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Technical

Documentation
Unibar. Continuous Cast Iron Bar produced by United Cast Bar Limited
Spital Lane, Chesterfield, Derbyshire.
S41 0HS. (United Kingdom)
( +44 (0) 1246 20 11 94

+44 (0) 1246 54 04 34

www.unitedcastbar.com
e-mail: sales@unitedcastbar.com

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

1.0. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF UNIBAR PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


2.0. ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

3.0. UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.1. UNIBAR FLAKE GREY CAST IRON PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS

. . . . .13

UNIBAR-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
UNIBAR-250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
UNIBAR-300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
UNIBAR-GF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

UNIBAR-350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
UNIBAR STANDARD SIZES UNIBAR 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
STANDARD LENGTHS FOR UNIBAR SPHEROIDAL GRADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
MECHANICAL-CHARACTERISTICS, HARDNESS AND STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . .25
SURFACE HARDENING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

MACHINING ALLOWANCE ON BARS FOR FLAKE IRON BAR . . . . . . . . . . . . .28


DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCE FLAKE GREY CAST BAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

3.2. UNIBAR SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE (SG) PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS . .31


UNIBAR 400-15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

UNIBAR-500-7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

UNIBAR-600-3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

UNIBAR-700-2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

UNIBAR-ADI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
COMPARISON BETWEEN UNIBAR-ADI AND STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR-ADI OVER STEEL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

UNIBAR STANDARD SIZES. UNIBAR 500-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40


STANDARD LENGTHS FOR UNIBAR SPHEROIDAL GRADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
SURFACE HARDENINGS (SELECTIVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
MACHINING ALLOWANCE FOR SG IRON BARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCE OF SG IRON BARS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

TABLE OF CONTENTS

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS, HARDNESS AND SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE (SG)


STRUCTURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

3.3. UNIBAR NI-RESIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

4.0. UNIBAR INGOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS, HARDNESS AND STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . .54

5.0. UNIBAR MACHINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


UNIBAR TUBES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
UNIBAR TURNED

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

UNIBAR PEELED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59


UNIBAR MILLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

6.0. UNIBAR APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


7.0. UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF UNIBAR BEHAVIOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68


REFERENCE TO ASSOCIATED STANDARDS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

UNIBAR COLOUR CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70


GLOSSARY AND USEFUL FORMULAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF HARDNESS AND RESISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
CONVERSION FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
TEMPERATURES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

Basic Principle of UNIBAR


Process

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF UNIBAR PROCESS

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF UNIBAR PROCESS

1.0
4

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF UNIBAR PROCESS


The Unibar horizontal continuous casting machine consists of four major units:
1. A holding furnace with water-cooled dies.
2. A pulling unit.
3. A notching and breaking device.
4. A control panel that regulates the flow of coolant and the speed of casting,
and co-ordinates the function of the other three components of the
machine.
As can be seen from the schematic principle (Figure 1), in the closed system a watercooled die is built into the holding furnace so that the liquid metal enters the die
without coming into contact with the atmosphere. Because the bar is pulled
horizontally, the metal flows more uniformly and is always subjected to a much higher
ferrostatic pressure than in sand castings. This, combined with rapid cooling in the die,
ensures superior soundness, good surface finish and homogenous structure as well as
excellent structural cohesion throughout the section.
As a result, the outside rim (periphery) is solid the moment it leaves the die and
cooling system (which conforms the profile shape), while the core remains liquid. Due
to the fast cooling, the periphery has very fine graphite in a predominant ferritic
matrix with a high material cohesion; much higher than is obtained with sand casting,
It should be noted that the bars, particularly in larger sizes, will have some 'A' type
graphite while the outer region will have either fine dendritic or rosette type
formation.
The lack of porosity, slag and other inclusions are ensured by the Unibar process
which, together with other advantages ensures a much better fatigue strength.
The starter bars are inserted into graphite die prior to filling the holding furnace. Liquid
metal, on entering the die, freezes on the protruding bolts and is then gradually
extracted by means of standard round pulling bars connecting the starting blocks
with the drive mechanism. After the newly cast material has passed the pulling
mechanism, the pulling bars are disconnected and the material itself is notched and
broken into individual bars, which are commonly 2 - 4 metres long. The quality of the
material can be readily checked by observing fresh fractures on every length of bar
produced.

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF UNIBAR PROCESS

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

Continuous casting procces


Schematic view of concast line

Figure 1

Concast solidification model


Schematic view showing the solidification front moving forward
in the die as the bar advances again

Figure 2

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF UNIBAR PROCESS

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

Advantages of UNIBAR

T E C H N I C A L

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR

2.0
7

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR
Many of the advantages of Unibar over other materials can be attributed to the two
phases present in the structure: an iron metallic one, similar to steel, and a graphitic
phase with graphite in flake or spheroidal form.
Therefore the advantages of Unibar, as compared with other materials, are as follows:

4 COMPLETE ABSENCE OF DEFECTS


This means a reduction in total manufacturing cost, due to the elimination of
rejected parts and abortive machining. In addition, the machining tools last
longer and there is less machine maintenance required.

4 MACHINABILITY
The machinability of Unibar is high, fundamentally due to the presence of
microscopic particles of graphite in the structure, which act as a lubricant.
In addition to this, the homogeneity of its structure and the absence of the
abrasive inclusions of sand which are typical in sand casting, improve
machinability and therefore prolong the life of tools, drastically cutting your
costs.

4 ELIMINATION OF COSTLY PATTERNS


Resulting in lower overall costs and quicker delivery, when compared with
alternative casting processes.

4 LESS MACHINING ALLOWANCE


This is due to the homogeneous fine grain structure of Unibar which allows us to
produce sections with dimensions very close to the final measurements of the
part. This obviously results in a considerable saving in costs, both in terms of
material, and in terms of machining.

4 HIGH WEAR RESISTANCE


Unibar, possesses good wear resistance due to a self-lubricating network of
graphite flakes in a matrix of pearlite in the contact surface. This results in a low
wear factor, and minimal friction between contact surfaces.

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 EXCELLENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY


Generally Unibar is highly recommended for applications in which heat
dissipation is the priority, since graphite is an excellent heat conductor.

4 HOMOGENEOUS AND CLOSE GRAINED STRUCTURE


Giving excellent machinability, good wear resistance and ability to withstand
hydraulic or pneumatic pressures.

4 EXCELLENT DAMPENING CAPACITY


Unibar has excellent dampening properties, both in its laminar and its spheroidal
form since graphite acts as a cushion.

4 EXCEPTIONAL DIMENSIONAL STABILITY


Unibar has high dimensional stability due to the annealing process which
relieves the stresses inherent in the process of continuous casting.

4 HIGH FATIGUE STRENGTH


Unibar is an ideal material for those applications in which high fatigue strength
is being sought due to the absence of inclusions and blisters, as well as better
cohesion of its structure compared with traditional sand casting.

4 AVAILABILITY of a very comprehensive range of bar material stock, thus


facilitating improved stock management and control for our customers.
4 SUPERB CORROSION RESISTANCE
Unibar offers high resistance to corrosion, much better than that of steel and, in
the case of water and oil, almost as good as that of non-ferrous metals.

4 Unibar products are suited to COMPACT STORAGE, saving valuable space, in


comparison to alternative products such as sand castings.

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 LOW DENSITY
Today, the weight of the machinery and therefore of its components, is a
decisive factor, not only due to the energy saving this represents, but due to the
reduction in transport and logistic, as well as the in actual cost of the material.
The specific weight of Unibar, which is 10% less than that of steel, satisfies these
aspects without risking its physical and mechanical characteristics.

4 HEAT TREAT RESPONSE


Within its range of products Unibar offers qualities which can undergo heat
treatment, thus producing ferritic structures. This results in certain physical
properties such as better thermal conductivity or dimensional stability, in
addition to better machining.

4 EXCELLENT SURFACE FINISH


In the case of applications on-view the most suitable Unibar qualities are those
with small graphite flakes.

4 LOW RESIDUAL STRESSES


As the core of Unibar remains liquid, while the periphery is solid at the moment
the bar exits the die and cooling system. That means that, the bar undergoes a
heat treatment, intrinsic to the process, from the inside to the outside of the bar,
which releases most of the stresses in Unibar.

4 STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY comparable to that of mild and low alloy steels
(Unibar Spheroidal).
4 Excellent bearing properties, SELF-LUBRICATING and OIL RETAINING
PROPERTIES.

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR

10

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

3.0
11

UNIBAR Grades and


Structures

T E C H N I C A L

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES


The typical structure of the Unibar flake iron material consists of a fine outer rim of
undercooled graphite (predominantly ferrite matrix and random 'A' type graphite),
and a predominantly pearlite matrix in the core of the bar. By introducing suitable
inoculants and pearlite stabilizing elements, it is possible to produce an iron with a
predominantly pearlitic rim and fully pearlitic core.
Components produced from Unibar have consistent tensile strengths and the
designer can have confidence in the tensile test result, since this test has been taken
from actual product and not a separately cast test bar (which is the case with static
castings).

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

12

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR FLAKE GREY CAST IRON


PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

3.1
13

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-200
FERRITIC FLAKE CAST IRON (ANNEALED) (GJL-200 EN-1561)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

This is the least hard quality, (120-180 HB) and is therefore recommended if your
requirements are for good machinability with low requirements of tensile strength and
resistance to wear. In addition, because of its ferritic structure, it is recommended for
applications requiring good thermal conductivity. The surface finish of UNIBAR-200 is,
however, inferior to that of the other qualities, which are harder and therefore have
better structural cohesion.
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation. UNIBAR-200 quality is obtained by means of thermal


/ annealing treatment of UNIBAR-250. See the list of Standard Sizes on page 19.

UNIBAR-250
FERRITIC-PEARLITIC FLAKE CAST IRON (GJL-250 EN-1561)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

This is a quality of average hardness (180-220 HB) and is therefore recommended for
uses where a balance is required between mechanical characteristics and
machinability. It can be annealed in order to obtain the previous UNIBAR-200 quality.
See table in page 25
AVAILABILITY

Available from stock. See the list of Standard Sizes on page 19.
However, any other size not included in the list can be produced according to
minimum tonnage and after consultation.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

14

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 250 Core

UNIBAR 250 Periphery

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

15

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-300
PEARLITIC FLAKE CAST IRON (GJL-300 EN-1561)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

This is one of the hardest qualities, (200-250 HB,) and is therefore used when high
tensile strength and/or resistance to wear is required, because of its pearlitic structure.
Its surface finish is better than that of other softer qualities because of its better
structural cohesion, which allows surface hardening.
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation, taking the UNIBAR-250 sizes as a basis (see the list of
Standard Sizes on page 19). Subject to minimum order.

