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FCE RESULT UNIT 5: REPORTED SPEECH SUMMARY TEACHERS COPY

a) REPORTED STATEMENTS
When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use
reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously
the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually
have to be in the past too.
As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the
tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech
Indirect speech
1. She said, "It's cold." verb tense in the direct statement: Present Simple
Reported statement: She said it was cold.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Simple
2. She said, "I'm teaching English online." verb tense in the direct statement:
Present Continuous
Reported statement: She said she was teaching English online.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Continuous
3. She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." verb tense in the direct
statement: Present Perfect Simple
Reported statement: She said shed been on the web since 1999.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Perfect Simple

4. She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." verb tense in the direct
statement: Present Perfect Continuous
Reported statement: She said she had been teaching English for seven years.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Perfect Continuous
5. She said, "I taught online yesterday." verb tense in the direct statement: Past
Simple
Reported statement: She said she had taught English the day before.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Perfect Simple
6. She said, "I was teaching earlier." verb tense in the direct statement: Past
Continuous
Reported statement: She said she had been teaching earlier.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Perfect Continuous
7. She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." verb tense in the
direct statement: Past Perfect Simple
Reported statement: She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Perfect Simple
8. She said, "Id already been teaching for five minutes." verb tense in the direct
statement: Past Perfect Continuous
Reported statement: She said she had already been teaching for five minutes.
Verb tense in the reported statement: Past Perfect Continuous
9. She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." verb tense in the direct
statement: Future Simple
Reported statement: She said she would teach English the following day.
Verb tense in the reported statement: would
10. She said, "I can teach English online." verb tense in the direct statement:
can
Reported statement: She said she could teach English online.
Verb tense in the reported statement: could
11. She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." verb tense in the
direct statement: must
Reported statement: She said she had to have a computer to teach English
online.
Verb tense in the reported statement: had to
b) ORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS
1. When we want to report an order or request, we can use a verb like
'tell' with a to-clause.
Examples: He told me to go away.
The pattern is verb + indirect object + to-clause.
(The indirect object is the person spoken to.)
Other verbs used to report orders and requests in this way are: command,
order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid.
Examples:
a. The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!".
The doctor told me to stop smoking.

b. "Get out of the car!" ordered the policeman.


The policeman ordered me to get out of the car.
c. "Could you please be quiet," she said.
She asked me to be quiet.
d. The man with the gun warned us, "Don't move!"
The man with the gun warned us not to move.
2. Requests for objects are reported using the pattern ask + for +object:
Examples:
a. "Can I have an apple?, please", she asked. She asked for an apple.
b. "May I have a glass of water?" he said. He asked for a glass of water.
c. "Sugar, please." She asked for the sugar.
d. "Could I have three kilos of onions?" He asked for three kilos of onions.

3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause. 'That' and 'should'


are optional in these clauses:
She said: "Why don't you get a mechanic to look at the car?"
She suggested getting a mechanic to look at the car. OR
She suggested that I should get a mechanic to look at the car.
Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, demand,
request, propose.
Examples:
a. "It would be a good idea to see the dentist", said my mother. My
mother suggested I see the dentist.
b. The dentist said, "I think you should use a different toothbrush".
The dentist recommended that I should use a different
toothbrush.
c. My manager said, "I think we should examine the budget carefully
at this meeting." My manager proposed that we examine the
budget carefully at the meeting.
d. "Why don't you sleep overnight at my house?" she said. She
suggested that I sleep overnight at her house.
Note:
Suggest can also be followed by a gerund: I suggested postponing the visit
to the dentist.
c) REPORTED QUESTIONS
1. Affirmative word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject
comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use do, does or did:
"Where does Peter live?" She asked him where Peter lived.
2. Yes / no questions: This type of question is reported by using 'ask' +
if/whether + clause:
Examples:
"Do you speak English?"

He asked me if I spoke English.


b. "Are you British or American?"
He asked me whether/if I was British or American.
c. "Is it raining?"
She asked if/whether it was raining.
d. "Have you got a computer?"
He wanted to know if/whether I had a computer.
e. "Can you type?"
She asked me if/whether I could type.
f. "Did you come by train?"
He enquired if/whether I had come by train.
g. "Have you been to Bristol before?"
She asked me if/whether I had been to Bristol by train.
3. Wh- questions: This type of question is reported by using 'ask' (or
another verb like 'ask') + question word + clause. The clause
contains the question, in affirmative word order and with the
necessary tense change.
Examples:
a. "What is your name?" he asked me.
He asked me what my name was.
b. "How old is your mother?", he asked.
He asked how old my mother was.
c. My friends friend asked "Where do you live?"
My friends friend asked me where I lived.
d. "What time does the train arrive?" she asked.
She asked me what time the train arrived.
e. "When can we have dinner?" she asked.
She asked us when we/they could have dinner.
Adapted from:http://www.hulya.cankaya.edu.tr/ingilizce4.htm

d) REPORTING VERBS
Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.
We use asked to report questions:
For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started.
We use told with an object.
For example: Lynne told me she felt tired.

Note - Here me is the object.


We usually use said without an object.
For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online.
If said is used with an object we must include to, but told is more commonly used
in this case.
For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.
Often you would actually say: Lynne told me that she'd never been to China.
There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked.
These include:
accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted,
complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised,
replied, suggested and thought.
Adapted from: http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/reportedspeech.htm