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GRAMMAR SUMMARY

UNIT 1
P RESENT

S TATE

SIMPLE

Affirmative
I
he / she / it
you / we / they

agree
agrees
agree

Negative
I
he / she / it
you / we / they

dont
doesnt
dont

agree

Question
do
does
do

I
he / she / it
you / we / they

agree?

State verbs
He doesnt like spaghetti.
I understand what youre saying.
We know what youve been doing.

El present simple se utiliza para hablar de


hbitos o actividades regulares.
I play tennis every day.
hechos o cosas que son siempre ciertas.
Water boils at 100 oC.
Olympic athletes train very hard.
un acontecimiento futuro o programado.
Her train arrives at 11.30.

P RESENT

CONTINUOUS

Affirmative
I
he / she / it
you / we / they

m
s
re

thinking

Negative
I
he / she / it
you / we / they

m not
isnt
arent

thinking

Questions
am
is
are

I
he / she / it
you / we / they

thinking?

Existen ciertos verbos que casi nunca se utilizan en


present continuous, present perfect continuous o past
continuous. Son los llamados verbos de estado (state
verbs). Los ms comunes son:
Verbos de pensamiento: understand, know,
remember, believe, forget
Verbos de gustos y aversiones: like, love, prefer, hate
Verbos de estado y posesin: be, own

T HE

GERUND

The gerund
Dancing is great fun.
He explained the reason for making extra copies.
I dont mind lending it to you.

El gerund (nombre verbal) se utiliza


como sujeto de una frase.
Smoking is bad for you.
Shopping can be really boring.
detrs de preposiciones.
The thought of going on holiday was exciting.
They were accused of stealing three bikes.
detrs de ciertos verbos. Entre otros: admit, avoid,
cant stand, consider, dont mind, finish, give up,
mention, practise, risk, suggest.
He admitted stealing the bikes.
She suggested going to the cinema.
WANT

El present continuous se utiliza para hablar de


acciones en curso en el momento en que se habla.
Hes having breakfast in the kitchen.
situaciones transitorias.
Were staying with friends for a week.
planes de futuro.
Were leaving at 8.30.
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VERBS

want
I want you to get a good education.
Her friends want her to go out on Saturday.
We want him to do well in his exams.

La construccin want + el objeto + infinitivo se utiliza


para hablar de lo que queremos que otros hagan.

Grammar summary 1

UNIT 2
PAST

PAST

SIMPLE

Affirmative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

passed

Negative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

didnt

Questions
did
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

pass

pass?

El past simple se utiliza


para hablar de sucesos o acciones del pasado que ya
han concluido.
I left Spain in 1998.
What time did you finish your homework?
para hablar de algo que suceda con regularidad en el
pasado.
They played basketball after school everyday.
He went to French classes for years.
detrs de when.
We walked to school when we lived in Carmona.
When did you leave?

PAST

Affirmative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

had

finished

Negative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

hadnt

finished

Questions
had
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

finished?

El past perfect simple se utiliza para hablar de


acciones o situaciones del pasado anteriores a otra
accin o situacin.
Susie looked in her bag. Shed forgotten her mobile
phone!
acciones anteriores a un momento especfico del
pasado.
By 6.00 we had washed the dishes and cooked a pizza.

CUIDADO!

after suele ir seguido de past perfect.


After wed finished dinner, we went for a walk.

CONTINUOUS

Affirmative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they

USED TO

was
was
were

Negative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they

wasnt
wasnt
werent

Questions
was
was
were

I
he / she / it
we / you / they

eating

eating

eating?

El past continuous se utiliza


para hablar de una accin que estaba en curso en un
momento determinado del pasado.
At 12.00 I was talking to Mara on the phone.
para hablar de una accin interrumpida en el pasado.
I was cooking my dinner when the doorbell rang.
detrs de while o as.
While I was walking, it started to rain.
As he was leaving, he saw her.

PERFECT SIMPLE

Grammar summary

Affirmative
I / he / she / it / you / we / they

used to

Negative
I / he / she / it / you / we / they

didnt use to

Questions
did I / he / she / it / you / we / they

live in London

use to

live in London

live in London?

used to se utiliza para hablar de un hbito, actividad


regular o situacin del pasado.
I used to cycle to school.
We didnt use to have video recorder.
Where did you use to live?