UNIBAR-GF
INTERDENDRITIC FERRITIC CAST IRON (SPECIAL)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

This quality is recommended for glass moulds because of its ferritic structure with fine
graphite (ID/IE). The thin film of graphite improves the surface finish, while the ferritic
matrix encourages the expulsion of heat from the mould due to its greater heat
conductivity in comparison with pearlitic casting. This quality can be offered in the
annealed condition UNIBAR-GF (100% ferritic-140/180 HB) or as- cast UNIBAR-GP
(20/30 % ferrite-160/200 HB).
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation, taking the UNIBAR-250 sizes as a basis (see the list of
Standard Sizes on page 19). Subject to minimum order.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

16

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR- G -F Mid Radius Zone

UNIBAR- G -P Mid Radius Zone

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

17

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-350
HIGH CONTENT PEARLITIC CAST IRON (SPECIAL)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

This is the hardest quality with the highest resistance (220-280 HB, depending on
dimension). Its most important quality is the fact that the structure is also pearlitic on
the outside rim (90% pearlite), and is therefore suitable for those applications in which
high resistance to wear is required in the parts close to the outside of the bar. In
addition, this quality allows surface hardening.
In particular, this quality with a high phosphorus content (0.3/0.6%) is recommended
when a higher resistance to wear is required than that provided by a fully pearlitic
structure, as is the case with valve guides, etc. In addition, the very hard UNIBAR-350
quality (HB-250/310), obtained using fine graphite (ID/IE) in the center of the bar as
well, constitutes one of the highest values in terms of cohesion and resistance.
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation, taking the UNIBAR-250 sizes as a basis (see the list of
Standard Sizes on page 19). Subject to minimum order.

UNIBAR-350 Periphery
UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

18

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR STANDARD SIZES UNIBAR 250

UNIBAR 250
Standard Optional Ingots

25 mm.
30 mm.
35 mm.
40 mm.
45 mm.
50 mm.
55 mm.
60 mm.
65 mm.
70 mm.
75 mm.
80 mm.
85 mm.
90 mm.
95 mm.
100 mm.
105 mm.
110 mm.
115 mm.
120 mm.
125 mm.
130 mm.
135 mm.
140 mm.
145 mm.
150 mm.
160 mm.
170 mm.
180 mm.
190 mm.
200 mm.
210 mm.
220 mm.
230 mm.
240 mm.
250 mm.
260 mm.
270 mm.
280 mm.
290 mm.
300 mm.
310 mm.

Rectangles

Squares

Round
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard

30 x
35 x
40 x
45 x
50 x
55 x
60 x
65 x
70 x
75 x
80 x
85 x
90 x
95 x
100 x
110 x
120 x
130 x
140 x
150 x
160 x
170 x
180 x
190 x
200 x
210 x
220 x
230 x
250 x
280 x
300 x
310 x
320 x
330 x
350 x
360 x
370 x
380 x
390 x
400 x
410 x
420 x

30 mm.
35 mm.
40 mm.
45 mm.
50 mm.
55 mm.
60 mm.
65 mm.
70 mm.
75 mm.
80 mm.
85 mm.
90 mm.
95 mm.
100 mm.
110 mm.
120 mm.
130 mm.
140 mm.
150 mm.
160 mm.
170 mm.
180 mm.
190 mm.
200 mm.
210 mm.
220 mm.
230 mm.
250 mm.
280 mm.
300 mm.
310 mm.
320 mm.
330 mm.
350 mm.
360 mm.
370 mm.
380 mm.
390 mm.
400 mm.
410 mm.
420 mm.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

Optional

Ingots

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard Optional Ingots

40 x
40 x
45 x
45 x
50 x
50 x
50 x
50 x
55 x
60 x
60 x
60 x
60 x
70 x
70 x
70 x
70 x
70 x
80 x
80 x
80 x
80 x
80 x
85 x
85 x
90 x
90 x
90 x
90 x
90 x
90 x
100 x
100 x
100 x
100 x
100 x
100 x
100 x
100 x
105 x
105 x
105 x

20 mm.
25 mm.
20 mm.
35 mm.
25 mm.
30 mm.
40 mm.
45 mm.
35 mm.
30 mm.
40 mm.
45 mm.
50 mm.
30 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
55 mm.
60 mm.
30 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
70 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
40 mm.
45 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
70 mm.
80 mm.
30 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
65 mm.
70 mm.
80 mm.
90 mm.
30 mm.
35 mm.
40 mm.

600x500

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

19

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 250
Standard Optional Ingots

320 mm.
330 mm.
340 mm.
350 mm.
360 mm.
370 mm.
380 mm.
390 mm.
400 mm.
420 mm.
430 mm.
440 mm.
450 mm.
460 mm.
470 mm.
480 mm.
490 mm.
500 mm.
510 mm.
520 mm.
530 mm.
540 mm.
550 mm.
560 mm.
570 mm.
580 mm.
590 mm.
600 mm.
610 mm.
620 mm.
630 mm.
640 mm.
650 mm.

Rectangles

Squares

Round
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard

430 x
440 x
450 x
460 x
470 x
480 x
490 x
500 x
510 x
520 x
530 x
540 x
550 x

430 mm.
440 mm.
450 mm.
460 mm.
470 mm.
480 mm.
490 mm.
500 mm.
510 mm.
520 mm.
530 mm.
540 mm.
550 mm.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

Optional

Ingots

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard Optional Ingots

105 x
110 x
110 x
110 x
110 x
110 x
110 x
110 x
110 x
115 x
120 x
120 x
120 x
120 x
120 x
120 x
120 x
125 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
130 x
140 x
140 x
140 x
145 x
150 x
150 x
150 x
160 x
160 x
160 x
160 x
165 x
170 x
170 x
170 x

90 mm.
30 mm.
35 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
70 mm.
90 mm.
80 mm.
55 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
70 mm.
80 mm.
90 mm.
100 mm.
85 mm.
40 mm.
50 mm.
55 mm.
60 mm.
70 mm.
80 mm.
90 mm.
100 mm.
110 mm.
70 mm.
80 mm.
90 mm.
75 mm.
90 mm.
100 mm.
110 mm.
40 mm.
65 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
135 mm.
110 mm.
120 mm.
150 mm.

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

20

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 250
Rectangles
Standar

180 x
180 x
185 x
180 x
190 x
200 x
200 x
200 x
200 x
205 x
210 x
210 x
210 x
215 x
220 x
220 x
220 x
230 x
230 x
245 x
260 x
290 x
300 x
300 x
320 x
320 x
320 x
350 x
360 x
380 x
400 x
400 x
400 x
400 x
400 x
400 x
420 x
420 x
430 x
430 x
470 x
490 x

100 mm.
120 mm.
165 mm.
170 mm.
145 mm.
80 mm.
90 mm.
100 mm.
150 mm.
155 mm.
100 mm.
130 mm.
160 mm.
85 mm.
70 mm.
150 mm.
170 mm.
180 mm.
185 mm.
165 mm.
120 mm.
200 mm.
70 mm.
150 mm.
60 mm.
80 mm.
220 mm.
100 mm.
65 mm.
90 mm.
60 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
120 mm.
130 mm.
180 mm.
80 mm.
120 mm.
160 mm.
330 mm.
90 mm.
245 mm.

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Optional

Ingots

Standar

490 x
520 x
520 x
520 x
520 x
520 x
520 x
520 x
620 x
620 x
620 x
620 x
620 x
620 x

295 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
120 mm.
135 mm.
330 mm.
60 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
120 mm.
270 mm.
330 mm.

x
x

x
x

Optional

Ingots

x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x
x
x

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

21

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 250

Rectangles

Standard Optional Ingots

720 x
720 x
720 x
720 x

60 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
120 mm.

Any other combination


up to 750x330mm
available depending
on enquiry
(in multiples of 10 mm)
Any other combination
up to 600x500 mm
available as INGOT
(in multiples of 10 mm)

x
x
x
x

Standard size means that it is a stockable product.


This list is also valid for quality UNIBAR 200 (UNIBAR 250 Annealed)
Other sizes, sections and specifications (UNIBAR 300 and UNIBAR 350) can be supplied on request.
These sizes are suitable for being machined down.
INGOTS are supplied PROOF MACHINED.
Unibar is constantly expanding the range of sizes. Please, do not hesitate to ask for further information.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

22

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

STANDARD LENGTHS FOR UNIBAR SPHEROIDAL GRADES

2000 mm +50/+150 mm

3000 mm +50/+150 mm

Others

Turned

Milled

Peeled

As-cast

Outside

Machined

Tubes

Outside

Ingots

Square

1000 mm -0/+50 mm

MACHINED

Round

Rectangle

Square

Round

AS-CAST

Standard Length
8 Possible as special if required both Length and Tolerance.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

23

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Unibar guarantees the characteristics particular to its various grades, with chemical
composition subject to the discretion of its Technical Department. Required variations
in mechanical or compositional characteristics must be discussed in advance, and
specified on the order.
The following table shows the chemical composition of the various Unibar flake
grades for information purposes only. The percentages of C and Si vary according to
the dimensions of the bar.

ELEMENT

Carbon

2.9 3.65

Silicon

1.8 2.9

Manganese

0.5 0.7

Sulphur

0.1 max

Phosphorus

0.3 max.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

24

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

MECHANICAL-CHARACTERISTICS, HARDNESS AND


STRUCTURE

Hardness
Range H.B.
2.5/187.5

UTS
(N/mm2) or
(Mpa) Min.-

150-210
140-200
130-190
120-190
120-190

180
155
130
115

< 25 mm
25-50 mm
50-100 mm
100-200 mm
> 200 mm

190-250
180-230
180-220
170-220
160-220

225
195
170
155

< 25 mm
25-50 mm
50-100 mm
100-200 mm
> 200 mm

210-260
200-240
200-230
190-230
190-230

250
235
210
170

40-200 mm

160-200

170

40-200 mm

140-180

160

UNIBAR 350
(Special)

UNIBAR-300

UNIBAR-250 UNIBAR-200

< 25 mm
25-50 mm
50-100 mm
100-200 mm
> 200 mm

UNIBAR GP
(Special)

Diameter or
Module of
Cooling

UNIBAR GF
(Special)

UNIBAR
Grade

The table below shows details of the expected values. It is important to note that, due
to the effect of sensitivity to the thickness of the flake cast iron, the values of these
properties reduce as the diameter or cooling modulus of the bar increases.

Matrix
Structure

Graphite
Structure

Rim.- Ferritic

Rim.- Type ID/IE

Core.- Ferritic

Core.- Type IA2/4


With IB/ID/IE
(20% maximum)

Rim.- Ferritic

Rim.- Type ID/IE

Core.- 70% Pearlite

Core.- Type IA3/5


With IB/ID/IE
(10% maximum)

Rim.- Ferritic -Pearlite.

Rim.- Type ID/IE

Core 90% Pearlite

Core.- Type IA3/5


With IB/ID/IE
(10% maximum)

30% Pearlite Max.

