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Resonant Converter

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You are on page 1of 23

S.M.Ferdous

Design Specification:

Input voltage: 400 V

200V

Maximum frequency: 100 KHz

5kW

So,

V n=

200

=0.5

400

A Series resonant Circuit is given below-

The input and output voltage relation for Series Resonance Circuit can be written as

follows-

V out

=

V

1

1

j

n

jn

Page 1 of 23

in

SRC circuit

in

SRC circuit

As ratio between maximum power and minimum power is 5, so from figure 2,

=0.6

and

=3 .0

Page 2 of 23

V n=0.5

line is also plotted in figure 2. So from figure 2, it can be seen that at the

=0.6

intersecting point of

n=1.646 .

frequency,

n=1.646

V n=0.5

curve and

=0.6

and

Similarly, for

=3 .0

corresponding

Pn

and

respectively.

The obtained values are listed in the following table.

Pn

0.6

3.0

1.646

5.382

0.4171

0.0833

n and Pn

can be written,

n=

>1.646=

> B =

2 (1 00 kHz)

B

1

=381.725 10 3

LC s

LC s=2.62 106

Again

if

minimum

power

(=1kW)

is

considered

P n=

But,

then

L

Cs

P

PB

V B2

PB =

ZB

Page 3 of 23

minimum

value

of

P n=

=>

P

2

VB

ZB

=> Z B=

Pn V B 0.0833 (400)2

=

3

P

1 10

L

=13.333

Cs

C s =0.642 F

V out

(200)2

=8

3

5 10

R Lmin =

V out 2

(200)2

R Lmax =

=

=40

1 103 1 103

5 10

nmin=

f min=

2 f min 2 f min

=

B

1

LC s

1.646

2 8.56 106

f min=30.606 kH z

Similarly,

nmax=

f max=

2 f max 2 f max

=

B

1

LC s

5.382

6

2 8.56 10

f max=100 kH z

Page 4 of 23

=

3

( f max=100 kHz )

corresponds to

Alternatively, minimum frequency

corresponds to maximum

Now, simulate the SRC circuit in PSIM without parasitic values and with minimum

value of load resistance (=8 ) and frequency

( f min=30.606 kHz )

in order to find

So it is seen that the maximum voltage across capacitor C s is 351.26 volt

Page 5 of 23

Now, we have to choose a capacitor with value of 0.68 F and voltage rating around

350 volt (ac).

From the manufacturers website, suitable capacitor for this specific requirement is

0.68 F and voltage is 460 volt (ac). Model number is 5MP2_K474K.

So, chosen value of inductance and new value of capacitance is listed below.

Inductor, L

114.12 H

Capacitor, Cs

0.68 F

Table 2. Chosen value of Inductor and Capacitor for SRC

As the value of capacitance has been changed so it is required to re-calculate the

value of

Z B=

L

114.12 H

=

=12.9546

Cs

0.68 F

R Load

8

=

=0.6175

ZB

18.99

New

min =

New

max =

R Load

40

=

=3.087

ZB

18.99

Page 6 of 23

n and Pn .

=0.61753.087

=0.61753.087

Pn

0.6175

3.087

1.684

5.557

0.3934

0.08046

n and Pn

Page 7 of 23

For the above calculated value, Frequency range can be calculated as follows.

nmin=

2 f min 2 f min

=

B

1

LC s

1

1

1

=

=

6

6

LC s 114 .944 10 0.68 10

8.841 106

f min=

1.684

2 8.841 106

f min=30.425 kH z

Similarly,

nmax=

f max=

2 f max 2 f max

=

B

1

LC s

5.55

2 8.841106

f max=100 kH z

From theory, it is known that maximum frequency

( f max=100 kHz )

corresponds to

Alternatively, minimum frequency

( f min=30.425 kHz )

corresponds to maximum

Lm=8

R

power (=5kW) and minimum load resistance

.

From the Data sheet of the selected capacitor, the parasitic resistance value can be

found.

So, for the selected model of the capacitor, the value of Equivalent Series

Resistance (ESR) is 0.008.

For Inductors parasitic, thumb rule is equivalent series resistor around 10 m /

30H.

So for 118.944 H inductor the value of equivalent series resistance is 38.04 m .

The final circuit with all the parasitic value is shown below.

Page 8 of 23

The waveforms of output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance for R Load=

8 and input frequency is 30.425 kHz ( f min

is given below.

