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20 th September 2014



We would like to thank our Professors and Institute without whom the visit wouldn`t have been a possibility at the first instance. Deepu. Pradeep Kumar. Prof. Total 19 student members along with 4 faculty members joined this industrial visit. The visit was organized with the prior permission and guidance of Dr.2 FOREWORD The AeroClub. Prof. Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) organized an Industrial visit to BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Ltd. Satheesh accompanied us with this industrial visit. Praveen Krishna. 2014 for members of the Club. Assistant Professor.R. on 20th September. B. IIST. (BATL). Vinoth and Prof. We would like to express our deepest appreciation to Mr. Rajeev Madhvan who continually and convincingly conveyed the spirit of adventure and guided us throughout the visit explained us every part of BrahMos. . Prof.

They create havoc and loss to mankind on a large scale.4m Diameter -0. sea and aerial platforms. the then President of India A. The symbol for BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Ltd. Abdul Kalam and Deputy Defence Minister of Russia N. what is a Cruise missile? It is a guided missile that carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system.V. BrahMos Aerospace acquired Kerala Hitech Industries Limited at Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala and converted it into BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Limited which made it into the second missile making unit for a world-class missile facility with system integration and testing. During the Persian Gulf war. The technical specifications include: Maximum range -290km Maximum velocity Mach -2. P. usually a jet engine to allow sustained flight. Mikhailov signed an intergovernmental agreement in Moscow to establish BrahMos Aerospace for producing the BrahMos missiles.5 – 2.3 BRAHMOS AT A GLANCE According to the late Edwin Starr. Brahmaputra of India and Moskva of Russia.6m Unit cost -US$ 2.8 Warhead -300kg Weight -3000kg Length -8. war is good for absolutely nothing. The missile can be configured for land. In 2007. it has inbuilt inertial sensors like gyroscopes and accelerometers. The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) of India and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia have together formed the BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited under BrahMos Aerospace. shows that the missile is so powerful that it can even break ‘Shivling’. The missile is named after two rivers. J. As a result in February 1998. BrahMos Aerospace production centre first started at Hyderabad in Andra Pradesh. A solid propellant booster provides the initial acceleration and then the liquid-fuelled ramjet system helps it in reaching supersonic cruise speed. First of all. The air-breathing ramjet propulsion is more fuel-efficient in comparison with conventional rocket propulsion which provides the BrahMos with a longer range over similar missiles powered by rocket propulsion. GPS and radar which requires no guidance system after being launched. It is an AS9100 company. The missile follows ‘Fire and forget’ principle of operation i. Wars put pressure on the resources of the country making them work hard to juice out the maximum from even the little that they possess which tends to accelerate technological development to adapt tools for the purpose of solving specific military needs.73 million BrahMos is powered by a two-stage propulsion system. Shivling depicting the epitome of power as per Indian mythology. cruise missiles emerged as a key innovation which led India to look forward in the direction of having its own Cruise missile. . highest certificate given to any Aerospace industry and is the biggest airborne launcher manufacturer in India.e.

Orissa. the land based BrahMos block-1 was tested for Indian army in Pokhran. The first BrahMos missile was test fired from the integrated test range at Chandipur in Orissa Coast in June 2001. Block II. Rajasthan and then was inducted into army on June 21. with advanced supersonic dive manoeuvrability. Brahmos 2. keeping in mind that Missile Technology Control Regime prohibits Russia from helping us in developing missiles with ranges above 300 kms. a hypersonic cruise missile with a speed of Mach 7. the BrahMos block-III+ version was successfully test-fired from the integrated test range at Chandipur. India. BrahMos Aerospace acquired Indian state-owned firm Keltec to manufacture and integrate BrahMos components and missile systems. BrahMos Aerospace has developed a universal vertical launcher module (UVLM) for the shipbased BrahMos N1 missile. off the Orissa Coast. In 2004 and 2007. In December 2010. It features a smaller booster and additional tail fins for greater stability during launch. missile has been numerous times. This was necessary to meet the increased orders received from the Indian Army and Navy. has also been developed and was tested in September 2010 from the Interim test range at Chandipur. After that. In 2008. An aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) is currently being configured for the Sukhoi SU-30MKI aircraft of the Indian Air Force (IAF). The UVLM can launch up to eight missiles to destroy a group of warships featuring modern anti-missile defence systems. Its range is expected to be 290 meters.4 It has the capability of attacking surface targets as low as 10 meters in altitude to as high as 14000 meters. is under development. 2007. .

