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# 1

ES2B0FluidMechanics

Question1:UTubemanometer+Pitottube
In figure 1 the flowing fluid is CO2 at 200C. Neglect losses. If
manometerfluidisMeriamredoil(SG=0.827),estimate

and

and the
thegasflowratein

m /h.

Figure1

SOLUTION
EstimatetheCO2densityas

Hence,

## NowuseBernoullitofind ,assuming =stagnationpressure

Or,

Then,

Question2:Dimensionalanalysis
Underlaminarconditions,thevolumeflowQthroughasmalltriangularsectionporeofside
lengthbandlengthLisafunctionofviscosity ,pressuredropperunitlengthp/L,andb.
Using the pi theorem, rewrite this relation in dimensionless form. How does the volume
flowchangeiftheporesizebisdoubled?

SOLUTION
Establishthevariablesandtheirdimensions:

Then

and

,henceweexpect

pigroup,foundasfollows:

Solve,

Question3:Dynamicsimilarity
Whentestedinwaterat200Cflowingat2m/s,an8cmdiameterspherehasameasured
dragof5N.Whatwillbethevelocityanddragforceona1.5mdiameterweatherballoon
mooredinsealevelstandardairunderdynamicallysimilarconditions?

SOLUTION
Forwaterat200Ctake

and

and

.Forsealevelstandardairtake
.Theballoonvelocityfollowsfromdynamic

similarity,whichrequiresidenticalReynoldsnumbers:

Or,

Thenthetwosphereswillhaveidenticaldragcoefficients:

Solve

Question4:Momentumconservation
A12cmdiameterpipe,containingwaterflowingat200N/s,iscappedbyanorificeplate,as
inFigure2.Theexitjetis25mmindiameter.Thepressureinthepipeatsection1is800kPa
gage.CalculatetheforceFrequiredtoholdtheorificeplate.

Figure2

SOLUTION
Forwatertake

.Thisisastraightforwardxmomentumproblem.First

evaluatethemassflowandthetwovelocities:

Nowapplythexmomentumrelationforacontrolvolumesurroundingtheplate:

Or,

Question5:Newton`sLawofviscosity
. Assuming a linear velocity profile, develop a simple formula for the belt drive power
requiredasafunctionof

.Neglectairdrag.Whatpower inwattsisrequired

ifthebeltmovesat2.5m/soverSAE30Woilat200C,withL=2m,b=60cm,andh=3cm?

Figure3
SOLUTION
Thepoweristheviscousresistingforcetimesthebeltvelocity:

ForSAE30Woil,

.Then,forthegivenbeltparameters,

Question6:Heattransfer(conduction)
temperatureofthebottomofthepanisgivenas
and
thethicknessis

.Thetemperatureoftheoutersurfaceistobedetermined.

Figure4
Assumptions
constantatthespecifiedvalues.
2. Thermalpropertiesofthealuminiumpanareconstant.
Properties
Thethermalconductivityofthealuminiumisgiventobe

SOLUTION
Heattransferareais

Under steady conditions, the rate of heat transfer through the bottom of the pan by
conductionis

Substituting,

whichgives