimental Table 1 Compressor global variables measured in the experimental test rig and predicted by the numerical model.7/0. In order to assess the effect of tip clearance on centrifugal compressor noise.2. using a Yokogawa digital oscilloscope. (2000).9 DES 3/3 2/3 1/3 2.0  T in.t ¼ ð1Þ are either experimentally measured or numerically calculated. T out.9/2.2/–/– URANS 3/3 2/3 1/3 2.0 pin. Experimental signals were sampled during 1 s.7/2.0 2pNðrpmÞ _ s W Wu ¼ ¼ 60 ¼ cp ðT out.

1. Moreover. pforw 105 CFD p 3/3 (DES) CFD p 2/3 (DES) forw 100 95 forw CFD pforw 1/3 (DES) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Frequency [Hz] Fig. Galindo et al. 8. pback CFD p 95 CFD p 90 85 Exp. Simulations also provide decreasing spectra. High frequency PSD of experimental and URANS pressure at inlet (top) and outlet (bottom) ducts. It corresponds to the whoosh noise phenomenon detected at experiments for higher mass flows (see Broatch et al. 115 110 105 100 Exp. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 125 2 0 13 !c21c   1 p c  1 u A5 ¼ pref 4 @1 þ 1 2 pref 2 a pback which are inspired by the Method of Characteristics (MoC). Figs. pback 95 CFD p 90 CFD pback 2/3 (DES) back CFD p back 85 3/3 (DES) 1/3 (DES) 500 1000 1500 3000 125 120 115 110 Exp. Point monitors located at wall ducts should be used in this frequency range so as to capture higher order acoustic modes (Broatch et al. p CFD p 85 125 back 75 3/3 (RANS) CFD pback 2/3 (RANS) CFD pback 1/3 (RANS) 1 2 6 8 120 10 12 14 16 18 20 Frequency [kHz] 115 140 110 105 100 Exp. experimental spectrum at low frequency range decays monotonously. but amplitude is overpredicted. At the outlet duct. the broadband elevation from 5 to 12 kHz is clearly underpredicted. (2014)). 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 Exp. 8 fails to predict this change in behavior. TCR does not have an impact on PSD.. as described by Torregrosa et al. experimental spectrum decreases until 3. (3) is again used to obtain the numerical spectra of pressure components in order to reduce the impact of standing waves. showing a constant decay for all TCRs. 115 110 Exp. URANS PSD depicted in Fig.5 kHz. 8 and 9 show that. Inlet numerical spectra is predicted by both turbulence approaches alike.5 to 4 kHz. URANS and detached-eddy simulations were performed using the configuration described in Section 3.5 kHz. Fig. 9) does present a narrow band centered at a frequency from 3. At the inlet. particularly for frequencies below 10 kHz. 10. presenting a narrow band noise and a constant level afterwards. 10 presents spectra provided by URANS simulation against experimental ones.3 kHz to 2. Conversely. The only difference between DES spectrum and experimental one is the broad band that simulations predict from 1. p CFD pforw 3/3 (RANS) 130 CFD p back back back 500 3/3 (RANS) 2/3 (RANS) 1/3 (RANS) 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Frequency [Hz] 130 Outlet PSD (dB) Inlet PSD (dB) 2500 130 80 CFD p forw 2/3 (RANS) CFD pforw 1/3 (RANS) 120 110 100 90 125 Outlet PSD (dB) 2000 Frequency [Hz] Outlet PSD (dB) ð3Þ 2c c1 Inlet PSD (dB) 120 Inlet PSD (dB) pforw 2 0 13c21c !c21c   1 p c  1 u A5 ¼ pref 4 @1 þ 1þ 2 pref 2 a 1 2 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Frequency [kHz] 120 Fig. 8–11 are obtained. High frequency range starts with the onset of first asymmetric mode and is extended until 20 kHz. In this way. at the inlet. whereas beamforming cannot be applied to experimental pressure traces and thus a single probe of each array is used to obtain the raw PSD. PSD are constant. showing a better agreement in the subsequent decay. 9. The differences in spectra prediction between turbulence approaches increase when frequencies above planar-wave range are considered.135 J. DES spectra (Fig. Low frequency PSD of experimental and DES pressure components at inlet (top) and outlet (bottom) ducts. PSD at the outlet duct is underpredicted. Low frequency PSD of experimental and URANS pressure components at inlet (top) and outlet (bottom) ducts. 2014). Then. depending on tip clearance. Flow field variables are averaged at cross-sections. p forw 105 CFD pforw 3/3 (RANS) CFD p 100 95 forw 2/3 (RANS) CFD pforw 1/3 (RANS) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Frequency [Hz] Fig. Eq. . (2012). Figs.