Page 9 of 23

Fig. 9. SRC circuits (a) output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance and

(b) power for minimum input frequency and minimum output load resistance

The power drawn by the load resistance should be maximum (around 5028 W)

during minimum frequency (30.425 kHz) and minimum load resistance (8). So the

obtained result matches with theory.

The current and voltage at the switching instants for maximum power is shown

below-

Page 10 of 23

Similarly, the waveforms of output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance

for RLoad= 40 and input frequency is 100 kHz ( f max

is given below.

Fig. 10. SRC circuits output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance for

maximum input frequency and maximum output load resistance

The power drawn by the load resistance should be minimum (1050 W) during

maximum frequency (100 kHz) and maximum load resistance (40). So again the

obtained result matches with theory.

The obtained values can be summarized in the table below.

L

Vmax at

the

Imax of

the

Frequen

cy

Maximu

m

Page 11 of 23

SR

C

114.12

H

0.6

8

F

reacti

ve

eleme

nt

785 V

across

Induct

or

reacti

ve

eleme

nt

range

Output

Power

33 A

30.425

kHz to

100 kHz

5.028kW

Parallel Resonance Circuit:

Using First Harmonic Approach the simplified circuit will be as follows.

For parallel Resonance Circuit, we know

V out

=

V

1

j

1+ n n2

Page 12 of 23

Fig. 12. Normalized Frequency ( n ) vs. voltage curve for different values of

in PRC circuit

Fig. 13. Normalized Frequency ( n ) vs. Power curve for different values of

in

PRC circuit

As ratio between maximum power and minimum power is 5, so from figure 2,

=0.6

and

=3.0

Page 13 of 23

V n=0.5

line is also plotted in figure 14. So from figure 14, it can be seen that at

=0.6

normalized frequency,

and

n=1.177

Similarly, for

V n=0.5

curve and

the corresponding

=0.6

corresponding Pn=0.4166 .

=3.0

corresponding

Pn

and

respectively.

The obtained values are listed in the following table.

Pn

0.6

1.188

0.4075

3.0

1.708

0.08333

n and Pn

can be written,

n=

>1.708=

> B =

2 (1 ookHz)

B

1

=367.88 103

LC

P

LC P =2.7184 106

Again

if

minimum

power

(=1kW)

is

considered

P n=

But,

then

L

CP

P

PB

V B2

PB =

ZB

Page 14 of 23

minimum

value

of

P n=

=>

P

2

VB

ZB

=> Z B=

Pn V B 0.08334 (400)2

=

3

P

1 10

L

=13.3344

CP

C P =0.21 F

V out

(200)2

=8

3

5 10

R Lmin =

V out 2

(200)2

R Lmax =

=

=40

1 103 1 103

5 10

nmin=

f min=

2 f min 2 f min

=

B

1

LC P

1.247

2 2.7184 106

f min=70.8806 kH z

Similarly,

nmax=

f max=

2 f max 2 f max

=

B

1

LC s

1.708

6

2 2.7184 10

f max=97.216 kH z

Page 15 of 23

=

3

( f max=97.216 kHz )

corresponds to

Alternatively, minimum frequency

corresponds to maximum

As CP is parallel to output load resistance R Load so the voltage across C p will be equal

to the output voltage i.e. 200 volt.

Now, we have to choose a capacitor with value of 0.21 F and voltage rating around

327 volt (ac).

From the manufacturers website it is seen that the nearest value is 0.47 F. So we

can add two 0.47 F in series so that the equivalent capacitance will be 0.23 F.

So we are taking two capacitance of value 0.47 F and voltage is 400 volt (ac).

Model number is 5MP22J474F. And we will connect the two capacitor in series so

that the equivalent capacitance will be 0.23 F.

So, chosen value of inductance and new value of capacitance is listed below.

Inductor, L

36.25 H

Capacitor, Cs

0.23 F

Table 6. Selected value of Inductor and Capacitor for PRC

As the value of capacitance has been changed so it is required to re-calculate the

value of

Z B=

New

min =

R Load

8

=

=0.64

ZB

12.55

New

max =

R Load

40

=

=3.2

ZB

12.55

L

36.25 H

=

=12.55

CP

0.23 F

Page 16 of 23

n and Pn .