Graphite.- Type ID/IE

Core (Without annealing)

Rim and Core.

Total Ferrite. (Annealed) Graphite.- Type ID/IE


Rim and Core.

20-150 mm

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

210-280

210

90% Pearlite. Rim

Rim.- Type ID/IE

100% Pearlite Core.

Core.- Type IA3/5

(Possible steadite network

With IB/ID/IE

if % P>0.3 is desired).

(10% maximum)

25

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

NOTES:
1. The test specimen for tensile strength is taken from mid-radius.
2. The cooling modulus for square and rectangular bars is obtained by applying
the formula

Mod =
C=Width

2xCxc
(C+c)
c=Height

3. The Unibar flake grades have a characteristic presence of a rim with


interdendritic graphite (ID/IE) due to the subcooling inherent in the process. In
general, a ferritic structure is obtained in this rim. Nevertheless, this structure
can be pearlitic in special suitability alloyed qualities (see UNIBAR-350).

Ring
Core

4. In specific cases the EN-1563 (Spheroidal) and EN-1561 (Flake) standards


provide for casting requested in accordance with the desired HB hardness
values. In this case, these values of hardness determine grade or quality, with
the values of the mechanical characteristics (UTS, PS, EL) therefore being
provided for information only.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

26

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

SURFACE HARDENING
The UNIBAR-300 and UNIBAR-350 qualities are recommended for surface hardening
(approx. 880C.). Given its pearlitic structure in the as-cast condition, it is advisable to
test the 1st samples in order to check the values reached (40/55 HRc).
UNIBAR-350 is specially recommended for parts where high values of hardness are
required in areas close to the periphery, since this is mainly pearlitic.
The process of hardening UNIBAR-200 with a ferritic structure is not recommended.
The UNIBAR-250 pearlitic-ferritic quality allows hardening although the results will be
inferior to those obtained with UNIBAR-300 and UNIBAR-350.
Generally, the through-hardening of Unibar is not to be recommended.
In the areas of the bar close to the core it is advisable to bear in mind (especially for
large dimensions) that because of its thick graphite sheet structure, the values of
hardness reached will be lower than those obtained in the areas close to the outside
of the bar.
In general, other types of surface hardening (nitriding, sulphinizing, etc.) are perfectly
applicable as with any type of traditional Flake Cast Iron. However, the treatment
specialist will have to take into account the normal considerations, including the
following:
1. Structure and hardness of the core-periphery of the bar in the as-cast
condition;
2. Awareness of the different qualities as referred to in the case of hardening
treatment;
3. Variation in casting characteristics depending on the dimensions of the bar;
See grading of suitability for hardening in Comparative Table Of Unibar Behaviour in
page 68.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

27

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

MACHINING ALLOWANCE ON BARS FOR FLAKE IRON BAR


DIMENSION
(mm)

ROUND

SQUARE AND
RECTANGULAR

Minimum
Machining Allowance

Minimum
Machining Allowance

25-50

2 mm

2.5 mm

55-75

2 mm

3 mm

80-100

2,5 mm

4 mm

105-150

3 mm

4 mm

155-200

4 mm

5 mm

210-280

5 mm

5 mm

290-350

7.5 mm

7.5 mm

360-430

10 mm

10 mm

NOTE:
This machining allowance refers to the radius of the round bar or to each face of the
square or rectangular bar. For example, in order to obtain a 40 mm as a final
dimension, we must start with a 44 mm as a minimum. In the case of square and
rectangular sections, we have to machine a dimension 108x108 mm or over in order
to obtain a final dimension of 100x100 mm.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

28

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCE FLAKE GREY CAST BAR


DIAMETER
(mm)

TOLERANCE in comparison
with the nominal
measurement

Maximum ovality
-.

20-100

- 0 /+ 2 mm

1 mm

105-200

- 0 / + 3mm

2 mm

> 200

- 3 /+ 3 mm

4 mm

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

29

T E C H N I C A L

SQUARE

SHAPE

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

In comparison with
the nominal
measurement
SQUARE C x C
C

TOLERANCE
SQUARE
C < 100 mm

C (0, +2)

TOLERANCE
SQUARE
100 < = C-Width
<=200
C (0, +3)

TOLERANCE
SQUARE
200mm < C

C (- 3, +3)

In comparison with
TOLERANCE
TOLERANCE
TOLERANCE
the nominal
RECTANGLE
RECTANGLE
RECTANGLE
measurement
c-Height
c-Height 100 < c-Height 200mm
RATIO C / c
C-Width<100 mm = C-Width <=200
< C-Width
C- Widt...c- Height
1 < C/c < 1,5

RECTANGLE

1,5 =< C/c < 2


2 =< C/c < 3
3 =< C/c < 4
4 < C/c

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

c(0,+2)

c(0,+3)

c(0,+4)

C(0,+2)
c(0,+3)

C(0,+3)
c(0,+4)

C(-3,+3)
c(0,+5)

C(0,+2)

C(0,+3)

C(-3,+3)

c(0,+4)

c(0,+5)

c(0,+6)

C(0,+2)

C(0,+3)

C(-3,+3)

c(0,+5)

c(0,+6)

c(0,+7)

C(0,+2)

C(0,+3)

C(-3+3)

c(0,+6)

c(0,+7)

c(0,+8)

C(0,+2)

C(0,+3)

C(-3,+3)

30

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE (SG)


PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

3.2
31

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 400-15
SPHEROIDAL FERRITIC CAST IRON. (GJS -400-15 EN-1563)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Its structure is ferritic, obtained via heat treatment (190 HB max), and is therefore used
when machinability and a good surface finish are the required characteristics.
Because of its ferritic structure it is recommended for uses requiring high heat and/or
electric conductivity, as well as good magnetic permeability.
UNIBAR-400-15 possesses high ductility, as illustrated by its high percentage of
elongation. It can be manufactured with values of hardness of 180 HB as a maximum
and elongation corresponding to the standard GJS-400-18 EN-1563, with or without
impact resistance specifications, according to the order specifications.
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation. UNIBAR-400-15 quality is obtained by means of


thermal/ annealing treatment of UNIBAR-500-7. See the list of Standard Sizes on page 40

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

32

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-500-7
SPHEROIDAL PEARLITIC-FERRITIC CAST IRON. (GJS -500-7 EN-1563)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

UNIBAR-500-7 (180-230 HB) has a better resistance to wear than UNIBAR-400-15


because of its pearlitic-ferritic structure, and is therefore recommended for
applications in which good machinability and surface finish are required, as well as
minimal friction with other parts and/or materials.
The values of hardness vary according to the dimensions of the bar, producing a
maximum of 220-210-200-190 HB (for pearlitic structures of 15/20%). This means that
UNIBAR-500-7 also complies with the mechanical characteristics required and the
values of hardness, from qualities of UNIBAR-400-15(GJS-400-15) and UNIBAR-5007(GJS-500-7), as demonstrated in the table, "Mechanical Characteristics, Hardness
and Spheroidal Graphite (SG)", on page 48".
Subject to special order specifications certain dimensions can be supplied with
maximum hardness of 190 HB, it being necessary to anneal smaller dimensions
(UNIBAR-400-15) in order to reach this hardness; and given that, due to its partially
pearlitic structure (20%), the maximum hardness can reach 220/230 HB.
AVAILABILITY

Available from stock. See list of Standard Sizes on page 40.


However, any other size not included in the list can be produced according to
minimum tonnage and after consultation.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

33

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-500-7 Core 20% Pearlite. HB>200

UNIBAR-500-7 Core 10% Pearlite. HB<200

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

34

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-600-3
SPHEROIDAL PERLITIC CAST IRON (GJS -600-3 EN-1563)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

UNIBAR-600-3 has a structure that is predominantly pearlitic (>50%) in the core, which
makes it specially recommended for applications requiring high resistance to wear
and maximum strength.
The average hardness values fall within the range HB-200-260.
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation, taking the UNIBAR-500-7 sizes as a basis (see list of
Standard Sizes on page 40).
Subject to minimum order.

UNIBAR-700-2
SPHEROIDAL PEARLITIC CAST IRON (GJS -700-2 EN-1563)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

UNIBAR-700-2 possesses a pearlitic structure, including the periphery, with


percentages of 20-30% of ferrite in the core. Resistance to wear, tensile stress and
elastic limit have maximum values corresponding to hardness 230-290 HB.
AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation, taking the UNIBAR-500-7 sizes as a basis (see the list
of Standard Sizes on page 40).
Subject to minimum order.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

35

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR-ADI
(AUSTEMPERING DUCTILE IRON)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

UNIBAR-ADI is an austempered material (isothermic transformation of the austenite),


a process that produces a bainitic structure. Therefore UNIBAR-600-3 is alloyed with
elements such as Molybdenum, Nickel and Copper. This type of structure increases
the strength and particularly the elastic limit, producing a higher resistance to
deformation. These values can equal or even exceed those of some steel alloys.
UNIBAR-ADI is manufactured subject to consultation, since it is not a standard item.
Among the advantages of UNIBAR-ADI, are the following:

4 The ability to utilise dimensions very close to the finished size prior to the
austempering treatment, thus allowing better dimensional stability in comparison
with steels. Through hardening is required to produce similar properties in steels with
the attendant risk of distortion.
4 Ease of machining, similar to UNIBAR-600-3, in comparison with various steels, due
to the lubricating effect of the graphite. The hardness values prior to the
austempering treatment vary between 220-280 HB;
4 UNIBAR-600-3 can also be pre-annealed in order to get a better machinability prior
to the austempering process.
4 Vibration damping higher than that of steel;
4 Good ratio of ductility to strength with high values of elastic limit:

From

850MPa(UTS)

To

1400Mpa(UTS)

550Mpa
(PS-0.2%)
1100Mpa
(PS-0.2%)

10%(El)
1%(El)

AVAILABILITY

Available subject to consultation, taking the UNIBAR-500-7 measurements as a basis


(see the list of Standard Sizes on page 40). Subject to minimum order.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

36

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

COMPARISON BETWEEN UNIBAR-ADI AND STEEL


Below are some details of the points that must be taken into account when
considering replacing steel-made applications with UNIBAR-ADI
1. In the first instance, specify the type of steel that is being used for a given
application. That is, we must determine whether this is forged or cast steel, normal
steel (F-114/F-115, etc.), or special high resistance steel (F-133/F125. etc.).
2. Determine whether this steel is machined directly, going on to be used in a
standard way, namely, without hardening and tempering, or whether it is treated
steel. In addition, it is advisable to know whether the steel machining takes place
before or after the heat treatment operation, or if a mixed option is chosen which
means that certain parts are machined before treatment, followed by minor
modifications in dimensions at a later date.
3. Check the required performances on the finished part:

4 Is High Impact Resistance or the elastic limit the most important


characteristic?
4 Have the design parameters been oversized so that the Mechanical
Characteristics of the material can guarantee the satisfaction of service
requirements?
4 Is it possible to study alternatives in order to reduce costs by means of
greater accuracy in fixing the parameters of the design (for example,
weight of the part)?
4. When establishing a comparison of costs for machining, it is essential to know
whether the machining refers to the steel before or after treatment, especially in
the case of a forged profile, or a part made of cast steel.
5. It is important to remember that the range of defects (holes, scouring, drawing,
etc.) of the steel (especially the cast steel) is higher than that for the Unibar casting
process.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

37

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

ADVANTAGES OF UNIBAR-ADI OVER STEEL


4 Compared with the types of steel most commonly used on the market, such as F114 and F-115 (hard or semi-hard steel without treatment), UNIBAR-500-7 has an
equivalent or higher elastic limit (>450MPa) with similar values of hardness (HB200230), as well as better machinability. UNIBAR-400-15, (with elastic limit >250Mpa,)
may be used as an alternative to standard steels with lower hardness values such
as F-112 or F-111.
4 If the standard steel (F-114/F-115, etc.) is hardened and tempered, the values of
tensile strength and yield strength rise. This also occurs in the Unibar spheroidal
grades, although our recommendation is for surface hardening and not through
hardening.
4 In the field of alloy steels, comparison can be made with UNIBAR-ADI due to its
bainitic structure (the austempering treatment must be carried out once the part
concerned has been machined). This type of structure gives UNIBAR-ADI values of
elastic limit higher than those of certain alloy steels, while offering better machining
performance.
4 UNIBAR-ADI with hardnesses of 200/250 HB before austempering treatment, offers
machining similar to that of UNIBAR-600-3. In addition, its dimensional stability which
is higher than that of steel, means that the dimensions obtained prior to
austempering can virtually be the final dimensions.
4 In general, steel exceeds the ductility and tenacity (impact resistance) of the
Unibar Spheroidal grades. However, as these properties are rarely necessary, the
use of UNIBAR-ADI offers clear advantages in comparison with steel, as has been
explained above.
4 Given that, independent of the material used, the majority of parts must retain their
shape during use, however demanding this may be, the capacity of the material
to be plastically deformed without breaking (ductility) is considered a safety
measure. Nevertheless, in applications such as gearing, breakage can be a fail
safe mechanism.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

38

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 In general, the most valuable property in the majority of designs is tensile strength,
not ductility. Most technical calculations are therefore based on the elastic limit,
increased by a safety factor, and not on tensile strength. This is why using Unibar
Spheroidal Graphite bar offers clear advantages over steel.

UTS (Mpa)

O.2%PS
(Mpa)

%
Elongation

H.B.

400-800

250-500

22-2

140-300

Hardened and Tempered

Up to 1200

Up to 900

2-1

Up to 550

A.D.I.

800-1600

600-1400

10-1

260-480

Austenitic

370-450

190-210

6-20

120-210

Standard Carbon Steel


Hardened and Tempered Steel
(including alloy)

400-750

450-250

25-11

130-220

650-1800

450-1400

15-5

200-500

Ferritic-Pearlitic

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

39

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR STANDARD SIZES. UNIBAR 500-7

UNIBAR 500-7
Standard Optional Ingots

30 mm.
35 mm.
40 mm.
45 mm.
50 mm.
55 mm.
60 mm.
65 mm.
70 mm.
75 mm.
80 mm.
85 mm.
90 mm.
95 mm.
100 mm.
105 mm.
110 mm.
115 mm.
120 mm.
125 mm.
130 mm.
135 mm.
140 mm.
145 mm.
150 mm.
155 mm.
160 mm.
165 mm.
170 mm.
180 mm.
190 mm.
200 mm.
210 mm.
220 mm.
230 mm.
240 mm.
250 mm.
260 mm.
270 mm.
280 mm.
290 mm.

Rectangles

Squares

Round
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard

40 x
50 x
60 x
70 x
75 x
80 x
85 x
90 x
95 x
100 x
105 x
110 x
115 x
120 x
130 x
135 x
140 x
150 x
155 x
160 x
165 x
170 x
180 x
190 x
200 x
210 x
220 x
230 x
240 x
250 x
260 x
270 x
280 x
290 x
300 x
310 x
320 x
330 x
340 x
350 x
360 x

40 mm.
50 mm.
60 mm.
70 mm.
75 mm.
80 mm.
85 mm.
90 mm.
95 mm.
100 mm.
105 mm.
110 mm.
115 mm.
120 mm.
130 mm.
135 mm.
140 mm.
150 mm.
155 mm.
160 mm.
165 mm.
170 mm.
180 mm.
190 mm.
200 mm.
210 mm.
220 mm.
230 mm.
240 mm.
250 mm.
260 mm.
270 mm.
280 mm.
290 mm.
300 mm.
310 mm.
320 mm.
330 mm.
340 mm.
350 mm.
360 mm.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

Optional

Ingots

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x

Standard Optional Ingots

50 x 45 mm.
65 x 35 mm.
65 x 50 mm.
70 x 40 mm.
70 x 50 mm.
70 x 60 mm.
80 x 60 mm.
82 x 69 mm.
85 x 30 mm.
85 x 55 mm.
88 x 82 mm.
90 x 55 mm.
90 x 60 mm.
90 x 65 mm.
95 x 75 mm.
100 x 50 mm.
100 x 70 mm.
100 x 80 mm.
110 x 55 mm.
110 x 62 mm.
110 x 70 mm.
110 x 85 mm.
120 x 50 mm.
120 x 70 mm.
120 x 90 mm.
120 x 95 mm.
120 x 100 mm.
125 x 95 mm.
125 x 105 mm.
130 x 55 mm.
130 x 65 mm.
130 x 90 mm.
130 x 100 mm.
130 x 110 mm.
135 x 85 mm.
135 x 95 mm.
140 x 90 mm.
140 x 110 mm.
140 x 125 mm.
145 x 75 mm.
145 x 105 mm.

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

40

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 500-7
Standard Optional Ingots

300 mm.
310 mm.
320 mm.
330 mm.
340 mm.
350 mm.
360 mm.
370 mm.
380 mm.
390 mm.
400 mm.
410 mm.
420 mm.
430 mm.
440 mm.
450 mm.
460 mm.
470 mm.
480 mm.
490 mm.
500 mm.
510 mm.
520 mm.
530 mm.
540 mm.
550 mm.
560 mm.
570 mm.
580 mm.
590 mm.
600 mm.
610 mm.
620 mm.
630 mm.
640 mm.
650 mm.

Rectangles

Squares

Round
x
x

x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard

370 x 370 mm.


380 x 380 mm.
390 x 390 mm.
400 x 400 mm.
410 x 410 mm.
420 x 420 mm.
430 x 430 mm.
440 x 440 mm.
450 x 450 mm.
460 x 460 mm.
470 x 470 mm.
480 x 480 mm.
490 x 490 mm.
500 x 500 mm.
510 x 510 mm.
520 x 520 mm.
530 x 530 mm.
540 x 540 mm.
550 x 550 mm.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

Optional

Ingots

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Standard Optional Ingots

150 x
150 x
150 x
160 x
160 x
165 x
165 x
168 x
175 x
175 x
175 x
180 x
185 x
190 x
190 x
200 x
205 x
208 x
210 x
220 x
235 x
230 x
235 x
235 x
240 x
245 x
245 x
250 x
250 x
255 x
260 x
320 x
320 x
320 x
320 x
380 x
400 x
400 x
400 x
420 x
420 x
420 x
430 x

85 mm.
100 mm.
140 mm.
110 mm.
130 mm.
90 mm.
145 mm.
60 mm.
110 mm.
135 mm.
145 mm.
130 mm.
125 mm.
130 mm.
170 mm.
140 mm.
100 mm.
184 mm.
160 mm.
120 mm.
80 mm.
180 mm.
185 mm.
230 mm.
190 mm.
155 mm.
195 mm.
85 mm.
245 mm.
185 mm.
200 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
120 mm.
220 mm.
90 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
180 mm.
80 mm.
100 mm.
120 mm.
330 mm.

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x

41

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR 500-7

Rectangles

Squares

Round
Standar Optional Ingots

Standar

Optional

Ingots

Standar Optional Ingots

Any other combination


up to 750x330mm
available depending
on enquiry
(in multiples of 10 mm)

Any other combination


up to 600x500 mm
available as INGOT

Standard size means that it is a stockable product.


This list is also valid for quality UNIBAR 400-15 (UNIBAR 500-7 Annealed)
Other sizes, sections and specifications (UNIBAR 600-3 and UNIBAR 700-2) can be supplied on request.
These sizes are suitable for being machined down.
INGOTS are supplied PROOF MACHINED.
Unibar is constantly expanding the range of sizes. Please, do not hesitate to ask for further information.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

42

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

STANDARD LENGTHS FOR UNIBAR SPHEROIDAL GRADES

2000 mm +50/+150 mm

3000 mm +50/+150 mm

Others

Turned

Milled

Peeled

As-cast

Outside

Machined

Tubes

Outside

Ingots

Square

1000 mm -0/+50 mm

MACHINED

Round

Rectangle

Square

Round

AS-CAST

Standard Length
8 Possible as special if required both Length and Tolerance.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

43

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

SURFACE HARDENINGS (SELECTIVE)


The UNIBAR-600-3 and UNIBAR-700-2 grades are recommended for surface
hardening treatments, and especially UNIBAR-700-2 if high post-treatment hardness
values are required in areas close to the outside of the bar. In the areas close to the
core, lower values may be obtained because of the larger size of the nodules.
Likewise other surface hardening processes are possible, which are normally used in
spheroidal cast iron, such as nitriding, etc. It is advisable for the treatment specialist
to be aware of the characteristics of the material in terms of its chemical
composition, hardness and core-peripheral structure.

MACHINING ALLOWANCE FOR SG IRON BARS


DIMENSION
(mm)

ROUND

SQUARE AND
RECTANGULAR

Minimum
Machining Allowance

Minimum
Machining Allowance

25-50

2 mm

55-75

2.5 mm

3 mm

80-100

3 mm

4 mm

105-150

4 mm

5 mm

155-200

5 mm

6 mm

210-280

6 mm

7 mm

290-350

8 mm

9 mm

360-430

10 mm

12 mm

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

2.5 mm

44

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

NOTE:
This machining allowance refers to the radius of the round bar or to each face of the
square or rectangular bar. For example, in order to obtain a 40 mm as a final
dimension, we must start with a 44 mm as a minimum. In the case of square and
rectangular sections, we have to machine a dimension 108x108 mm or over in order
to obtain a final dimension of 100x100 mm.