and a fraction of this recirculating flow goes from passage PS to SS. save for a broadband elevation from 14 to 16 kHz that the experiments include. absolute velocity is close to zero. tip clearance could be resolved with few spanwise nodes (less than 10) (Eum et al. the left side of the blades corresponds to the PS whereas the right side is the SS. in which backflow appear. 1991). / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 120 Inlet PSD (dB) 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 Exp. Shum et al. so relative tangential velocity points to the right. and it does not represent a major issue since inlet PSD is significantly lower than outlet one (average of 10 dB). as in Fig. 12 represents a change of sign of meridional component of velocity. 2008). flow field is investigated to explain why TCR is not relevant to compressor noise generation in these near-surge operating conditions (mass flow rate is 1. In addition to oil flow colored by pressure and a solid black line indicating zero meridional velocity. Fig. In this paper. Time-averaged flow field is considered in the left side pictures. 11. p CFD p 80 CFD pback 2/3 (DES) 75 back CFD p back 1 2 6 8 10 3/3 (DES) 1/3 (DES) 12 14 16 18 20 Frequency [kHz] Outlet PSD (dB) 140 Exp. Galindo et al. 13. 6). The different fluid variables have been time-averaged during more than 10 impeller rotations.. at least for near-stall operating conditions. Therefore. In order to shed some light on tip leakage flow. Fig. LIC of relative velocity vectors colored by pressure at isomeridional surfaces for DES cases with different clearance. 12. thus disabling the inviscid character of tip leakage flow (Storer and Cumpsty.. i. The solid black line shown in Fig. Left side of Fig. Only inlet spectrum above 12 kHz is overpredicted. 2004.. circumferential plane (Drela and Youngren. since Section 4. 12 shows the mean flow field for the cases with different tip clearance. Only detached-eddy simulations are analyzed. PSD is accurately reproduced using the DES. as confirmed by pressure contours. The region in which relative tangential velocity points to the left is highlighted and delimited by a solid violet line in Fig. Line Integral Convolution (LIC) (Cabral and Leedom. The majority of the impeller isomeridional section Fig.136 J. In Fig.3 has confirmed their (slightly) superior performance over URANS in terms of noise prediction. 6). for the three cases with different tip clearance. 11) provides an inlet spectrum with a closer estimation of the mean amplitude during the broadband elevation. Conversely. (2000) already noted that tip grid can influence prediction of stall inception.4 times surge mass flow at the speed line of 160 krpm). p CFD p 3/3 (DES) CFD p 2/3 (DES) forw 130 forw CFD pforw 1/3 (DES) 120 110 100 90 1 2 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Frequency [kHz] Fig. there are cells with relative velocity oriented in the rotational direction. Vortex cores are usually regions with local minimum of pressure (see for instance the instantaneous flow for the case with 1/3 of the original clearance). about 20 cells were used to mesh the spanwise direction of tip clearance (see Fig. Even though planar wave spectra predictions for both turbulence approaches are alike. DES (Fig. 1993) is used to represent relative velocity vectors as an oil flow over isomeridional surfaces depicted in Fig. 13 creates a strong shear stress in this region. whereas the pictures on the right side represent a snapshot of the instantaneous flow. 13. At the outlet duct. DES shows superior performance at high frequencies. such as the vortices observed in Fig. 13 shows that the time-averaged flow goes in the streamwise direction and moves from SS to PS at the inner core of the passages (close to the hub). The impeller rotation is transformed into a horizontal translation from right to left in Fig. High frequency PSD of experimental and DES pressure at inlet (top) and outlet (bottom) ducts. although it fails to predict PSD decrease above 12 kHz. 6. relative velocity vectors are depicted. flow is going backwards near the shroud as already noted. Since tip clearance is included in this recirculating region. 12. Zero meridional velocity is represented as a solid black line. save for the vicinity of the shroud. LIC is blended with pressure contours. and human hearing sensitivity from 12 kHz onwards is limited. tip leakage flow is not only driven by favorable pressure gradient across the blade tip. These changes in circumferential flow direction results in the creation of secondary flows. . 13 shows the flow field at isomeridional surface number 3 (see Fig. The air flowing in two opposite directions in the tip clearance that can be observed in the right side of Fig. The narrow band between 4.7 and 6 kHz is not registered by the experimental measurement. presents incoming flow. Van Zante et al. It can be seen that some of these vectors indicate flow going to the SS of the passages. 5. 2000). If tip leakage mechanism were mainly inviscid.e. 12. 12. These surfaces of revolution have been flattened by projecting them on a normalized-meridional vs. Flow field investigation In this section. In the shroud boundary layer.

