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Connections Of Overcurrent Relay (part 2)


Co nnectio ns Of Overcurrent Relay (part 2)

Continued from first part: Types and Applications Of Overcurrent Relay (part 1)

Connections of Overcurrent and Earth Fault Relays

1. 3 Nos O/C relay for overcurrent and earth fault protection
Its used for:
3-phase f aults the overcurrent relays in all the 3-phases act.
Phase to phase f aults the relays in only the af f ected phases operate.
Single line to ground f aults only the relay in the f aulty phase gets the f ault current
and operates.

Even then with 3 overcurrent relays, the sensitivity desired and obtainable with earth
leakage overcurrent relays cannot be obtained in as much as the high current setting
will have to be necessarily adopted f or the overcurrent relay to avoid operation under
maximum load condition.
Over current relays generally have 50% to 200% current
setting while earth leakages over current relays have
either 10% to 40% or 20% to 80% current settings.
One important thing to be noted here is that the
connection of the star points of both the C.T.
secondarys and relay windings by a neutral conductor
should be made.
A scheme without the neutral conductor will be unable to
3 No s O/C Relay fo r Over Current
ensure reliable relay operation in the event of single
and Earth Fault Pro tectio n
phase to earth f aults because the secondary current in
this case (without star-point interconnection) completes
its circuit through relay and C.T. windings which present large impedance.
This may lead to failure of protection and sharp decrease in reduction of secondary
currents by CTs.
It is not suf f icient if the neutral of the CTs and neutral of the relays are separately
earthed. A conductor should be run as stated earlier.

2. 3 No O/C Relay+ 1 No E/F Relay for Overcurrent and Earth Fault

The scheme of connection f or 3 Nos Over current Relay 1 No Earth Fault Relay is shown
in f igure below.

Overcurrent and Earth Fault Pro tectio n

Only earth faults cause currents to flow through E/L

relay. A note of caution is necessary here. Only either
C.T secondary star point of relay winding star point should be earthed.

Earthing of both will short circuit the E/L relay and make it inoperative for faults.

3. 2 No O/C Relay + 1 No E/F Relay for Over Current and Earth Fault
The two over current relays in R and B phases will respond to phase f aults. At least one
relay will operate f or f ault involving two phase.
For fault involving ground reliance is placed on earth
fault relay.
This is an economical version of 3-O/L and 1-E/L type
of protection as one overcurrent relay is saved. With
the protection scheme as shown in Figure complete
protection against phase and ground f ault is af f orded.

Current Transformer Secondary


2 No O/C Relay + 1 No E/F Relay fo r

Over Current and Earth Fault
Pro tectio n

For protection of various equipment of Extra High

Voltage class, the star point on secondarys of CT should be made as f ollows f or
ensuring correct directional sensitivity of the protection scheme.

Transmission Line , Bus Bar and Transformer:

For Transmission Lines Line side
For Transformers Transf ormer side
For Bus bar Bus side

Generator Protection:
Generator Protection Generator
The above method has to be f ollowed
irrespective of polarity of CTs on primary
For example, in line protection, if P1 is
towards bus then S2s are to be shorted
and if P2 is towards bus then S1s are to
be shorted.
Transmissio n Line , Bus Bar & Transfo rmer scheme

Standard Overcurrent and Earth

Fault Protection

Name of the


11 KV Feeders

A) 2 No Over
Current and one no
Earth Fault IDMT
B) 2 No
(highest) and one
no Instantaneous
Earth f ault relay

Capacity OR
Transf ormer
in a
of capacity)

HV side: 33 KV
Breaker (Individual
or Group Control
with 3 Over Current
and One Earth
Fault IDMT relays
LV Side: Individual
11 KV Breakers with
3 Over Current and
One Earth Fault
IDMT relays

8 MVA Power
Transf ormer

Dif f erential relays

OR REF relays on
LV side

Generato r pro tectio n scheme

Only one PTR

in a Sub
Station (Less
than 8 MVA)

HV Side: HG f use
LV Side: 11 KV
Breaker with 3 Over
Current and one
E/F IDMT relay