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**1. An adsorption study was conducted by adding varying amounts of activated carbon to a series
**

of seven flasks containing 500mL of feed water used in soft drink preparation having an initial TOC

of 2.0mg/L. The flasks were agitated for 14h, and the residual, steady-state TOC concentrations

were determined. Plot the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for the data presented below and

determine the values of the appropriate constants. Only hand in one of the isotherms.

Flask No.

Carbon Dosage (mg)

Final TOC (mg/L)

1

0

2.0

2

4.4

1.7

3

9.7

1.4

4

14

1.2

5

28

1.0

6

56

0.9

7

140

0.8

(Tip: Find the non-adsorbable fraction of the TOC. As this does not participate in any way to the

adsorption, its value should be disregarded, i.e. subtracted from the TOC to leave an adsorbable

dissolved organic carbon, ADOC, which may then fit the adsorption models better.)

Solution

Langmuir isotherm

1. Calculate the values of x and x/m from the data, e.g. for flask 1:

x 1.27 mg / L 0.97mg / L

250mL

0.15mg

1000mL / L

**Assume the non-absorbable TOC is 0.73 mg/L (from a linear extrapolation)
**

x

0.15mg

0.034mg / mg

m

4.4mg

Mass of

Carb

Initial ATOC Final ATOC Adsorbate

Flask No. on Dosage

(mg/L) (mg/L) (C) Adsorbed

(mg)

(mg) (x)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

4.4

9.7

14

28

56

140

1.27

1.27

1.27

1.27

1.27

1.27

1.27

1.27

0.97

0.67

0.47

0.27

0.17

0.07

0.00

0.15

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.55

0.60

x/m

(mg/mg)

0.000

0.034

0.031

0.029

0.018

0.010

0.004

1/C

1

x/m

1.031

1.493

2.128

3.704

5.882

14.286

29.333

32.333

35.000

56.000

101.818

233.333

1

2. Plot values of 1/C vs. x m as shown in Figure 2.

1

84 6. Also. b) If instead of a single dosage. The Langmuir equation is 1 1 1 15. physically speaking..02 .8 as we have not applied such a huge dosage yet. a) If the limiting concentration of phenol is set at 0. and larger dosages would result in a TOC < 0. The Freundlich isotherm can be accepted to represent equilibrium concentrations of phenol in the g/L concentration range and x/m represents g phenol/mg C.17 Read value of intercept 4.8. first to achieve a concentration of 3g/L and then in a second tank to the final requirement. a 0. the carbon was dosed twice. If you choose 0.2g/L and the source contains 30g/L. 1 6. b 0. the graph will move horizontally between the two first (left) two points. it should be a bit lower than 0. how much carbon will be required? c) How could we minimize carbon requirements over two dosages? d) Qualitatively consider the effect of even more tanks and possibilities of reusing the carbon from tank to tank.17 b 1 1 1 15. 2 .38 Slope ab 15.8. The isotherm may be extrapolated.84 . calculate the required dosage of powdered activated carbon.84b 15.3. 2.8.84 0.02 x m b abC C Figure 1 Plot of Langmuir isotherm Note: The non-adsorbable value should be a bit lower than 0. Determine the values of the constants a and b.