However. 2004. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. Highest tangential velocities are obtained at the blade trailing edge. In order to produce a narrow ban noise. no recirculating flow appeared near the compressor shroud. it can be noticed that instantaneous net tip flow can be oriented in the rotational direction.) Left side of Fig. which explains the existence of regions in which relative velocity is oriented towards the passage SS (marked with a solid violet line in Fig. 14. Kameier and Neise. Only rotating stall was found. Zero meridional velocity is represented as a solid black line whereas zero relative circumferential velocity is represented as a solid violet line. Bousquet et al. The backflow transports the angular momentum that the impeller transmitted to the flow when it was going in the streamwise direction. Raitor and Neise (2008) reported a narrow band noise in a centrifugal compressor that was considered as TCN because it presented similarities to the case of axial turbomachinery. 1997). (2013) as operating condition is shifted towards surge. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend. it will lose some angular momentum because of the shear stress with the incoming flow. the whole tip is immersed in the recirculating region. although this conclusion could also Fig. (2014) found a periodic vortex shedding due to tip leakage flow in their simulation of a centrifugal compressor at near stall conditions. When the flow is reversed. Fig. 14). 12. 2010). Some researchers have studied tip clearance noise (TCN). 13 are considered. However. but it is a subsynchronous phenomenon that produces . which depicts the mean flow in a meridional view at midpitch distance between main blade SS and splitter blade PS. Zero meridional velocity is represented as a solid black line whereas zero relative circumferential velocity is represented as a solid violet line.) be drawn from Fig. since it is the place where blade tip velocity is greatest. LIC of relative velocity vectors colored by pressure and relative velocity vectors glyph at isomeridional surface number 3 for DES cases with different clearance.. tip vortex shedding should occur in a freestream flow without any other strong fluctuating phenomena. which would mask any noise that may produce tip leakage or even disable the noise source mechanisms. Galindo et al. The reason of the unexpected behavior of tip leakage flow can be explained by Fig. but it is not so well know in the case of radial turbomachinery. In the simulations. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. 14 shows that mean tangential velocity is in the order of blade tip velocity near the shroud. but also it will also gain tangential velocity. if the snapshots at right side of Fig. This fact may explain the reduction of clearance flow rate detected by Liu et al. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend. 13. TCN has been thoroughly investigated in axial turbomachinery (Fukano and Jang. 14. 13 indicates that mean tip leakage flow moves from the right to the left. as radius is reduced. which is attributed to jet-like tip leakage flow.J. the roll-up of this stream into a vortex and the interaction of these phenomena with adjacent blades (Jacob et al. The solid black line representing change in meridional velocity direction shows that recirculating flow near the shroud almost extends to the trailing edge of the impeller for these operating conditions. and this is justified by the pressure gradient that exists at the different sides of the blade tip. / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 52 (2015) 129–139 137 Fig. LIC of relative velocity vectors colored by tangential velocity and relative velocity vectors glyph at meridional surface for baseline clearance DES. Flow leaking from blade PS to SS through the tip is therefore diminished due to angular momentum of backflows. it could not be found any periodic tip vortex shedding nor acoustic fluctuations that could be related to tip leakage flow. which may produce a narrow band noise. For the operating conditions studied in this paper.

No. validation and modeling. http:// dx. Sound Vib.01. http://dx. J. J. 6. No. Fuchs.. FEM predicts that temperature and rotation cause an additional tip clearance reduction of 11%. 7.. 2008. tip clearance can be modified by a factor of 22–34%.. F. Fukano.doi. B. 2013. http:// dx. GT2012-70028. Nelson. Mihaescu. A complicated flow pattern is detected in this region. Thesis.. J. Menter. M. S... J. Daglish..2008.D. Conversely..2014.V.doi.. and according to Figs.. 1997.A. Galindo.2013-2730. García-Tíscar.. Menter.. Poinsot.1016/ j. Piñero. Carbonneau. Drela.V. Comput.org/10.. Simulations and measurements of automotive turbocharger compressor whoosh noise.1016/ j. Dolz. 30 (5). Hutchinson. J. J. G. Turbomach. ISBN: 978-84-8363-966-5. Sci... Ph.. 2014. Hellstrom. Numerical flow analysis in centrifugal compressor near surge condition. because tighter tip clearances lead to smaller backflow regions and reduced mixing losses. Dufour.org/10. Navarro.... J. Karim.020.doi.C. 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