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCE OF SG IRON BARS


DIAMETER
(mm)

TOLERANCE in
comparison with
the nominal measurement

Maximum Ovality
-

20-100

- 0.5 / +2 mm

2 mm

105-200

- 0.5 / +3 mm

3 mm

> 200

- 3/ +3 mm

4 mm

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

45

T E C H N I C A L

SQUARE

SHAPE

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

In comparison with
the nominal
measurement
SQUARE C x C

TOLERANCE
SQUARE
C < 100 mm

TOLERANCE
SQUARE
100 < = C-Width
<=200

TOLERANCE
SQUARE
200mm < C

C-

C(- 0.5,+2)

C(- 0.5,+3)

C(- 3,+3)

In comparison with
TOLERANCE
TOLERANCE
TOLERANCE
the nominal
RECTANGLE
RECTANGLE
RECTANGLE
measurement
c-Height
c-Height 100 <
c-Height 200mm
RATIO C / c
C-Width<100 mm = C-Width <=200
< C-Width
C- Widt...c- Height
1 < C/c < 1,5

RECTANGLE

1,5 =< C/c < 2


2 =< C/c < 3
3 =< C/c < 4
4 < C/c

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

c(0,+2)

c(0,+3)

c(0,+4)

C( - 0.5,+2)

C(- 0.5,+3)

C( - 3,+3)

c(0,+3)

c(0,+4)

c(0,+5)

C( - 0.5,+2)

C(- 0.5,+3)

C( - 3,+3)

c(0,+4)

c(0,+5)

c(0,+6)

C( - 0.5,+2)
c(0,+5)

C(- 0.5,+3)
c(0,+6)

C( - 3,+3)
c(0,+7)

C( - 0.5,+2)

C(- 0.5,+3)

C( - 3,+3)

c(0,+6)

c(0,+7)

c(0,+8)

C( - 0.5,+2)

C(- 0.5,+3)

C( - 3,+3)

46

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Unibar guarantees the physical characteristics particular to its various grades, with
the chemical composition subject to the discretion of its Technical Department.
Required variations to the mechanical or compositional characteristics must be
discussed in advance and specified on the order (for example, percentage of
elements which influence austempering for Unibar-ADI).
The following table shows the chemical composition of the various Unibar spheroidal
grades for information purposes only. The percentages of C and Si vary according to
the dimensions of the bar.

ELEMENT

Carbon

3.4 - 3.85

Silicon

2.3 - 3.1

Manganese

0.1 - 0.3

Sulphur
Phosphorus

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

0.020 max.
0.1 max.

47

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS, HARDNESS AND


SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE (SG) STRUCTURE.
UNIBAR
GRADE

DIAMETER
COOLING
MODULUS

HARDNESS
RANGE H.B.
2.5/187.5

0.2 % PS
UTS
%
(N/mm2) or (N/mm2) or
PEARLITE
(Mpa) -Min.- (Mpa) -Min.-

UNIBAR 400-15

< 50 mm
> 50 mm

190 MAX
180 MAX

10 MAX
10 MAX

250
240

390
370

15
12

UNIBAR 500-7

< 50 mm
> 50 mm

180-230

15-50

300
290

450
420

7
5

UNIBAR 600-3

< 50 mm
> 50 mm

200-260

50-80

360
340

600
550

3
1

UNIBAR 700-2

< 50 mm
> 50 mm

230-290

70-100

400
380

700
660

2
1

% TEL
-Min.-

The table above shows details of the minimum values.

NOTE:
1 UNIBAR-400-15 can be supplied, subject to consultation, with specific values
relating to elongation and/or minimum impact resistance, as well as maximum
values of hardness (according to dimensions).
2 UNIBAR-500-7 can be supplied, subject to consultation, with specific maximum
values of hardness and percentage of pearlite (depending on dimensions). The
EN-1563 (Spheroidal) and EN-1561 (Laminar) standards provide for casting requests
in accordance with specific HB hardness values. In this case, these values will
determine the Unibar grade, while the mechanical characteristics (UTS, PS, EL) will
be provided for information only.
3 Spheroidal Unibar has a rim on the periphery with approximately 200/250
nod/mm2. The structure is predominantly ferritic in the grades UNIBAR-400-15 and
UNIBAR-500-7 and predominantly pearlitic in UNIBAR-600-3 and UNIBAR-700-2. With
regard to the core, the number of nodules is approximately 80/150 nod/mm2,
depending on the dimensions involved.
4 The graphite comes in forms V and VI (EN ISO 945), or Types I and II (ASTM A-247).
5. UNIBAR-500-7, 600-3 and 700-2 can have a maximum percentage of 5% Fe3C in a
form dispersed in the outside rim.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

48

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR NI-RESIST

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

3.3
49

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR NI-RESIST
UNIBAR-NR-F (FLAKE GRAPHITE) AND UNIBAR-NR- S (SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

UNIBAR Ni-Resist is characterised by having an austenitic structured matrix produced


by means of alloying with Ni, in the presence of carbides. UNIBAR Ni-Resist offers
excellent resistance to heat, corrosion and wear, without being magnetic. In
addition, it has high values of resistance to wear without this affecting machinability.
It is non-magnetic at any temperature, making it especially suitable for electrical
applications and navigational components.
UNIBAR Ni-Resist guarantees dimensional stability since austenite is a stable phase
even at high temperatures.
The more common applications however are corrosion-resisting parts particularly in
seawater, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and petroleum refining. Heat-resistance
is another area where Ni-Resist is commonly used (furnace parts etc.). A recent
application, which combines both these properties, is in an exhaust brake for
commercial vehicles. It possesses the same coefficient of expansion as aluminium,
making it suitable for wear- resisting inserts in aluminium components such as valve
guides in cylinder heads and ring carriers in aluminium pistons.
As with the Unibar pearlitic-ferritic grades, graphite can be offered in this austenitic
casting in laminar (ASTM A-436) or spheroidal (ASTM A-439) form. For particular uses
requiring higher mechanical characteristics, spheroidal austenitic casting is
advisable. The compositional properties of both types of Ni-Resist are detailed in the
following table:

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

50

T E C H N I C A L

Chemical
Composition

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR NR-F

ASTM A436
Type 1

UNIBAR NR-N

ASTM A439
Type D2

% Carbon

3.00 Max

3,0 Max

3.00 Max

3,00 Max

% Silicon

1,5 2,8

1,00 - 2,8

1.5 - 3.0

1,5 - 3,0

% Manganese

0,5 - 1.5

0,5 - 1,5

0.5 - 1.5

0,7 - 1,25

0.08 Max

0,08 Max

% Phosphorus
% Nickel

13.5 - 17.5

13,5 - 17,5

18,00 22,00

18,00 - 22,00

% Copper

5.5 - 7.5

5,5/7,5

0,5 Max.

N/A

1.00 - 2.50

1,00 - 2,50

1.00 - 2.50

1,75 - 2,75

% Chromium

0,12 Max

% Sulphur

Mechanical
Characteristics
N/A

N/A

30.5(210)

30 (207) Min

UTS-ksi (Mpa)

24,6/170 Min.

25/172 Min

53,7(370)

58 (400) Min

% Elongation

N/A

N/A

7 Min.

8 Min

140 - 202

131 - 183

140 - 200

139 - 202

0.2%PS-ksi(Mpa)

Brinell Hardness

AVAILABILITY

UNIBAR Ni-Resist is not a grade that is normally held on stock; its availability is subject
to consultation.

UNIBAR GRADES AND STRUCTURES

51

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR INGOTS

4.0
52

UNIBAR Ingots

UNIBAR INGOTS

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR INGOTS
Unibar ingots are ideal for cross-sections greater than those obtained by the standard
Unibar horizontal casting process. All Unibar Ingots are produced in permanent
mould and are proof machined.
Standard sizes are included in the tables of Unibar Turned and Unibar Milled.

Typical Chemical Composition (wt%)


Grade
FLAKE

SPHEROIDAL

Si

Mn

Unibar 250

3.05/3.15

2.35/2.45

0.50/0.80

0.05/0.08

0.2 Max

Unibar 300

3.05/3.15

2.35/2.45

0.50/0.80

0.05/0.08

0.2 Max

Unibar 400-15

3.35/3.50

2.40/2.60

0.25 Max

0.02 Max

0.05 Max

Unibar 500-7

3.35/3.50

2.40/2.60

0.25 Max

0.02 Max

0.05 Max

0.25/0.30

0.045/0.065

Unibar 600-3

3.35/3.50

2.40/2.60

0.25 Max

0.02 Max

0.05 Max

0.55/0.65

0.045/0.065

Unibar 700-2

3.35/3.50

2.40/2.60

0.25 Max

0.02 Max

0.05 Max

0.80/0.95

0.045/0.065

UNIBAR INGOTS

Cu

Mg

0.8/1.1
0.045/0.065

53

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS,HARDNESS AND STRUCTURE


Typical
Values

Microstructure
Pearlite Ferrite

Carbide

(HB)

0.2%PS

UTS

%EL

FLAKE

Graphite

Unibar 250

Type I-A3/A4

80%Min

20%Max

5% Max (Ring)

160/220

Unibar 300

Type I-A3/A4

95%Min

5%Max

5% Max (Ring)

190/240

SPHEROIDAL

Grade

Hardness Mechanical Properties (Mpa) **

Unibar 400-15

>80% Type V or VI

20% Max

80% Min

5% Max (Ring)

190 Max

250 Min

400 Min

15 Min

Unibar 500-7

>80% Type V or VI

15-60%

85-40%

5% Max (Ring)

180/230

320 Min

500 Min

7 Min

Unibar 600-3

>80% Type V or VI

50-90%

50-10%

5% Max (Ring)

200/260

370 Min

600 Min

3 Min

Unibar 700-2

>80% Type V or VI

60-100%

40-0%

5% Max (Ring)

220/280

420 Min

700 Min

2 Min

NOTE: **Tensile properties from separately cast test bars

UNIBAR INGOTS

54

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR MACHINING

5.0
55

UNIBAR Machining

UNIBAR MACHINING

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR MACHINING
So that our customers can maximize the use of their precision machining centres
(which are costly to run) to produce their more complex parts, we make available all
Unibar Production Centres with machining facilities. Less complicated operations, or
the prior work of proof machining, can be carried out, thus lowering the overall cost
of production.
In addition to the clear reduction in pre-machining costs due to using less costly
machinery in this operation, machined Unibar products allow our customers to
increase their production capacity by subcontracting part of their machining process
to Unibar, thus allowing them to meet peaks in demand which they would not
otherwise be able to satisfy.
This also means that our customers can concentrate their investments on more
complex and up-to-date machinery, which will allow them to maintain and improve
their competitive position in an environment subject to continual change.