liquid penetrant. warpage and appearance flaws. it is a highly valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation. electrical engineering. All materials will absorb known amounts of this radiant energy and. radiographic. systems engineering. Radiography (X-ray) is one of the most important. . Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected.5 NDT Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material. Radiography Radiography is based on the ability of X-rays and gamma rays to pass through metal and other materials opaque to ordinary light. Fig 1. Dimensional variances. and art. regardless of subsequent inspection procedures. remote visual inspection (RVI). and produce photographic records of the transmitted radiant energy. medicine. and research. versatile and widely accepted of all the non-destructive examination methods . porosity and unfilled craters. aeronautical engineering. BraHMos Weld verification by X ray Radiography After welding. 1. eddy-current testing. and low coherence interferometry. including cracks. Common NDT methods include ultrasonic. visual inspection can detect a variety of surface flaws. X-ray is used to determine internal soundness of the welds. X-rays and gamma rays can be used to show discontinuities and inclusions within the opaque material. civil engineering. NDT is commonly used in forensic engineering. can be evaluated. component or system without causing damage. therefore. The permanent film record of the internal conditions will show the basic information by which weld soundness and be determined. as well as weld size characteristics. magnetic-particle.Fig. mechanical engineering. Moreover for precise flaw detection. troubleshooting.

depending on their density. fog and spots caused by developing errors may make it difficult to identify defects. Surface defects will show up on the film and must be recognized. Inspection is done using X-rays and gamma rays as a penetrating medium. to obtain a photographic record of internal quality of weld of the separate parts of the pressure vessels. Generally. will absorb different wavelengths of radiant energy. it is difficult or impossible to analyze fillet welds by this method. Because the angle of exposure will also influence the radiograph. When variations of these rays are recorded. it tends to give an exaggerated impression of scattered type defects such as porosity or inclusions. . safety precautions like proper uniform and isolation of the room with lead accessories is a must. Because a radiograph compresses all the defects that occur throughout the thickness of the weld into one plane. Only personnel who are trained in radiation safety and qualified as industrial radiographers are be permitted to do radiographic testing. will absorb more radiation and their corresponding areas on the radiograph will be lighter Radiographic images are not always easy to interpret. Thicker areas of the specimen or higher density material (tungsten inclusion). Different materials. Film handling marks and streaks. The degree to which the different materials absorb these rays determines the intensity of the rays penetrating through the material.6 When X-rays or gamma rays are directed at a section of weldment . defects in welds consist either of a void in the weld metal itself or an inclusion (tungsten in the weld strip shown to us) that differs in density from the surrounding weld metal. not all of the radiation passes are through the metal. The image on a developed photo-sensitized film is known as a radiograph. and densitized film as a recording medium. thickness and atomic number. Radiographic equipment produces radiation that can be harmful to body tissue in excessive amounts. Such film artifacts may mask weld discontinuities. a means of seeing inside the material is available. All instructions are followed carefully to achieve satisfactory results.