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GET USED TO

Tense
Infinitive
present continuous
past simple
past continuous
present perfect
past perfect
will
going to
future continuous
future perfect

Form
to get used to
Im getting used to
I got used to
I was getting used to
Ive got used to
Id got used to
walking to work
Ill get used to
Im going to get
used to
Ill be getting used to
Ill have got used to

get used to se utiliza cuando algo extrao va


convirtindose en familiar o normal.
They got used to working nights.
Hes getting used to wearing glasses.
BE USED TO

Tense
Infinitive
present simple
past simple
present perfect
past perfect
will

Form
to be used to
Im used to
I was used to
Ive been used to
Id been used to
Ill be used to

waking up early

be used to se utiliza cuando algo deja de ser extrao o


desconocido, y se convierte en normal.
Shes used to driving on the motorway.
Were used to having sandwiches for lunch.

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Grammar summary 3

UNIT 3
Nota: para la forma y el uso del past simple consulta la
pgina 2.

P RESENT

PERFECT SIMPLE

FOR AND SINCE

Affirmative
I
he / she / it
you / we / they

ve
s
ve

practised

Negative
I
he / she / it
you / we / they

havent
hasnt
havent

practised

Questions
have
has
have

I
he / she / it
you / we / they

for
Hes had a motorbike for two months.
Theyve lived in Portugal for ten years.
since
Hes had a motorbike since his birthday.
Ive known my best friend since I was four.

practised?

El present perfect se utiliza para hablar de


algo que comenz en el pasado y que contina en el
presente.
Ive worn glasses since I was seven.
How long have you lived here?
experiencias vitales, cuando no se especifica cundo
tuvieron lugar.
Weve visited South America twice.
Have you ever been on a motorbike?
algo que sucedi en el pasado y que tiene un efecto
en el presente.
Ive forgotten their phone number. (I havent got their
phone number now.)

CUIDADO!

El past simple se utiliza con expresiones de


tiempo y fechas; el present perfect, cuando no
se menciona el momento o la fecha.
Hes gone. He left yesterday.
Have you done your homework?
I did it last night.
been y gone tienen significados diferentes.
Hes been to Granada. (He went and came back.)
Hes gone to Granada. (Hes still there.)

Grammar summary

for y since se utilizan para expresar durante cunto


tiempo ha continuado una accin hasta el presente.
for se utiliza para hablar de un periodo de tiempo.
Ive been here for three days / a month / a year /
a long time.
since se utiliza para hablar de un momento concreto
en el tiempo.
Ive known how to surf since I was fifteen /
since last summer / since I went to Cornwall.
ALREADY , JUST AND YET

already
Theyve already bought their Christmas presents.
Shes already seen that film.
just
Hes just had his breakfast.
Ive just sent an e-mail to Mary.
yet
He hasnt had lunch yet.
Have you finished yet?

already y just se utilizan detrs de have / has y


delante del past participle.
John has already finished the exam.
Shes just left the house.
yet se coloca al final de las frases. Se utiliza en
oraciones negativas e interrogativas.
Have you seen Harry Potter yet?
I havent read the book yet.

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UNIT 4
Nota: para la forma y el uso del present continuous
consulta la pgina 1.

F UTURE

WILL

Affirmative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they
Negative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

ll

wont

Questions
will
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

learn

Affirmative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

will

learn

Negative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

wont

Questions
will
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

learn?

will se utiliza para hablar de


decisiones tomadas en el momento en que se habla.
The window is open.
Ill close it.
predicciones de carcter general.
Itll rain next week
You wont like it here.
GOING TO

Affirmative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they

m
s
re

going to

CONTINUOUS

m not
isnt
arent

Questions
am
is
are

I
he / she / it
we / you / they

going to

be

be

listening

listening

listening?

El future continuous se utiliza para hablar de algo que


estar en curso en un momento determinado del futuro.
What will you be doing on Saturday evening?
Ill be having dinner with Sarah.
Theyll be playing football tomorrow afternoon.

F UTURE

PERFECT

Affirmative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

will

Negative
I / he / she / it / we / you / they

wont

have

have

understood

understood

swim
Questions
will I / he / she / it / we / you / they

Negative
I
he / she / it
we / you / they

be

understood?

El future perfect se utiliza para hablar de algo que habr


concluido en un momento determinado del futuro.
Ill have finished this letter soon.
By the time Im 30 Ill have travelled the world.
Theyll have had their car for 2 years next month.

swim

going to

have

swim?

going to se utiliza para hablar de


intenciones y planes de futuro, una vez que se ha
tomado una decisin.
Im going to get a job next year.
predicciones basadas en una evidencia apreciable en
el momento en que se habla.
Listen to the wind. Theres going to be a storm.

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Grammar summary 5

UNIT 5
T HE

UNIT 6
C ONDITIONAL

PASSIVE

Active
Many students use computers.

First conditional
If + present simple + will + infinitive
If you see the film, youll understand.