UNIBAR MACHINING

56

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR TUBES
Unibar tubes can be supplied with the exterior surface as-cast or machined. These
two variants are complemented by a wide selection of internal measurements, which
currently range from 30 to 250 mm. However, since Unibar's range of dimensions is
increasing daily, new internal and external measurements are continually being
incorporated into the Unibar production schedule.
Unibar Tubes are especially suitable for applications such as:

Rings

Segments

Cylinder end caps

Spacers

Pulleys

Note: Other sizes, lengths and tolerances also available after consultation.
The expected mechanical characteristics in Unibar Tubes are those which
correspond to the solid bar (External ) and not to the thickness of the tube.

Unibar
Type

Concast

Ingot

Outside
Inside
Diameter Diameter

From
50 mm to
500 mm

From
510 mm to
715 mm

UNIBAR MACHINING

From
20 mm to
100 mm
From
110 mm to
250 mm
From
110 mm to
250 mm

Tool
Increments

5 mm

Outside
Tolerance

+0 / +2 mm
for Outside
Proof-Machined

10 mm

10 mm

Inside
Tolerance

+0 / -2 mm

Length

1000 mm
-0 / +50 mm

+0 / -3 mm
-0 / 2 mm
for Outside
Proof-Machined

+0 / -3 mm

1000 mm
-0 / +50 mm

57

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR TURNED
Unibar Turned can avoid the machining operations prior to grinding as they are
supplied with a machining allowance close to the final measurement required by our
customers. In this way, our customers only have to carry out the final grinding in order
to achieve the desired measurements. Unibar Turned therefore comes with a
standard tolerance of +1mm, although after consultation we can offer alternatives to
suit all of our customers' requirements.
Following are the most common applications of Unibar Turned:

Pistons

Pulleys

Valve guides

Unibar Type

Outside

Tolerance

Length

Concast

From 50 mm to
500 mm

-0 / +2 mm for
Outside Proof-Machined

3.000 mm -50 / +150 mm

-0 / +5 mm for
Outside Proof-Machined

1.000 mm -0 / +30 mm

Ingot

From

510 mm to
715 mm

Note: Other measurements, lengths and tolerances available after consultation.

UNIBAR MACHINING

58

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR PEELED
In the case of machined Unibar with diameters of less than 110 mm., the alternative
to Unibar Turned is Unibar Peeled. As these are smaller dimensions, and involve a
different machining process, the tolerances offered are more precise, for example h12.
Following are the most common applications of Unibar Peeled:

Pistons

Valve guides

Corrector guides

Unibar Type

Concast

Outside

From

20 mm to
105 mm

Tolerance

h-11 Outside Proof-Machined

Length

3.000 mm 0 / +80 mm

Note: Other sizes, lengths and tolerances available after consultation. However, for
more information consult the standard Unibar length as cast on pages 19 and 40.

UNIBAR MACHINING

59

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR MILLED
In the case of Square or Rectangular Unibar, we can offer our customers two options:
milling on either 4 or 6 faces. This means that the only remaining machining
operations are the grinding and boring of the block.
In addition to this, Unibar has more than 150 different un-machined sizes permanently
in stock, allowing us to adapt to any standard hydraulic block dimension in existence
on the market. The range of dimensions that Unibar offers is increasing daily, and new
sizes are continually being incorporated into the Unibar production schedule.

Hydraulic blocks

Guides

Bases

Unibar
Type

Outside

Tolerance

Length

Concast 4
Sides Milled

From 30x30 mm
to 400x400 mm

0.2 mm

2000 to 3000 mm
-0 / +80 mm

Concast 4
Sides Milled

From 30x30 mm
to 400x400 mm

0.2 mm

Cut pieces to 500,


1000, 1500, 2000
mm in length.

Ingot 6
Sides Milled

From 450x450 mm
to 600x600 mm

+0 / +2 mm
for Outside
Proof-Machined

1000 mm
0 / +30 mm

NOTE: Tighter tolerances are also available depending on the length of the pieces.

UNIBAR MACHINING

60

UNIBAR Applications

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS

6.0
61

UNIBAR Machining

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS
In addition to offering the advantages listed above, Unibar is extremely suitable for
those applications whose geometry is close to the standard sections: round, square.
However, Unibar can be produced in a multitude of forms to meet the customers'
requirements.
You can see some of the existing applications below, with these being split into the
following sectors:

4 HYDRAULIC & PNEUMATIC


4 MACHINERY & MACHINE TOOLS
4 AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
4 FLUID POWER: PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS
4 GLASS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
4 OIL AND GAS EQUIPMENT
4 STEEL MACHINERY
4 MISCELLANEOUS

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS

62

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS

X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

Unibar NR - S

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

Unibar ADI

X
X

Unibar 700-2

Unibar 600-3

Unibar G - F

Unibar G - P

Unibar 300

Unibar 500-7

Unibar 250

Cylinder blocks
End Caps
Glands
Hidraulic Manifolds HIGH Pressure
Hidraulic Manifolds LOW Pressure
Hydraulic Pistons
Piston ring inserts
Pump bodies
Rotors
Spool valves
Spools
Valve bodies
Valve guides
Valves
Bearings
Brake Pistons
Bushings
Carriers
Chain Rollers
Cross-slides
Die blocks
Face plates
Flywheels
Gear racks
Gears
Gears for Printing Machinery
Gibs
Guide rail
Jib strips
Jigs & fixtures
Metal fed tubes
Paper press rolls
Piston for electric impact drill
Press rams
Pulleys
Rams
Rotary tables
Shoe moulds for plastic
Side frames
Sleeve casting
Slides
Spindle Housings
Spindles
Taper lock bushes

Unibar 200

Applications

Special Qualities

Unibar 400-15

Machinery & Machine Tools

Hydraulic & Pneumatic

Sector

Spheroidal

Unibar NR - F

Flake

Applications List

Unibar 350

T E C H N I C A L

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

63

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

Glass Manufacturing
Industry

Fluid Power: Pumps and Compressors

Baffles
Blank molds
Bottom plates
Discs
Full molds
Funnels
Guide and neck rings
Plungers
Sleeves

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS

Unibar ADI

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Unibar NR - S

Unibar 700-2

Unibar 500-7

Unibar 400-15

Unibar G - F

Unibar G - P

Unibar 300

X
X
X
X
X

Special Qualities

Unibar 600-3

Automovile Industry

Brake Pistons
Camshafts
Cylinder liners
Damper Pistons in Schock Absorbers
Fluid pumps - tanker types lorries for pumping fluids
Gears
Motorcycle Disc Brake
Pulleys
Rail Spacers
Shafts
Tappet Guides
Turbocharger Bushings
Valve guides
Valve seat inserts
Crankshafts
End covers
Gears
Housings
Liners
Mechanical Seals
Piston ring inserts
Pistons
Pump rings
Rollers
Rotary Screws
Rotors
Rotors in fluid pumps
Rotors in vacuum pumps
Screw Rotors for pumps
Seals
Shaft coupling for cooler compressor
Spacer rings
Vane - type rotors

Unibar 250

Applications

Unibar 200

Sector

Spheroidal

Unibar NR - F

Flake

Applications List

Unibar 350

T E C H N I C A L

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

64

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

Miscellaneous

UNIBAR APPLICATIONS

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

65

Unibar NR - S

Unibar NR - F

Special Qualities
Unibar 700-2

Unibar 600-3

Unibar 500-7

X
X

Unibar 400-15

X
X

Unibar G - F

Unibar 250

Unibar 350

Hammer Head for Drilling Machine


Continuous cast rollers
Guide rolls
Pinch rolls
Runout table rolls
Steel Mill Rolls
Table rolls
Aluminium mold plates
Bearings
Bushings
Cams
Core boxes
Dies
Drum for winches
End Plates
Fuelrod moulds
Gears
Jacks
Metal fed tubes
Pattern plates
Plunger Pin
Pulleys
Pump Body
Sleeve casting
Spacer Rings
Thermocouple sheaths in large industrial furnaces
Wheels

Unibar 300

Steel
Machinery

Oil
and Gas

Applications

Unibar 200

Sector

Spheroidal

Unibar ADI

Flake

Applications List

Unibar G - P

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR: Additional
Information

T E C H N I C A L

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

7.0
66

UNIBAR Machining

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Unibar-750-2

Unibar-600-3

Unibar-300

Unibar-500-7

Unibar-250

Unibar-350

Unibar-200

Resistance to Shearing
Torsion Resistance
Poisson Coefficient
Resistance to Compression
*Elasticity Modulus E
**Elasticity Modulus E
Limit of Elasticity at 0.1%Conventional ***
Elongation ****
Resistance to Buckling
Limit of Fatigue
Without Notch (10.6)
Ratio of Fatigue Without Notch
Limit of Fatigue *****
With Notch (10.6)
Thermal Conductivity at 300C
Thermal Capacity 20-500C
Coefficient of Lineal Dilation
20-400C
Density
Loss through hysteresis (B=1T)
Resistivity
Permeability

N/mm2

150-200

200-300

300-350

350-400

300-400

400-500

450-550

550-650

N/mm2

150-200

200-300

300-350

350-400

300-400

400-500

450-550

550-650

-----

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.275

0.275

0.275

0.275

N/mm2

500-700

700-850

850-950

900-1000

700

800

870

1000

GN/mm2

-----

-----

-----

-----

169

169

175

176

KN/mm2

75-110

100-120

110-130

120-140

-----

-----

-----

-----

N/mm2

100-180

160-220

190-250

220-280

-----

-----

-----

-----

0.2/0.8

0.2/0.8

0.2/0.8

0.2/0.8

12-18

7-14

3-10

1-5

N/mm2

250

330

380

480

-----

-----

-----

-----

N/mm2

-----

-----

-----

-----

180-200

200-220

220-250

250-280

Limit/UTS

-----

-----

-----

-----

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.4

N/mm2

-----

-----

-----

-----

110-120

120-140

140-155

155-170

W/(K.m)

50

Unit

CHARACTERISTIC

Unibar-450-15

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

45

45

43

36.2

35.2

32.5

31

J/(kg.K) 460-535

460-535

460-535

460-535

515

515

515

515

.m/(m.K) 11.7-13

11.7-13

11.7-13

11.7-13

11.7-13

12.5

12.5

12.5

7.2

7.25

7.3

7.1

7.1

7.2

kgs./dm3
J/m3

7.1

2500-3000 2500-3000 2500-3000 2500-3000

600

1000-2000 2000-2500

7.2
2700

W.m

0.75-0.8

0.7-0.75

0.7

0.7

0.5

0.51

0.54

0.54

H/m

220-330

220-330

220-330

220-330

2136

1596

866

500

Note:The data regarding the UNIBAR-200 to UNIBAR-350 flake cast bar refers to a RD30 separately cast bar.
The data presented is approximate and provided for information only. It is based on the technical bibliography on the subject.
Any requirement for minimums/maximums on top of these parameters must be discussed in advance.
*
**
***
****
*****

For stress and compression in spheroidal cast iron.