are capable of changing 90 or more tools. 3 axis as well as 5 axis machines are available. and low surface roughness. high precision ( class H). Drill bits with size as low as 2 mm are used to machine the process. Run CAM software to generate the CNC part program. and milling machines. may be mixed with an abrasive substance like garnet or aluminium oxide. with geometrically regular surfaces. The spark is visible evidence of the flow of electricity. The EDM process usually does not affect the heat treat below the surface. The most important benefit of the waterjet cutter is its . precisely aligned axes. There are precision type lathes. The water acts as a coolant and flushes away the eroded metal particles. Precision machine tools make it possible to produce articles of grade of fit 11. Download the part program to the appropriate machine. Also water Jet machining. Verify the program on the actual machine and edit if necessary . a non-traditional process.Run the program and produce the part. where a jet of water at high velocity and pressure. The temperature of the room is kept at 20 degree celsius so that variation related to temperature does not affect the finish. The lab also has Electron Discharge machine where an electrical spark is created between an electrode and a workpiece. and highest precision ( class S). Precision machines use a cutter and can be solid cutters such as tungsten carbide. gear cutters. grinders. cobalt or HSS. The conductivity of the water is carefully controlled making an excellent environment for the EDM process. Also Watercutters were used which are very accurate and use extremely high pressure water. equipped with automatic tool changers. Choose the tooling required (computer assisted). drilling and boring machines. The spark always takes place in the dielectric of deionized water. In the Precision machining room. Precision Instrument Machine Shop is a full-service machine shop specializing in the custom design and fabrication of mechanical equipment. using CAD. Decide which machining operations and cutter-path directions are required (computer assisted). The spark is very carefully controlled and localized so that it only affects the surface of the material. is used to make intricate shapes The process is essentially the same as water erosion found in nature but accelerated and concentrated by orders of magnitude. Precision machine tools are classified as machine tools of increased precision ( class P). Verify and edit program. The usual process flow is: – – – – – – – Develop or obtain the 3D geometric model of the part. there are around 26 CNC machines which allows to machine extremely small and accurate features at a sub-millimeter scale. superhigh precision(class A). Intense heat is produced due to this electric spark producing with temperatures reaching from 8000 to 12000 degree Celsius. There are continuous path controllers as well as point to point path controllers helping in making contours of any shape at any angle. melting almost anything.7 PRECISION AND GENERAL MACHINING Precision machining is a process where material is removed from a component to a very high tolerance. The machining centres.

When electrons in a focused beam hit a metal surface. Electron beam welders use this characteristic to electromagnetically focus and very precisely deflect the beam at speeds up to 10 kHz. accelerates the electrons to about 50% to 80% of the speed of light and shapes them into a beam. Pressurized tanks are used to store air at high pressures so as to maintain the flow rate of the liquid propellants. These pressure vessels are then tested in an underground room for a pressure 1. Initially.8 ability to cut material without interfering with the material's inherent structure as there is no "heat affected zone" or HAZ. . Machine shop work is generally understood to include all cold-metal work by which an operator.charged particles with an extremely low mass . This allows metals to be cut without harming or changing their intrinsic properties. removes a portion of the metal and shapes it to some specified form or size. two metal plates are made into semi-circular shapes by mandreal and then electron beam welding is done. generated by a negatively charged filament and bias cup and a positively charged anode. An electrostatic field.their direction of travel can easily be influenced by electromagnetic fields. In launch vehicles used by ISRO. using either power driven equipment or hand tools. In an electron beam welder electrons are "boiled off" as current passes through a filament which is in a vacuum enclosure. When fast moving electrons hit a metal surface they are decelerated which transforms the kinetic energy of each individual electron in the beam into thermal energy in the component. the high energy density instantly vaporizes the material. Due to the physical nature of the electrons . alloy of titanium and vanadium. This is the place from where the raw material starts its journey to become the final product. are manufactured by Brahmos. generating a so-called key hole.67 times the approximate pressure. These tanks.