Passive
Computers are used by many students.
Present simple passive
I
m
he / she / it
s
you / we / they
re
Past simple passive
I / he / she / it
was
you / we / they
were

El condicional de primer grado se utiliza para hablar de


posibles o probables situaciones futuras.
If its cold tomorrow, I wont walk to college.
If she doesnt go to the party, she wont see David.
promesas y advertencias.
If you forget her birthday, shell be upset.
If we eat now, we wont be hungry when we get to
the restaurant.

invited

Second conditional
If + past simple + would + infinitive
If you saw the film, youd understand.

invited

Present perfect simple passive


I
ve
he / she / it
s
been
you / we / they
ve

invited

El objeto de una oracin activa es el sujeto de la


misma oracin en voz pasiva.
La forma pasiva del present simple se construye con
el present simple del verbo to be + un past participle.
La forma pasiva del past simple se construye con el
past simple del verbo to be + un past participle.
La forma pasiva del present perfect simple se
construye con el present perfect simple del verbo
to be + el past participle del verbo principal.
La oracin pasiva se utiliza cuando no se sabe quin
realiz la accin o cuando se tiene mayor inters en
la accin que en su autor.
A new drug is being tested.
My purse has been stolen.
Puede utilizarse by detrs del verbo en pasiva para
indicar qu o quin realiza la accin.
It was painted by Czanne.
The team will be chosen by the manager.

PUNTOS EXTRA!

La construccin have / get (algo) done se utiliza para


hablar de acciones que son realizadas por otros.
Ive had my bike repaired. = Someone else repaired
my bike, I didnt do it myself.
She got her hair cut. = Someone cut her hair, she
didnt cut it herself.

Grammar summary

SENTENCES

El condicional de segundo grado se utiliza para


hablar de situaciones irreales o improbables en el
presente o en el futuro.
If I had more money, Id buy it for you. (It is unlikely
that you will have more money.)
If you had a car, you could learn to drive. (You dont
have a car, so you wont learn to drive.)
dar consejo.
If I were you, Id put some suntan lotion on.
If he lived in Germany, hed learn German.
Third conditional
If + past perfect + would have + past participle
If you had seen the film, you would have understood

El condicional de tercer grado se utiliza para hablar de


cosas que no tuvieron lugar en el pasado.
If I had known you were coming, I would have made
some dinner. (I didnt know you were coming so I didnt
make any dinner.)

PUNTOS EXTRA!

La proposicin que lleva if puede colocarse delante


o detrs de la proposicin principal.
El significado es el mismo en ambos casos.
Si se coloca delante, se utiliza coma.
If Id remembered your birthday, I would have sent
you a card.
I would have sent you a card if Id remembered your
birthday.

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UNIT 7
D EFINING

N ON - DEFINING

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Las subordinadas de relativo aportan informacin


adicional acerca de algo. Los pronombres relativos
who, which, that, where y whose se utilizan para
introducir una subordinada de relativo.
Defining relative clauses
Thats the boy who I play football with.
The shop where I bought this top is near here.
The computer that we bought stopped working.

Las subordinadas especificativas de relativo


(defining relative clauses) especifican o definen
aquello de lo que se habla. Aportan informacin
adicional sobre alguien o algo.
who o that se utilizan para hablar de una persona.
The man who works in the shop is very friendly.
The girl that I met at the party had long, brown hair.
which o that se utilizan para hablar de una cosa.
The pen which I lost was silver.
The car that we bought was really good.
whose se utiliza para los posesivos.
Thats the woman whose son is an athlete.

PUNTOS EXTRA!

En las subordinadas especificativas de relativo


puede omitirse el pronombre relativo cuando este
realiza la funcin de objeto directo.
Thats the book (that) I bought.
(that refers to the book, and is the object of the verb
bought)
Shes the girl (who) I met.
(who refers to the girl, and is the object of the verb
met))

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RELATIVE CLAUSES

Non-defining relative clauses


The book, which wasnt expensive, was fascinating.
Maria, who has been in London, is coming home tomorrow.
David, whose brother lives near me, works in that shop.

Las subordinadas explicativas de relativo (nondefining relative clauses) proporcionan informacin


que no es esencial para el significado de la oracin.
Mr Thompson, who works in the shop, is very
friendly.
Los pronombres relativos no pueden omitirse en las
subordinadas explicativas de relativo.
The criminal, who the police were following,
escaped.
Es posible unir dos frases cortas mediante un
pronombre relativo para hacer una frase ms larga.
Alisons sister is called Debbie. Shes a nurse.
Alisons sister, whos a nurse, is called Debbie.
Las subordinadas explicativas de relativo van
separadas del resto de la frase por comas.
We went to Bristol, where my brother used to live,
at the weekend.

CUIDADO!

En las subordinadas explicativas de relativo no se


utiliza that.
My scooter, that I got for my birthday last year, has
never broken down.
My scooter, which I got for my birthday last year,
has never broken down.