4 mgC+147. You can see that the PAC from the last step above would have much adsorption capacity left when reused in the first tank.2 g/L. If the carbon from the last step is recycled towards the first tank. a concentration of the effluent of phenol from the first activated carbon dosage must be determined.8g 0.089.019.019 gphenol / mgC m 303.4 mgC = 450.2 g / L) 1L 2. x/m = 0. the adsorption capacity of carbon can be maximized and minimize the carbon requirement even further.019 gphenol / mgC m 147. write and equation of C as a function of PAC dose. assuming 1L phenol solution: (30 g / L 0. If this concentration is too close to the initial phenol concentration. the dosage used in the second step will be decreased while that used in the first step will be increased. differentiate and solve when = 0.4mgC m(mg ) 0.8 mgC c) In order to minimize the carbon usage over two dosages. d) The total dosage needed will decrease with an increase of tanks. when c = 0. x/m = 0. x/m = 0. countercurrent to the water flow.2 g / L) 1L 29.019 gphenol / mgC So.8g 0. when c = 3 g/L. when c = 0. assuming 1L phenol solution: (3g / L 0.4mgC m( mg ) 0. the total carbon required is: 303.Figure: Freundlich isotherm for Problem 2 Solution a) According to the graph. assuming 1L phenol solution: (30g / L 3g / L) 1L 27 g 0.019. and vice versa.2 g/L.089 gphenol / mgC According to the graph. 3 .019 gphenol / mgC m 1568mgC m(mg ) 0.019 gphenol / mgC b) According to the graph. More elegantly. PAC dosages of about 160 mg/L each will represent the lowest dosage for a two-step process.

Note: The loading rate on pilot scale was low.37 m / h b) The residence time t = c) Assume the fractional void volumes for granular carbon columns is 0.00785 = 0.12 bed volumes/h d) Q 0.40 to 0. Calculate the following: a. The volumetric flow rate. We might want to work at 10-20 m/h. b.27 m2.37m / h A 0.00785m 2 Volume of GAC = 3m x 0.5 (normally range from 0. Vb. Calculate the required height of the columns allowing for sufficient backwash space.37 = 3.471 9.55) Volumetric flow rate = 1/residence time = 1/0.5ML / d 0. Solution a) 10cm 10 2 m / cm 2 The section area A = r 2 3.83m 3 / h d ML 24h The volume of the GAC in the columns has to be V Qt 20. 4 . is found to produce good results in COD removal when operated at a flow of 50L/h. You need to design a GAC system consisting of two columns in series for treating the same water at a rate of 0.e 2m diameter The height of GAC in each column has to be h V 1. The residence time. t. Practical considerations limit the diameter of the columns to 3m. in the column.00785m 2 h 3m 0. in bed volumes per hour.471 = 2. The application rate in m/h.5 ML/d.02355 m3 The application rate or approach velocity v Q 50 L / h 10 3 m 3 / L 6.25m. c. i.14 2 0. A laboratory column 10cm in diameter and 3m deep.83m 3 / h 0.5 ML m3 1d 1000 20.471h v 6.3.5m A 2 Assume backwash space 50% (typical value is 20~50%) The height for each column then has to be 2. for this residence time.82m 3 The required sectional area of the column is calculated from the approach velocity: A = 20.83/6. d.

0 mg/g Eq 14-20: Y = [(qe)0 / (C0-C1)] x ρ = 2. Water.05) x 500 kg/m3 = 20. The adsorbability of chloroform is poor compared with most other substances.669 x (100 μg/L)0. Find carbon utilization rate from 14-21: CUR = (C0 – C1)/qe0 = 0. This exceeds permissible levels and you need to check the implications of using GAC to keep this below 50 μg/L.67 Using Freundlich: (qc)0 = 0. if not a very effective one.e. following conventional treatment and chlorination.4. Estimate the bed life and carbon usage rate. Comment on the suitability of GAC for this purpose.05/2 = 0. 1/n = 0.67 = 2. There is a need to keep chloroform low.025 kg GAC/ m3 water GAC suitability Practical limitation will be competition. so GAC life may be much more limiting. but GAC can play a role. Adapting pretreatment and disinfection practices to minimize formation of chloroform is better. to keep this DBP to an acceptable level. contains 100 μg/L chloroform.0925 (mg/g) (L/μg)1/n.000 m3/m3 = bed capacity A typical bed capacity of 15 minutes would then have a life of 20.000/(24x4) = 208 days. chloroform is poorly biodegradable. 5 . Furthermore.1 -0.0925 (mg/g)(L/μg)0.0 / (0. According to Table 14-2: K = 0. i.

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