Traditional value. There is no elastic or plastic period defined in the breaking of the flake graphite casting.
Actual value of elastic limit (0.2%) for spheroidal graphite casting in tables of Unibar standards.
Elongation <1% in flake graphite casting. Value of Elongation of spheroidal graphite casting in tables of Unibar standards
V notch with 45 radius -0.25mm.

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

67

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF UNIBAR BEHAVIOUR

F-P

P-F

**

**

***

***

****

****

*****

**

***

ADI

Unibar NR-S

F-P

***

Unibar NR-F

***

Unibar-750-2

**

Unibar-600-3

Unibar-200-P

P-F

Unibar-500-7

Unibar-350

F
**

Unibar-200-F

Unibar-250

Structure
Fatigue Strength

Characteristic

Unibar-300

Unibar-200

Unibar-400-15

From *Zero to *****Excellent

Resistance to Corrosion

**

**

**

**

***

***

***

**

**

**

****

*****

*****

Machinability

*****

****

***

***

***

****

****

***

**

**

**

***

***

Dampening capacity

*****

****

****

****

****

*****

***

***

***

***

***

****

***

Resistance to Wear

**

**

***

****

**

**

**

**

***

***

******

***

*****

Suitability for Hardening

**

***

****

**

***

***

*****

**

**

*****

***

***

***

****

***

AustemperedDuctility
Weldable

*****

****

Other Surface hardenings

**

**

**

**

**

Thermal Conductivity

**

**

***

****

**

**

**

**

***

***

****

Surface Finish

*****

****

***

***

****

*****

****

***

**

**

**

***

**

Forgeability

**

***

***

****

***

***

****

****

****

****

*****

**

****
*

Possible Ferritising Annealment

Magnetic

-----

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

-----

-----

Yes

Yes

Yes

-----

-----

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Structure
P Perlitic

P-F Perlitic-Ferritic

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

A Austenitic

F Ferritic

F-P Ferritic-Perlitic

B Bainitic

68

No

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

Unibar-450-15

Unibar-500-7

Unibar-600-3
600-3

M 3193

GGG-400

GGG-500

GGG-600

NBN830-02

FNG42-12

FNG50-7

FNG60-2

BS 2789

400/12

500/7

600/3

GG 30

DS 11303

0715-0716

0727

0707

GRS 300

SFS 2113

GRP 400

GRP 500

GRP 600

AS1830

T-200

T-250

T-300

Austria 1983

M3191

GG-200

GG-250

GG-300

Belgium 1970

NBN 830-01

FGG 20

FGG 25

FGG 30

Great Britain 1977

BS 1452

Gr.180/200

Gr.260

Gr.300

Denmark 1969

DS 11301

GG 20

GG 25

Finland

SFS 4855

GRS 200

GRS 250

Country

Unibar-300

500-7

Unibar-250

400-12

Unibar-200

AS 1831

Standard

Standard

REFERENCE TO ASSOCIATED STANDARDS

Australia 1986

NF A32 -101

FGL 200

FGL 250

FGL 300

NF A32 - 201

FGS400-15

FGS500-7

FGS 600-3

Germany 1985

DIN 1691

GG - 20

GG - 25

GG - 30

DIN 1693

GGG-40

GGG-50

GGG-60

Holland 1966

NEN 6002A

GG 20

GG 25

GG 30

NEN 6002D

GN 42

GN 50

GN 60

Hungary 1981

France 1987

MSZ 8280

v 200

v 250

v 300

MSZ 8277

Gv 400

Gv 500

Gv 600

I.S.O. 1961

R 185

Gr. 20

Gr. 25

Gr. 30

ISO 1083

Gr.400-12

Gr.-500-7

Gr.-600-3

Italy 1969

UNI 5007

G 20

G 25

G 30

UNI 4544

GS400-12

GS500-7

GS600-3

Japan 1976

JIS. G5501

FC 20

FC 25

FC 30

JIG.G5502

FCD40

FCD50

FCD60

Norway 1963

N S 722

S j G 20

S j G 25

S j G 30

NS 11301

NS 11342

NS 11350

NS 11360

Poland 1986

PNH-83101

ZI 200

ZI 250

ZI 300

PNH-82123

Zs40012

Zs50007

Zs60003

Portugal 1981

NP 1758

FGL-200

FGL-250

FGL 300

NP 1759

FGE 400/12

FGE 500/7

FGE 600/3

Rumania 1982

S T A S 568

FC 200

FC 250

FC 300

S T A S 6071

FGN400-12

FGN500-7

FGN600-3

U N E 36-111

FG 20

FG 25

FG 30

U N E 36-118

FGE 42-12

FGE 50-7

FGE 60-2

SSOI 20-00

SSOI 25-00

SSOI 30-00

Spain 1973
Sweden 1984

MNC 705E

Switzerland 1961

VSM 10691

MNC 706E

SS07 17-00

SS07 27-02

SS07 32-03

FGL 200 GG 20 FGL 250 GG 25 FGL 300 GG 30

VSM 10693

GGG42 FGS42

GGG50 FGS50

GGG60 FGS60

USA 1983

ASTM A48

Class 25

Class 35

Class 40

ASTM A536

65-45-12

70-50-07

80-60-03

USSR

GOST 1412

SC 20

SC 25

SC 30

GOST 7293

Vch40

Vch50

Vch60

Yugoslavia

JuscC. J2020

SL 20

SL 25

SL 30

JuscC. J2022

NL 42

NL50

NL60

SF 420.12

SFP500

SPF600

EN 1563

GJS-400-15

GJS-500-7

GJS-600-3

Meehanite

GE200

GD250

GB300

EN 1561

GJL-200

GJL-250

GJL-300

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

69

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

UNIBAR COLOUR CODES

FLAKE
Grade

Unibar- 200
Unibar- 250
Unibar- 300
Unibar- 350
Unibar- G P
Unibar- G F
Unibar- NR F

DUCTILE
Colour

Grade

Colour

Orange
(No Colour)
Red
Violet
Silver (one end)
Silver (both ends)
Black - Yellow

Unibar-400-15
Unibar-500-7 Low hardness
Unibar-500-7 High hardness
Unibar-600-3
Unibar-700-2
Unibar-NR - S

Yellow
Light Green
Dark Green
Light Blue
Dark Blue
Red - Yellow

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

70

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

GLOSSARY AND USEFUL FORMULAS


4 ALLOY. - Material with metallic properties consisting of two or more elements, at
least one of which is a metal.
4 ALLOYING ELEMENTS. - Chemical elements that constitute an alloy.
4 ANNEALED. - Heat treatment of metal alloys whose purpose is to soften or
eliminate stress. In grey casting there are 2 types of softening annealing: one for
eliminating carbides, (temp 850-940C,) and another involving ferritisation, (temp680-740C).
4 AUSTEMPERING. - Heat treatment of iron alloys which consists (after raising the
temperature to 850-950C for austenising) of cooling at a high temperature 250450 (in a salt bath) obtaining bainitic structures which give the alloy properties of
toughness higher than the martensitic structure produced by normal hardening,
while maintaining high strength.
4 AUSTENITE. - Solid solution of carbon in gamma Fe (approximately 1.8% C
maximum), stable only at high temperatures. At low temperatures it is stable only
if it contains high %s of elements such as Ni.
4 BAINITE. - Structural constituent of the casting and the steel. It is obtained from
the conversion of austenite at a temperature higher (>Ms) than that of the normal
cooling that applies during the hardening process. The process for obtaining
bainite is called austempering and consists of isothermic hardening with cooling at
250-400C, (in a salt bath).
4 BRINELL, HARDNESS. - As this is the hardness of the resistance of materials to
penetration, the Brinell hardness value (H.B.) is determined by the relationship
between an applied load (Kg) on a ball of a certain diameter, and the area of the
spherical cap- indentation of the trace (mm). For example, HB 187.5/2.5 indicates
that the test is carried out with a ball of 2.5 mm in diameter and load of 187.5 Kg.
4 CARBIDES. - Compounds of carbon and another metallic element. Normally they
are components that give the cast structure hardness and brittleness, although
they also confer wear resistance. Iron carbide is the carbide known as cementite.

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

71

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

Even though the fundamental element in castings is


4 CARBON EQUIVALENT. the % of C, the % of Si and the % of P have an equivalent influence depending on
the formula indicated.

C.E. = %C

(%Si+%P)
3

4 CEMENTITE. - See "Carbides". This is formed when the liquid casting cools in
accordance with what is known as the metastable diagram.
Normally its
presence as free cementite is not desirable because of its hardness and brittleness.
However, sometimes it is beneficial in order to give the structure wear resistance.
4 COOLING MODULUS. - Relationship between the volume and the cooling surface
of a certain mass of metal or liquid alloy. In particular, we can point out the
cooling modulus of some of the most important geometric figures. Sometimes the
inverse relationship S/V is taken, instead of the V/S one taken below as the cooling
modulus.
=

Wall of thickness "x" - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Modulus =V / S = x / 2

Round bar of diameter D=2.R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Modulus = V / S = R /2

Rectangular Bar of L"(breadth) and "l" (height). Modulus = (L. l) / 2. (L+l)

Square bar of "L " side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Modulus = L / 4.0

Applications. - The roun d bar of diameter =2x has the same modulus as a
wall of thickness x. A rectangular bar of 100x50, has the same modulus as
a round bar of diameter -67-

4 CORROSION RESISTANCE. - Chemical reaction between the corrosive medium


(normally atmospheric) and the exposed metal surface. The product of the
reaction covers the surface (oxide) and the corrosion stops or continues
depending on the nature of the surface compound formed.
4 DAMPING CAPACITY. - Property of the materials to reduce the vibrations by
lowering the impact energy absorbed.

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

72

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 DENSITY. - 7200 Kg/m3 for flake cast iron, (see tables of physical properties).
=

Calculation of round bar


2

d x p x 0,0072
Kgr/Metro =
4
=

Calculation of rectangular bar Lmm (breadth) and lmm (height).

Kgr/Metro = L x l x 0,0072
=

Calculation of square bar L mm side

Kgr/Metro = L x L x 0,0072
4 DUCTILITY. - Property that allows the permanent deformation of materials without
breaking when submitted to stress. In metal materials, the concept of plasticity
and ductility are similar.
4 ELASTICITY. - Property that allows materials to be deformed, solely during the
action of stress or compression loads. When these cease, the material acquires
the form prior to deformation. In metal materials it is associated with concepts of
Elasticity Modulus and Elastic Limit.
4 ELASTICITY MODULUS. - Relationship between the elastic limit and induced
elastic deformation (see Elastic Limit). In grey casting, there is no pure elastic
behaviour. The values provided are conventional and refer to the deformation
caused at a certain percentage of the maximum breaking load (approx. 75%).
4 ELASTIC LIMIT. - During elastic deformation, the maximum stress supported by the
sample in the tensile test (see "elasticity") is known as the elastic limit. The
relationship between this load and the original section of the sample is calculated.
4 ELONGATION. - Permanent deformation, which is measured in the samples in the
test for tensile strength once the sample reaches the maximum breaking load. It is
measured as a % of the original length of the sample.

