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Stage Efficiency and Reheat factor
The Thermodynamic effect on the turbine efficiency can be best understood by considering a number of stages between two stages 1 and 2 as shown in Figure
The total expansion is divided into four stages of the same efficiency and pressure ratio.

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considering a number of stages between two stages 1 and 2 as shown in Figure

The total expansion is divided into four stages of the same efficiency ( s ) and pressure

ratio.

Py

P

P1

P

x

z

Px

Py

P2

P2

The overall efficiency of expansion is (o ) . The actual work during the expansion from

1 to 2 is

Wa oW

Wa

Or,

Isentropic heat drop (overall )

R.F

h12

If s remains same for all the stages or s is the mean stage efficiency.

s

h xy

h yz

h1x

h z 2

h1A h xB h yc h zD

h1x h xy h yz h z 2

or s h h h h

1A

xB

yc

zD

We can see:

Cumulative heat drop (isentropic )

0 s R.F

---------------[B]

This makes the overall efficiency of the turbine greater than the individual stage

efficiency.

The effect depicted by eq (B) is due to the thermodynamic effect called reheat.

This does not imply any heat transfer to the stages from outside. It is merely the

reappearance of stage losses an increased enthepy during the constant pressure heating

(or reheating) processes AX, BY, CZ and D2.

Q1. The adiabatic heat drop in a given stage of a multi-stage impulse turbine is 22.1

KJ/kg of steam. The nozzle outlet angle is 16 o , the efficiency of the nozzle, defined as

the ratio of the actual gain of kinetic energy in the nozzle to adiabatic heat drop, is 92%.

The mean diameter of the blades is 1473.2 mm and the revolution per minutes is 1500.

Given that the carry over factor is 0.88, and that the blades are equiangular (the blade

velocity coefficient is 0.87). Calculate the steam velocity at the outlet from nozzles, blade

angles, and gross stage efficiency.

Q2. The following particulars related to a two row velocity compounded impulse wheel

which forms a first stage of a combination turbine.

Steam velocity at nozzle outlet = 579.12m/s

Mean blade velocity = 115.82m/s

Nozzle outlet angle = 16 o

Outlet angle first row of moving blades = 18 o

Outlet angle fixed guide blades = 22 o

Outlet angle, second row of moving blades = 36 o

Steam flow rate = 2.4kg/s

The ratio of the relative velocity at outlet to that at inlet is 0.84 for all blades.

Determine for each row of moving blades the following

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

The tangential thrust on blades

The axial thrust on the blades

The power developed

Q3. A velocity compounded impulse wheel has two rows of moving blades with a mean

diameter of 711.2 mm. The speed of rotation is 3000rpm, the nozzle angle is 16 o and the

estimated steam velocity at the nozzle outlet is 554.73m/s. The mass flow rate of the

steam passing through the blades is 5.07 kg/s.

Assuming that the energy loss in each row of blades (moving and fixed) is 24% of the

kinetic energy of the steam entering the blades and referred to as the relative velocity, and

that the outlet angles of the blades are: (1) first row of moving blades 18 o , (2)

intermediate guide blade 22 o , (3) second row of moving blades is 36 o , draw the

diagram of relative velocities and derive the following.

(a) Blade inlet angles

(b) Power developed in each row of blades

(c) Efficiency of the wheel as a whole

Q4. The following particulars refer to a stage of an impulse-reaction turbine.

Outlet angle of fixed blades = 20 o

Outlet angle of moving blades = 30 o

Radial height of fixed blades =100mm

Radial height of moving blades =100mm

Mean blade velocity = 138m/s

Ratio of blade speed to steam speed = 0.625

Specific volume of steam at fixed blade outlet =1.235 m 3 / kg

Specific volume of steam at moving blade outlet =1.305 m 3 / kg

Calculation the degree of reaction, the adiabatic heat drop in pair of blade rings, and the

gross stage efficiency, given the following coefficients which may be assumed to be the

same in both fixed and moving blades : m 0.9, 0.86.

Q5. Steam flows into the nozzles of a turbine stage from the blades of preceding stage

with a velocity of 100m/s and issues from the nozzles with a velocity of 325 m/s at angle

of 20 o to the wheel plane. Calculate the gross stage efficiency for the following data:

Mean blade velocity=180m/s

Expansion efficiency for nozzles and blades = 0.9

Carry over factor for nozzles and blades = 0.9

Degree of reaction = 0.26

Blade outlet angle = 28 o

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