Page 17 of 23

=0.643.2

=0.643.2

Pn

0.64

3.2

1.247

1.711

0.3807

0.0781

n and Pn

For the above calculated value, Frequency range can be calculated as follows.

nmin=

2 f min 2 f min

=

B

1

LC P

1

1

1

=

=

6

6

LC P 36.25 10 0.23 10 2.8 106

f min=

1.247

2 2.8 106

f min=70.8806 kH z

Similarly,

nmax=

f max=

2 f max 2 f max

=

B

1

L CP

1.711

2 2.8 106

f max=97.216 kH z

From theory, it is known that maximum frequency

( f max=97.216 kHz )

corresponds to

Alternatively, minimum frequency

( f min=70.2kHz )

Calculation of Parasitic Resistance:

From the Data sheet of the selected capacitor, the parasitic resistance value can be

found.

So, for the selected model of the capacitor, the value of Equivalent Series

Resistance (ESR) is 0.016. As we are connecting two capacitor in series, so the

total ESR will be 0.032.

Page 18 of 23

30H.

So for 36.25 H inductor the value of equivalent series resistance is 12.08 m .

The final circuit with all the parasitic value is shown below.

The waveforms of output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance for R Load=

8 and input frequency is

is given below.

Page 19 of 23

Fig. 17. PRC circuits (a) output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance

and (b) power for minimum input frequency and minimum output load resistance

The output power as obtained from the simulation is 4.58 kW.

The power drawn by the load resistance should be maximum (around 5 kW) during

minimum frequency (70.8802 kHz) and minimum load resistance (8). So the

obtained result matches with theory.

Similarly, the waveforms of output voltage and current drawn by the load resistance

for RLoad= 40 and input frequency is 100 kHz ( f max

is given below.

Page 20 of 23

Fig.19. PRC circuits output voltage across the load resistance for maximum input

frequency and maximum output load resistance

Output Power = 811.4W.

The power drawn by the load resistance should be minimum (around 1 kW) during

maximum frequency (100 kHz) and maximum load resistance (40). So again the

obtained result matches with theory.

Page 21 of 23

PR

C

Vmax at

the

reactiv

e

elemen

t

36.25

H

0.2

3

F

650 V

across

Inductor

Imax of

the

reacti

ve

eleme

nt

30 A

throug

h

Inducto

r

Frequen

cy

range

Maximu

m

Output

Power

70.8802

kHz to

97.216

kHz

4.56kW

The current and switching waveform are shown below-

Vmax at

the

reacti

ve

eleme

nt

PR

C

36.25

H

0.2

3

F

650 V

across

Induct

or

SR

118.94

0.3

785 V

Imax of

the

reacti

ve

eleme

nt

40 A

throug

h

Induct

or

33A

Frequen

cy

range

Maximu

m

Output

Power

70.8802

kHz to

100 kHz

4.56kW

30.415

5.02kW

Page 22 of 23

4 H

3

F

across

Induct

or

kHz to

100 kHz

From the above table it is seen that, for SRC the frequency range is large so SRC has

smaller quality factor thus it has poor selectivity.

On the other hand, for PRC the frequency range is small so PRC has larger quality

factor thus PRC has good selectivity. Small frequency range makes easier switching

and control for the PRC circuit.

For both PRC and SRC the required value of L and C are available in market.

The size of inductor and capacitor for PRC will be lesser than SRC. At the same time

cost of the component for PRC will be relatively less than SRC.

In SRC circuit maximum voltage across Inductor is higher than the PRC circuit. So

the rating of the inductor has to be high. The same goes for capacitor too. The

rating of the capacitor is high for SRC where as for PRC it is less.

But in terms of power delivered to the load, the SRC is capable of delivering a larger

power than PRC. In case of SRC is very close to rated power whereas for PRC it is

less than SRC and lower than the rated power to be delivered. The same is true for

minimum power delivery too.

So, depending on the designing requirement, the choice or selection of SRC and PRC

should vary. PRC is better in terms of cost and size of the components where for SRC

the delivered power is more accurate and close than SRC. So SRC can be used for

better power quality whereas PRC can be used where cost of the converter is of

more concern than power quality.

A drawback of the series converter is that the output cannot be regulated for the

no-load condition. As RL goes to infinity, Q goes to zero. The output voltage is then

independent of frequency. However, the parallel converter is able to regulate the

output at no load. For the parallel converter Q becomes larger as the load resistor

increases, and the output remains dependent on the switching frequency.

A drawback of the parallel converter is that the current in the resonant components

is relatively independent of load. The conduction losses are fixed, and the efficiency

of the converter is relatively poor for light loads.

The series-parallel converter combines the advantages of the series and parallel

converters. The output is controllable for no load or light load, and the light load

efficiency is relatively high.

Page 23 of 23

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