3 µm ≥0. Quality Assurance (QA)is defined as a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a product or service under development (before work is complete.9 QUALITY CONTROL Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer.5 µm ≥5 µm 10 2 ISO 1 100 24 10 4 ISO 2 1000 237 102 35 ISO 3 10000 2370 1020 352 ISO 4 100000 23700 10200 3520 29 ISO 5 1000000 237000 102000 35200 293 ISO 6 352000 2930 ISO 7 3520000 29300 ISO 8 The clean room visited had 1lakh particles per m3. Clean room: A clean room is an environment. and chemical vapours. Digital 2D height gauge: Used to measure linear lengths and PCD’s with significant accuracy and precision. .2 µm ≥0.1 µm ≥0. a cleanroom has a controlled level of contamination that is specified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a specified particle size. After every process the engineer responsible signs at their respective places. as opposed to afterwards) meets specified requirements.5 μm and larger in diameter. airbornemicrobes.000 particles per cubic meter in the size range 0. Calibration required.000. with a low level of environmental pollutants such as dust. typically used in manufacturing or scientific research. ISO standards of clean room Maximum concentration limits(paricles/m3) ISO equivalent ≥0. It has several probes for measurement of different works. Time taken by each process and consecutive measurements are also mentioned very systematically in the job record. Following are the standards for cleanrooms: Table 1. More accurately. the ambient air outside in a typical urban environment contains 35. aerosol particles. QC control and BrahMos: Job Record: Keeps track of the work from its early stage to the following stages including dimensions and tolerances with geometrical changes and processes involved. To give perspective. Very minute details like orientation of the material grains in case of supporting structure components are also included in the job record sheet.

laser. improved accuracy. reduced setup time. A machine which takes readings in six degrees of freedom and displays these readings in mathematical form is known as a CMM. A magnificent bridge type CMM was shining in the QC section with air bearings and a set of probes of all sizes with ruby probes and inductive probes. . or white light. optical. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis of this machine. Its advantages include flexibility of measuring dimensions.10 CMM: A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is used for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object. This machine can be manually controlled by an operator or be computer controlled. Probes can be mechanical. reduced operator dependency and productive.

The dyeing tanks are typically heated per the dye manufacturer’s instructions. thus allowing aluminium items to be finished in a wide range of colours. color and roughness. This oxide layer protects the underlying metal and prevents further corrosion from taking place. vary appearance. Depending on the dye. An additional benefit of this process is that the oxide layer that is created will accept certain dyes.. post-anodizing rinsing is critical before parts go into the dye tanks to avoid contamination of the dye tanks. and reflection. Ultimately. air agitation is either required or forbidden. conductivity. e.g. e. the functions and/or service lives of the materials can be improved.11 SURFACE TREATEMENT The processes of surface treatments tailor the surfaces of engineering materials to      control friction and wear. Fig 2 . The dye manufacturer should be able to provide the best practices for their dyes.A schematic of anodising Dyeing: Typically the dyes used are organic and can be sensitive to acid from the anodizing process or contaminants in the rinse water. alter dimension. The pre-dye rinse needs to be a high purity water rinse such as deionized water and room temperature or cooler water.. The use of a heated predye rinse would begin to seal the pores in the anodized surface and could reduce the dye pickup into the pores. Anodising: Anodising is the creation of an oxide layer on the surface of aluminium by electrochemical means. The warm dye is drawn into the pores of the anodized layer . change physical property.g. Therefore. resistivity. improve corrosion resistance.

