User Generated Content

Harry van Vliet 22 May 2007

UGC & Web 2.0

UGC & Web 2.0
one-way read-only monologue organization controlled observation structured interaction well defined process market research, surveys centralised push upfront designed one way marketing consumers two-way read-write dialogue user-controlled participation spontaneous interaction controlled chaos online social communities decentralised pull emergence viral propagation prosumers

see also: What is web 2.0?

UGC & Web 2.0
one-way two-way read-only read-write monologue dialogue organization controlled user-controlled observation participation "Web 1.0 is about connecting computers, while structured interaction spontaneous interaction Web 2.0 is about connecting people," Berners-Lee well defined process replied, "Totally not. Web 1.0 was all about connectingcontrolled chaos market research, people. It was an interactive space, and I think online 2.0 communities surveys Web social centralised is of course a piece of jargon, nobody even knows what it decentralised push pull means. If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is upfront designed emergence people to people. But that was what the Web was one way marketing supposed to be all along. And in fact, you know, this viral propagation consumers prosumers 'Web 2.0,' it means using the standards which have been produced by all these people working on Web 1.0." Tim Berners-L

see also: What is web 2.0?

User Empowerment

UGC: Typology
1. Content generation 2. Tag generation 3. Link generation 4. Service generation 5. Behaviour generation

Disclaimer: real world is not always as clear cut!

YouTube

Flickr

Wikipedia

Content generation

YouTube

Flickr

Wikipedia

Content generation

YouTube

Flickr

Wikipedia

Content generation

YouTube

Flickr

Wikipedia

Content generation

YouTube

Flickr

Wikipedia

Content generation

Tag generation

Ondergrond.org

fabchannel

Tag generation

del.ico.us
others: snipit

plazes
others: MySpace, Hyves, Linkedin

upcoming

to content
Link generation

to people

to events

Service generation

But there is more: an intermezzo!

Service generation

Service generation

Service generation

Service generation

Service generation

Service generation

last.fm

tvguide

Behaviour generation

UGC: Typology extended
1. Content generation Semantic density 2. Tag generation 3. Links generation 4. Service generation Pragmatic density 5. Behaviour generation Syntactic density

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Self - Realisation Linkage Searchable Involvement Volume

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Pros and Cons
Information Overload Fragmentation Trusthworthiness Vandalism Democracy (!)

UGC: Why is this happening?
• It is so easy: low barrier to entry • Instantantious • Outreach • Equivalence • Riskfree (and no costs!)

UGC: Why is this happening?
• It is so easy: low barrier to entry • Instantantious • Outreach • Equivalence • Riskfree (and no costs!)

UGC: Why is this happening?
• It is so easy: low barrier to entry • Instantantious • Outreach • Equivalence • Riskfree (and no costs!)

UGC: making money out of it
Some success stories but: • A lot of hypes: a prototype is not a business model! • Exit strategy business model: enthusiasm of the entrepreneurs, hoping to get funded by VCs who hope to cash in when they flip the concept to a well-heeled trade buyer like Google, Microsoft or eBay. • There is no business model (yet) for mash ups • Probably the most crucial feature missing from Web 2.0 can be summed up in one word: revenue • Added value (vs. Web 1.0) lies within rich content (video, audio), user genereated content, mash-ups, services (Gmail, Google Maps) So: businnes models still in flux, but opportunities are there...

UGC: making money out of it - revenue models
Some revenue models: • Free • advertising • commission • Freemium • Virtual economies • Freedom to pay (donation) • Nothing free
Disclaimer: a revenue model is not a business model!

Revenue models: Free (advertising)

single blog

blog portal

Revenue models: Free (advertising)

UGC portal

UGC paid!

Revenue models: Free (advertising)

UGC portal

UGC paid!

Advertising is paying with your attention!

Revenue models: Free (advertising)

MyPickList

Nabbr

Revenue models: Free (commission)

Revenue models: Freemium

extra support

extra services

Revenue models: Freemium

market places

virtual worlds

Revenue models: virtual economies

Wikimedia

Creative Commons

Revenue models: Freedom to pay

Revenue models: nothing free

?
Revenue models: nothing free

Who pays for P2P?

Who pays for social bookmarking?

Revenue models: unclear!

UGC: making money out of it - why is it so hard?
Value creation: 1. Economic value 2. Social value 3. Cultural value 4. Democratic value

web 1.0 web 3.0?

web 2.0

UGC: making money out of it - why is it so hard?
Value creation: 1. Economic value 2. Social value 3. Cultural value 4. Democratic value

web 1.0 web 3.0?

web 2.0
exploitation of UGC

UGC: making money out of it - why is it so hard?
Value creation: 1. Economic value 2. Social value 3. Cultural value 4. Democratic value publish promote transact

web 1.0 web 3.0?

web 2.0
exploitation of UGC

UGC: making money out of it - why is it so hard?
Value creation: 1. Economic value 2. Social value 3. Cultural value 4. Democratic value publish promote transact

web 1.0 web 3.0?

web 2.0
exploitation of UGC

balanced?

UGC: did multimedia research see this coming?
Typical multimedia research topics 1) Metadata standardisation (MPEG7, MPEG21) 2) Content-based retrieval 3) Shoot segmentation for videos 4) Video retrieval 5) Automatic summaries 6) Speech-to-text transcripts And not so much attention to: 1) Content of everyday user 2) Context of content usage 3) Mash ups

UGC: did multimedia research see this coming?
Typical multimedia research topics 1) Metadata standardisation (MPEG7, MPEG21) 2) Content-based retrieval 3) Shoot segmentation for videos 4) Video retrieval 5) Automatic summaries 6) Speech-to-text transcripts And not so much attention to: 1) Content of everyday user 2) Context of content usage 3) Mash ups

UGC: did multimedia research see this coming?
Typical multimedia research topics 1) Metadata standardisation (MPEG7, MPEG21) 2) Content-based retrieval 3) Shoot segmentation for videos 4) Video retrieval 5) Automatic summaries 6) Speech-to-text transcripts And not so much attention to: 1) Content of everyday user 2) Context of content usage 3) Mash ups

UGC: crossovers to traditional channels
Web 1.0: Email on TV

UGC: crossovers to traditional channels
Web 1.0: Email on TV

Web 2.0: Flickr on TV

UGC: crossovers to traditional channels
Web 1.0: Email on TV

Web 2.0: Flickr on TV

How about interactive TV?

The End
Harry van Vliet Professor New Media Business Models and Policy University of Professional Education Utrecht harry.vanvliet@hu.nl