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

73

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 FATIGUE STRENGTH. - Strength of metals supporting variable or intermittent loads


with values lower than the Elastic Limit. Theoretically a fixed load with these values
would not result in plastic deformation but because the load is variable or
intermittent this deformation can be produced. The Fatigue Limit concept
expresses the maximum load that can be supported without deformation for a
determined variability or intermittence of load.
4 FERRITE. - Solid solution of carbon in alpha Fe. The % of C is very low. This structure
is normally present alongside pearlite in the as-cast state. In casting it is easy to
machine and has ductile properties which are superior to pearlite, in spite of
possessing lower resistance
4 GRAPHITE MOULD. - Permanent graphite mould used in continuous casting in
order to give shape to the bar.
4 GREY CASTING. - Alloy of iron with high %s of C and Si. Structurally composed of
a metallic phase and another non-metallic phase, which is graphite.
4 HARDENING. - Heat treatment of iron alloys which consists of heating to850-900 C,
in order to achieve austenising, (obtain an austenitic structure,) followed by rapid
cooling in order to produce a martensitic structure, (see "martensite" and
"austempering"). The term surface hardening refers to the fact that this process
only affects the surface of the part.
4 IMPACT RESISTANCE. - The energy absorbed per surface unit of the specimen
section in the resilience test. This test consists of the impact from a mass in
movement (pendulum drop) with sufficient kinetic energy to break the sample.
Units for example Jul/cm2.
4 INCLUSIONS. - Non-metallic phases (oxides, sulphides, silicates, etc.) that are
present in the alloy structures. Their large-scale accumulation constitutes a defect
(see slag).
4 INOCULANTS. - Elements that are added to the liquid casting (both laminar and
nodular) in order to improve the nuclei. This results in an improvement in the
structural homogeneity, as well as a greater machining facility by eliminating chill,
(cementite).

UNIBAR: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

74

T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 LAMINAR GREY IRON - This is grey iron when the non-metallic phase is present in
the form of sheets of graphite. In common parlance it is often called by various
names: simple grey cast iron, cast iron, etc.
4 MACHINABILITY. - Ability of the metal materials to be submitted to the action of
the tools in the machining operations.
4 MARTENSITE. - Structure of acicular appearance, which is present in steels and
cast iron when the hardening process is carried out. It is hard, (though not as hard
as cementite,) and not very resistant. The tempering process accompanies the
hardening process in order to produce tempered martensite, reducing its hardness
and somewhat increasing its tensile strength
4 MATRIX. - Fundamental constituent of the microstructure. In casting it is said that
the structure consists of the metal matrix and the graphite (see "casting").
4 MILLING. - Machining operation. This is used on square and rectangular
continuous cast bars in order to clean the surface and improve its condition.
4 NODULARIZER. - Element added to the liquid casting which is necessary for the
graphite phase in the micro-structure to present the form of spheroids or nodules.
That is to say, the nodularizer is the element that makes the casting nodular instead
of laminar.
4 NORMALISED. - Heat treatment in which the iron alloy is heated to a temperature
higher than that of the ferrite-pearlite transformation and air-cooled, (with forced
or unforced air, depending on the thickness of the part). This process is called the
pearlising the material.
4 PEARLITE. - Structure, normally lamellar, (known as eutectoid), which is
characterised by the fact that the ferrite and the cementite are so closely linked
that they form a new constituent called pearlite, (see ferrite). In spite of being
harder than ferrite it is perfectly suitable for machining.
4 PEELED See "surfacing".

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T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

4 PORES. - Defects of the cavity type which are present in the metal or solid alloy as
a consequence of the presence of gases dissolved in the liquid. These gases
remain trapped in the liquid once their solubility drops, forming a bubble, which
results in the hole. (Also known as BLOW HOLES.)
4 ROCKWELL HARDNESS. - As hardness is the resistance of materials to penetration,
the value of Rockwell hardness is determined by the difference between the
penetration depths of 2 loads, (pre-load and load). These loads act on a ball of a
given diameter or on a diamond cone. Depending on these load values and the
penetration tool, we use the scale A, B or C.
4 SLAG. - Constituent of the liquid baths of the metal alloys, produced in fusion
processes for various reasons. Normally it is separated from the bath before
proceeding to solidify the alloy. Its presence in the solid metal or alloy constitutes
a serious defect.
4 SPHEROIDAL GREY IRON - This is grey iron when the non-metallic phase is present
in the form of spheroids or nodules of graphite. It is also called nodular iron or
ductile iron.
4 TEMPERING. - Low temperature annealing which accompanies the hardening
process in order to produce drawn martensite, lowering the hardness and
somewhat increasing tensile strength.
4 TENSILE STRENGTH. - The maximum stress a material can withstand before
breaking. The relationship between this maximum load and the surface of the
original working section of the sample submitted to the tensile test is calculated.

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T E C H N I C A L

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4 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY. - Linearity constant from the general equation for heat
transmission.

C.E. = %C

(%Si+%P)
3

where x is thickness of the transmission wall.


Where D T is difference of temperature between the two sides of the wall.
Where A is area of the transmission wall.
Conceptually it indicates the ability of a body to evacuate the heat it can receive.

4 TURNING. - Machining operation. It is used on continuous cast round bars in order


to smooth the surface and improve its condition and surface finish. Also known as
Peeling.
4 WEAR RESISTANCE. - Resistance of the solid bodies to the scouring of metal from
the surface by means of a friction mechanism, generally of long duration.
Normally it is associated with the structural components of the material.

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COMPARATIVE TABLE OF HARDNESS AND RESISTANCE


BRINELL
Imprint mm load
3.000 kg Sphere
10 mm

ROCKWELL
Hardness

Rc Diamond

BH

Cone 150 kg

SHORE

Rb Sphere

Ra Diamond

Inlet d=1 / 18 ''

Cone

100 * g

80 kg

VICKERS
Diamond
Pyramid

(2,05)

(898,00)

(2,10)

(857,00)

(2,15)

(817,00)

(2,20)

(780,00)

70

106

1150

(2,25)

(745,00)

68

100

1050

(2,30)

(712,00)

66

95

950

(2,35)

(682,00)

64

82,2

91

885

(2,40)

(653,00)

62

81,2

87

820

(2,45)

(627,00)

60

80,5

84

765

(2,50)

(601,00)

58

80,2

81

717

2,55

578

57

79,4

78

675

2,60

555

55

(120)

78,6

75

633

2,65

534

53

(119)

77,9

72

598

2,70

514

52

(119)

77,0

70

567

2,75

495

50

(117)

76,5

67

540

2,80

477

49

(117)

75,7

65

515

2,85

461

47

(116)

75,0

63

494

2,90

444

46

(115)

74,2

61

472

2,95

429

45

(115)

73,4

59

454

3,00

415

44

(114)

72,3

57

427

3,05

401

42

(113)

72,0

55

420

3,10

388

41

(112)

71,2

54

404

3,15

375

40

(112)

70,6

52

389

3,20

363

38

(110)

70,3

51

375

3,25

352

37

(110)

69,3

49

363

3,30

341

36

(109)

68,7

48

350

3,35

331

35

(109)

68,1

46

329

3,40

321

34

(108)

67,5

45

327

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T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

BRINELL
Imprint mm load
3.000 kg Sphere
10 mm

ROCKWELL
Hardness

Rc Diamond

BH

Cone 150 kg

SHORE

Rb Sphere

Ra Diamond

Inlet d=1 / 18 ''

Cone

100 * g

80 kg

VICKERS
Diamond
Pyramid

3,45

311

33

(108)

66,9

44

316

3,50

302

32

(107)

66,8

43

305

3,55

293

31

(106)

65,7

42

296

3,60

285

30

(105)

65,3

40

287

3,65

277

29

(104)

64,6

39

279

3,70

269

28

(104)

64,1

38

270

3,75

262

26

(103)

63,6

37

263

3,80

255

25

(102)

63,0

37

255

3,85

248

24

(102)

62,5

36

248

3,90

241

23

100

61,8

35

241

3,95

235

22

99

61,4

34

235

4,00

229

21

98

60,8

33

229

4,05

223

20

97

32

223

4,10

217

(18)

96

31

217

4,15

212

(17)

96

31

212

4,20

207

(16)

95

30

207

4,25

201

(15)

94

30

202

4,30

197

(13)

93

29

197

4,35

192

(12)

92

28

192

4,40

187

(10)

91

28

187

4,45

183

(9)

90

27

183

4,50

179

(8)

88

27

179

4,55

174

(7)

88

26

174

4,60

170

(6)

87

26

170

4,65

167

(4)

86

25

166

4,70

163

(3)

85

25

163

4,75

159

(2)

84

24

159

4,80

156

(1)

83

24

156

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T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

BRINELL
Imprint mm load
3.000 kg Sphere
10 mm

ROCKWELL
Hardness

Rc Diamond

BH

Cone 150 kg

SHORE

Rb Sphere

Ra Diamond

Inlet d=1 / 18 ''

Cone

100 * g

80 kg

VICKERS
Diamond
Pyramid

4,85

152

82

23

153

4,90

149

81

23

149

4,95

146

80

22

146

5,00

143

79

22

143

5,05

140

78

21

140

5,10

137

77

21

137

5,40

121

70

121

5,45

118

69

118

5,50

116

68

116

5,55

114

67

114

5,60

112

66

112

5,65

109

65

109

5,70

107

64

107

5,75

105

62

105

5,80

103

61

103

5,85

101

60

101

5,90

93

59

99

5-,95

87

57

97

6,00

83

56

95

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T E C H N I C A L

D O C U M E N T A T I O N

CONVERSION FACTORS
Take

Multiply by

To get

Newtons/mm2
Kilograms
Newtons
Pounds
Inches
Centimetres
Pounds
Grams
Cubic Metre
Kg/Metre
Grams/cc
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inch
Centimetre
Feet
Pounds/inch2 (psi)

144
2.20
0.223
4.48
2.54
0.394
454
2.20x103
3.278
0.672
0.036
1.728
5.87x10-4
0.0327
30.5
6.944x10-3

Pounds/inch2 (psi)
Pounds
Pounds
Newtons
Centimetres
Inches
Grams
Pounds
Cubic Feet
Pounds/Foot
Pounds/Inch3
Cubic Inch
Cubic Feet
Feet
Centimetre
Newtons/mm2

This

Equals

This

1 Foot
1 Metre
1 MPa

0.305
3.278
1

Metres
Feet
N/mm2

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D O C U M E N T A T I O N

TEMPERATURES
Fahrenheit to Celsius:

( F - 32)
= C
1,8
Celsius to Fahrenheit:

F = 1,8 C + 32

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