The coating is on metal less than 250 microns thick.12 due to capillary action. inter-crystalline corrosion. In the surface treatment in BrahMos. and the description covers a wide range of processes at different levels. machining damage. Flaw detection . this is the commonest type of anodising. Chromic acid anodising is particularly useful when:       It is necessary to minimise the loss of fatigue strength of workpiece. The types of sulphuric acid are sub-divided into classes mainly determined by the field of application. as compared with sulphuric acid-type processes. It is light grey in colour. The process differs from hard anodising in that the electrolyte temperature is higher and the current density employed is lower. with a very silky texture. cold shuts. the process and resultant coating have less adverse effect upon the properties of the underlying metal. The use of additives requires additional wastewater treatment. Components containing crevices or small blind holes. The item to be anodised contains crevices or small blind holes from which it may be difficult to remove electrolyte. The hot water used in sealing also needs to be high purity such as deionized water. folds. clear or silver anodising.technique for identifying cracks. the layer of chromic gas was less than 10 micron thick as compared to Sulphuric gas which was nearly 20 micron thick. Chromic Acid Anodising: Compared with sulphuric acid anodising. Pre-treatment for painting. This provides stain and corrosion protection for a clear anodized surface and prevents dye migration or degradation in a dyed surface. These are used mainly for electrical insulation and general protection against corrosion under mild conditions. especially in aerospace applications. Immersion of an anodized part into hot (boiling point) water causes the pores to seal over due to the slight solubility of the aluminium oxide of the anodized surface. incipient melting of grain boundaries. normally of two to five microns thickness. Sealing. The temperature of working for . it gives relatively soft. Some of the techniques performed at BrahMos are discussed below: Sulphuric Acid Anodising: Often known as natural. Unsealed coatings are used as a 'key' for paints and adhesives. etc.The sealing operation is the final stage of the anodizing process. Sealing additives are also sometimes used such as nickel acetate with boric acid. All anodising processes are sealed unless the film is used as a primer for paint or adhesives. thin coatings.

the metal must be thoroughly prepared and cleaned for the application of photo-resist material. the photo-resist material is applied to both sides. Chemical Milling: The chemical milling process utilizes chemicals rather than cutting tools to etch shapes in metal. . Before any other steps can be performed. At BrahMos chemical milling was used to contour a complex skin panel section. the fabricator creates a graphic representation of the file. with little to no need for replacement parts. Tooling for chemical milling is relatively simple. Additionally. which is then sprayed on the coated part. which will map the pattern on the top and bottom surface of the metal to be milled. However. which occurs in a variety of other physical machining processes. The systematic steps for the anodising include Vapour Degreaser  Alkaline SoakCaustic EtchingChromic Acid AnodisingHard Chromium PlatingDe-smutting (with citric acid) Dyeing The dying was done using organic agents by impregnation process. the component is removed from the chemical milling area and the layer of photo-resist material is removed. the process does not alter the structure of the remaining metal. Once received. The remaining photo-resist material maps the areas that will be removed by the application of acid. chemical milling can be an economical machining option. as it is generated using CAD software. which is sent to or produced by the fabrication service (according to customer specifications). After the acid has been given sufficient time to work. and it is regularly employed for a wide number of applications. and selects the type of metal to undergo the process. After the metal is cleaned.13 chromic anodising was 400C and 150C for sulphuric anodising. Depending on the design of the part and desired volume of parts necessary. The process of chemical milling begins with a CAD file. the process is only suitable for metals of relatively limited thicknesses. then developed using UV light and chemicals. Several layers of material were removed to make slots and geometries. except in situations where only etching is required.

Deepu M. List of students in the visit SR. Dr. Satheesh K Dr. Vinoth . Praveen Krishna Dr.14 APPENDIX Table 2. YUDHISHTR MANIMARAN SAMAR MANISH KUMAR MISHRA MARIYA RATLAMI MAYANK KUMAR MOFEEZ ALAM MOHD. Rajeev Madhavan Manager BATL 2 Shri. B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 NAME OF THE STUDENT AKHIL JAISWAL AMAL JYOTHIS AMAN GUPTA AMIT KAMBOJ DIVESH SONI GAURAV VAIBHAV J. NO. Sunil Kumar Deputy GR BATL Table. Pradeep Kumar P Dr.R. List of Contacts in BATL SR no 1 CONTACT PERSON Shri. AHMAD RAHUL TANWAR RAJEEV VARMA RAMAN CHAWLA SREEAJ VARMA SWAPNIL KUMAR TANMAY SINGHAL Table 3. 4 List of faculty members for visit SR no 1 2 3 4 5 Faculty name Dr.