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Bengeri Sahithi
IT 3rd year
Sri Indu College of Engineering
And Technology


Images are more effective than words or

sentences. We can convey our message more
effectively and easily through images than
oral or some written documents. Images are
easy to associate and connect to other
images. Sentences and groups of words are
abstract and are not so easy to associate and
connect to other things. Hence, processing
the image is most important and crucial one
in computer science technology and has vast
What is actually Image Processing?
Image processing is a method to convert an
image into digital form and perform some
operations on it, in order to get an enhanced
image or to extract some useful information
from it. It is a type of signal dispensation in
which input is image, like video frame or
photograph and output may be image or
characteristics associated with that image
image or to extract some useful information
from it. It is a type of signal dispensation in
which input is image, like video frame or
photograph and output may be image or
characteristics associated with that image.
Why do we need Image processing?
information in the sense of its
quality, clarity etc. for human

CSE 3rd year
Sri Indu College of Engineering
And Technology

It enhances the quality of picture for better

look and understanding.
Effective storage and transmission. It
information, pictures and effective
transmission of videos, pictures on
transmission media.

Analog image processing:

Analog processing is the traditional film
processing technique which uses silver
halide X-Ray films processed after exposure
by dipping into chemical developer and fixer
solutions followed by rinsing and drying.
This is done manually in a dark room using
1. Running

(processing chemicals & films).
2. Usage of chemical disposal (i.e.
Processing chemicals can be dirty
and smelly and are toxic to the
3. More time taken to process films.
4. More space required for storing and
indexing films.
5. No
(modifications cant be made).
6. Images not easily shared.


Digital image processing is processing of
images which are digital in nature by using a
digital computer.
A digital image is composed of picture
elements (pixels) of ones and zeros.
Advantages of digital image:
1. The processing of images is faster and
more cost-effective (One needs less time for
Processing, as well as less film and other
photographing equipment).
2. It is more ecological to process images.
No processing or fixing chemicals are
needed to take and process digital images.
However, printing inks are essential when
printing digital images.
3. When shooting a digital image, one can
immediately see if the image is good or not.
4. Copying a digital image is easy, and the
quality of the image stays good.
5. The expensive reproduction (compared
with rastering the image with a repro
camera) is faster and cheaper.
6. By changing the image format and
resolution, the image can be used in a
number of media.
Image processing usually refers to digital
image processing.


The purpose of image processing is divided
into 5 groups. They are:
1. Visualization: - Observe the objects that
are not visible.
2. Image sharpening and restoration: - To
create a better image.
3. Image retrieval: - Seek for the image of
4. Measurement of pattern:Measures
various objects in an image.

5. Image Recognition: Distinguish the

objects in an image.
Image processing basically includes the
following three steps:1. Importing the image with optical scanner
or by digital photography.
2. Analyzing and manipulating the image
which includes: Image enhancement and spotting
patterns:-This is not visible to human
eyes like satellite photographs.
We employ different methods to enhance
pictorial information to have following
Noise filtering: - There would some
disturbances in the pictures or videos
which can be eliminated by filtration
which gives clear vision.
Contrast enhancement which enhances the
contrast of the image and
Deblurring which removes blurriness from
the picture
Remote sensing:
It is about aerial images which are mainly
taken by satellites. Hence, the image
processing techniques are applied to have
clear, enhanced image.
Image restoration:
It is about filtering the image to reduce the
effect of degradations.
Reducing the no. of bits to represent image.
It is required for efficient storage and
transmission which has many applications.
3. Output is the last stage in which result can
be altered image or report that is based on
image analysis.


Image processing is one of the rapidly

growing areas in Engineering. It has various
applications and some of them are:
1. As discussed above it is used to enhance
the image which improves the quality of
image and also minimize the storage bits by
compression technique.
2. Medical Imaging: The images of the
human body parts are enhanced to identify
the tumor, cancer cells etc.
Ex: a.)CT scan is used for the image of
human brain through which we can identify
the presence the tumor cells. Hence, through
the image processing, the image would be
more enhanced and would be easier to find
the tumor cells if present.
b.)Image processing is also used for
identifying the cancer cells presence in
human body.
c.)It is used for ultra-sonogram for studying
the baby's growth in the mother's womb.
3. Remote sensing: It is the process of taking
the pictures of different places on earth
which is useful in studying the particular
area's weather conditions, pollution etc.
Also with aerial images the
construction of roads, bridges etc.
can be planned.
Remote sensing is used for terrain
mapping i.e.; a hilly region pictures
can be taken by satellites for terrain
Remote sensing can be used to take
the fire accident pictures through
which we can estimate the direction
of the fire going to be so that many
lives and property can be saved.

Hurricanes, storms etc. can be

estimated by the pictures taken by
the satellites.
4. Astronomical studies: It can be used for
astronomical studies like star formation,
galaxy formation etc.
5. Machine vision Applications:
a.)Automated target detection and tracking
b.)Finger print recognition
c.)Automated inspection
Ex: bottling automation
d.)Boundary information: It contains
majority of the information of the objects.
Different algorithms are used for Image
Advancement in technology and
its emerging applications create
new opportunities and challenges
in the field of image processing.
It is our duty to identify new areas
processing can have a significant
The improvements that can be made in
image processing:
Using multiple filters so as to
improve the quality of image.
Focus on super resolution.
Secret sharing using 2D image
Some of the emerging research areas
Computational photography which is
the convergence of optics and
Enhancement of fingerprint using
digital image processing.
Real time traffic light control.

Vehicle positioning.