Grammar summary 7

UNIT 8
R EPORTED

SPEECH : STATEMENTS

Direct speech
I love the hotel.
Were having a
wonderful time.
I worked for ten hours.
Youve never written to me.
Ill see you soon.

Reported speech
She said that she loved the
hotel.
He said that they were
having a wonderful time.
He said hed worked for ten
hours.
She said hed never written
to her.
He said hed see her soon.

Si el reporting verb (por ejemplo said o told) est en


pasado, el verbo en estilo directo retrocede un
tiempo verbal al pasar a estilo indirecto.
present simple past simple
present continuous past continuous
past simple past perfect simple
present perfect simple past perfect simple
will would
can could
Los verbos modales should, could, would, might y
ought to no cambian al pasar a estilo indirecto.
We might come. She said that they might come.
I could be there by 8.00. He said he could be there
by 8.00.
Los pronombres y adjetivos posesivos s cambian.
Im watching you. He said that he was watching
him.
Weve got you a surprise. She said that they had
got him a surprise.
Ive forgotten my keys. He said that he had
forgotten his keys.

T IME

EXPRESSIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH

Las expresiones de tiempo tambin cambian al pasar a


estilo indirecto.
this = that
these = those
now = then
next week = the following week
today = that day
tomorrow = the next day
yesterday = the day before
last week = the week before

R EPORTED

SPEECH : QUESTIONS AND


COMMANDS

Direct questions
Reported questions
What time is your train? She asked what the time his
train was.
Why are you laughing? He asked why she was laughing.

En las oraciones interrogativas en estilo directo el


orden es verbo + sujeto.
En las oraciones interrogativas en estilo indirecto el
orden es sujeto + verbo. No se utiliza signo de
interrogacin.
He asked how old she was.
She asked where the hotel was.
Si la pregunta en estilo directo no lleva partcula
interrogativa, al pasar a estilo indirecto se utiliza if o
whether.
Are you Spanish?
He asked if / whether we were Spanish.

R EPORTED

COMMANDS

Direct commands
Be quiet!
Put it out

Reported commands
He told them to be quiet.
She told him to put it out.

En las rdenes en estilo directo se utiliza el imperativo.


Para pasar una orden a estilo indirecto, se utiliza la
siguiente construccin:
sujeto + verbo + objeto + infinitivo con to
She told them to sit down.
He told her to close the window.
Para pasar una orden negativa a estilo indirecto, se
utiliza not delante del infinitivo. La construccin es la
siguiente:
sujeto + verbo + objeto + not + infinitivo con to
Dont forget your wallet.
She told him not to forget his wallet.
Otros reporting verbs que se utilizan para expresar
rdenes son:
advise, encourage, invite, persuade, remind, warn.

R EPORTED

SPEECH : SUGGESTIONS

Direct suggestions
Shall we go for a walk?
Why dont we go
out tonight?

Reported suggestions
He suggested that they went for
a walk.
She suggested that they
went out that night.

Para las sugerencias en estilo indirecto se utiliza


suggest como reporting verb.

Grammar summary

Oxford University Press

UNIT 9
A BILITY

P OSSIBILITY

Modal
can

Example
I can speak French.
I cant hear you.

will be able to

Soon youll be able


to buy that coat
you want.
We wont be able to
go on holiday as
were too busy.

could

Matt could talk


when he was three.
I couldnt swim
very well when I
was younger.

O BLIGATION ,
Modal
must

Use
To talk about ability
in the present.

To talk about ability


in the future.

ADVICE AND PROHIBITION

Example
You must remember
your homework.

To talk about an
obligation.

I have to finish this


essay by Monday.

dont have to

You dont have to


come if you dont
want to.

ought to

You ought to wear red.

should

You should think


about going on holiday. To give advice.

shouldnt

You shouldnt worry


so much.

mustnt

You mustnt smoke


in here.

CUIDADO!

Use
To say something

might

He might already know.

is possible in

could

They could be on the train.

the present or future.

cant

It cant be finished.

To say something is
impossible.

must

You must be her daughter.

To say we are sure


something is true.

Modal
may have

PERFECT INFINITIVE

Example
She may have
forgotten.

might have We might have


caught the plane.

Use

To say something was


possible in the past.

could have We could have


crashed.

Use

have to

Modal Example
may
You may be right.

M ODAL +
To talk about ability
in the past.

AND CERTAINTY

To say that there is


no obligation to do
something.

cant have

Its cold. She cant To say something was


have been outside. impossible in the past.

must have

Its here. He must To say that we are sure


have left it behind. something was true in the
past

To talk about
prohibition.

have to y must poseen significados similares, pero


dont have to y mustnt significan cosas distintas.

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Grammar summary 9