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ES2B0FluidMechanics
ModelAnswerstoExampleQuestions(SetV)

Question1:UTubemanometer+Pitottube
In figure 1 the flowing fluid is CO2 at 200C. Neglect losses. If
manometerfluidisMeriamredoil(SG=0.827),estimate

and

and the
thegasflowratein

m /h.

Figure1

SOLUTION
EstimatetheCO2densityas

Themanometerreadinggivesthedownstreampressure:

Hence,

NowuseBernoullitofind ,assuming =stagnationpressure

Or,

Then,

Question2:Dimensionalanalysis
Underlaminarconditions,thevolumeflowQthroughasmalltriangularsectionporeofside
lengthbandlengthLisafunctionofviscosity ,pressuredropperunitlengthp/L,andb.
Using the pi theorem, rewrite this relation in dimensionless form. How does the volume
flowchangeiftheporesizebisdoubled?

SOLUTION
Establishthevariablesandtheirdimensions:

Then

and

,henceweexpect

pigroup,foundasfollows:

Solve,

Question3:Dynamicsimilarity
Whentestedinwaterat200Cflowingat2m/s,an8cmdiameterspherehasameasured
dragof5N.Whatwillbethevelocityanddragforceona1.5mdiameterweatherballoon
mooredinsealevelstandardairunderdynamicallysimilarconditions?

SOLUTION
Forwaterat200Ctake

and

and

.Forsealevelstandardairtake
.Theballoonvelocityfollowsfromdynamic

similarity,whichrequiresidenticalReynoldsnumbers:

Or,

Thenthetwosphereswillhaveidenticaldragcoefficients:

Solve

Question4:Momentumconservation
A12cmdiameterpipe,containingwaterflowingat200N/s,iscappedbyanorificeplate,as
inFigure2.Theexitjetis25mmindiameter.Thepressureinthepipeatsection1is800kPa
gage.CalculatetheforceFrequiredtoholdtheorificeplate.

Figure2

SOLUTION
Forwatertake

.Thisisastraightforwardxmomentumproblem.First

evaluatethemassflowandthetwovelocities:

Nowapplythexmomentumrelationforacontrolvolumesurroundingtheplate:

Or,

Question5:Newton`sLawofviscosity
ThebeltinFigure3movesatsteadyvelocity andskimsthetopofatankofoilofviscosity
. Assuming a linear velocity profile, develop a simple formula for the belt drive power
requiredasafunctionof

.Neglectairdrag.Whatpower inwattsisrequired

ifthebeltmovesat2.5m/soverSAE30Woilat200C,withL=2m,b=60cm,andh=3cm?

Figure3
SOLUTION
Thepoweristheviscousresistingforcetimesthebeltvelocity:

ForSAE30Woil,

.Then,forthegivenbeltparameters,

Question6:Heattransfer(conduction)
Heatistransferredsteadilytoboilingwaterinthepanthroughitsbottom.Theinnersurface
temperatureofthebottomofthepanisgivenas
.Theradiusofthepanis
and
thethicknessis

.Thetemperatureoftheoutersurfaceistobedetermined.

Figure4
Assumptions
1. Steadyoperatingconditionsexistsincethesurfacetemperaturesofthepanremain
constantatthespecifiedvalues.
2. Thermalpropertiesofthealuminiumpanareconstant.
Properties
Thethermalconductivityofthealuminiumisgiventobe

SOLUTION
Heattransferareais

Under steady conditions, the rate of heat transfer through the bottom of the pan by
conductionis

Substituting,

whichgives