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Contents

Preface

iii

Introduction

vii

Section 1: Post-Refit Operations

1

1 Primary and Secondary Insulation Space
1.1
1.2

1.3
1.4
:

1.5

3

Inerting/Drying Membrane Ships
Drying of Cargo Tank Hold Spaces (Moss-Rosenberg)
1.2.1 Drying and Inerting of Tank Insulation and
Annular Space
Drying of Cargo Tanks
Inerting of Cargo Tanks
1.4.1 Overview
1.4.2 Flammability of Methane, Oxygen and Nitrogen Mixtures
1.4.3 Plant Comparison IG/N 2
1.4.4 Inerting Procedure
1.4.5 Pressurisation
Post-Refit Ballast Passage

2 Gassing-up Cargo Tanks
2.1
2.2
2.3

Operational Overview
Operational Description
Other Useful Points

13
14
15

17

Operational Overview
Basic Cooldown Procedure (Membrane Vessel)
Basic Cooldown Procedure (Moss-Rosenberg Vessel)

17
17
18

Section 2: In-Service Operations

21

4 Loading Operation
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

Pre-Loading Procedure
Loading Procedure
Topping-off
Post Loading Procedure

5 Loaded Passage
5.1
5.2
5.3

Overview
Normal Boil-off Gas Burning
5.2.1 Operation
Forced Boil-off Gas Burning
5.3.1 Operation

7
7
8
8
9
10
11
12
12

13

3 Initial Cooldown of Cargo Tanks
3.1
3.2
3.3

3
6

23
'

23
24
28
29

30
30
30
30
32
32

LNG Operational Practice

5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

Loaded Passage Essential Safety Equipment
Loaded Passage Administration/Records
Inner-Huil Inspection (IHI) - Cold Spotting
Loaded Voyage Discharge Preparations
5.7.1 Two days prior to arrival at the Disport
5.7.2 Day of arrival at the Discharge Terminal
5.7.3 Day prior to arrival at the Disport

33
33
34
35
35
36
.36

6 Discharge Operation
6.1
6.2
6.3

6.4
6.5
6.6

38

Overview.
Pre-DischaYge Procedure
Discharge Procedure
6.3.1 Older Class of Vessel (GT or TGZ) - Using a Main Cargo Pump
6.3.2 Newer Vessels (GTT Membrane or Moss-Rosenberg) - Using a
Stripping/Spray Pump
Additional Notes Regarding Cryogenic Cargo Pump Operation
Completion of Discharge Procedure
Post Discharge Procedure

38
38
40
40
42
44
46
46

7 Ballast Passage - In Service
7.1
7.2

7.3

47

Overview
Ballast Voyage Loading Preparations
7.2.1 Two Days before Arrival at the Load Port
7.2.2 Day before Arrival at the Load Port
7.2.3 Day of Arrival at the Load Port
Cold State of the Vessel on Arrival at the Load Port

47
48
48
48
49
50

Section 3: Pre-Refit Operations

51

8 Cargo Tank Warm-up
8.1
8.2
8.3

Tank Stripping / Line Drainage
Warm-up Operation
Useful Points

9 Inerting of Cargo Tanks
9.1
9.2
9.3

Inerting Overview
Inerting Operation
Useful Points

10 Aeration
10.1 Aerating Overview
10.2 Aerating Operation
10.3 Useful Points

53
:

*

53
&4
55

56
56
56
57

57
57
58
58

Glossary

59

Index

65

VI

Introduction

Introduction
On occasions, the text will refer to various
Officers by rank. To clarify how cargorelated responsibilities are usually managed
between the Officers, here is'.a typical
manning structure for the Cargo Control
Room (CCR):
Chief Officer: Overall responsibility for the
cargo, reporting directly to the Master and
Chief Engineer as appropriate.
Cargo Engineer: Responsibility assigned to
the Cargo Engineer is dependant on the
operating company. Typically the following
would be the case, split-operational
responsibility for the cargo with the Chief
Officer, but with a direct reporting line to the
Master and the Chief Engineer with regard
to aspects of maintenance.
OiC (Officer In Charge): Chief Officer
and/or the Cargo Engineer.
OOW (Officer of the Watch): In charge of
watchkeeping responsibilities, that is,
moorings, security, safety and providing
assistance with cargo/ballast duties as
directed. If the time frame for cargo operations and/or
compliance with Hours of Rest regulations .
requires handover of operational
responsibility between C/O and Cargo/Eng,
then that process should be formal and
recorded appropriately in the Deck
Operations Log.
In order to conduct cargo operations safely
and efficiently, synergetic teamwork from
Jhe CCR is an essentia? requirement.
Operator's own Safety
Stem (SMS) must define the
fSponsibility clearly and without
ambiguity.

Emergency Procedures
and Communications
This section provides guidance in the event
of an abnormal condition during cargo
loading or discharge operations.
An abnormal condition is anything that
could compromise the vessel's ability to
carry out a smooth, incident-free cargo
operation. An abnormal condition need not
be cargo-related. For example, it might be
in the Engine Room (E/R) or involve deck
machinery, such as a mooring winch failure.

Emergency Procedures
Many emergency procedures are covered
regularly by the shipboard Safety
Management Drills which are applicable to
in-port operations. Some examples are:




Ship/Shore Fire
Blackout
Internal Loss of Cargo
Compressor House Gas Detection
Pollution.

All such procedures should be documented
in the relevant Information Books and
referred to regularly to ensure all shipboard
personnel are fully aware of the appropriate
action to be taken. In compliance with the
ISM Code clauses 7 and 8 - 8.3, these drills
must be regularly rehearsed by the ship's
personnel according to an approved
calendar to ensure that everybody is familiar
with all essential response procedures.
If considered necessary, suspend
operations to stabilise an abnormal
situation. If there is any doubt, a/ways take
the safest option.
From experience, the incidents listed here
have the potential to cause serious
disruption to the vessel's continued trading
pattern:

butane. forms a clear colourless and odourless liquid. Typically. For most engineering calculations (e.* After such an action.the Master. However. i. the discharged LNG has a lower nitrogen content than the LNG as loaded. . inform all interested parties . the specific properties based on actual component analysis must be used. due to methane and nitrogen boiling-off in preference to the heavier gases. Chief Engineer. If liquid cargo is suspected to have entered the primary insulation space. and a slightly higher percentage of ethane. piping pressure losses) it can be assumed that the physical properties of pure methane represent those of LNG. boil-off.LNG Operational Practice Cargo Pump Failure: If you suspect that the cargo pump load current (amps) is abnormal or the discharge pressure is fluctuating excessively and the condition cannot be stabilised by conventional means. Buyer's Representative. Communications In the event of a serious abnormal condition during cargo operations. when accurate calculation of the gross heating value and density is required. stop the pump immediately.e. Brief all interested parties correctly and promptly about the nature of the abnormal condition.Inform the Buyer's Representative and/or the Loading Master Off the vessel . and possibly a small percentage of nitrogen. ethane. do not restart the pump without permission from the appropriate party.Inform the Master. On the vessel (Non-Ship's Staff) . propane. Terminal Control and (in most cases) the Superintendent in HO.Inform Terminal Control and the vessel's Superintendent in HO. for custody transfer purposes. Therefore. Keep your explanations concise and include any possible effects for the VIII current cargo operation. stop all cargo discharge from the tank. the OIC should follow the guidelines laid down by the vessel's operator. vapourise first. having lower boiling points at atmospheric pressure. The composition of the LNG is changed by this boil-off because the lighter components. e. Buyer's Representative. when liquefied. do not restart the pump without permission from the appropriate party. Cover the safety implications where appropriate. Terminal Control and (in most cases) the Superintendent in HO. pentane. Physical Properties.g. After such an action. Primary Barrier (Membrane) Failure: If you suspect that the primary membrane integrity has been compromised. The OIC (officer in charge) will inform all appropriate interested parties . heat is transferred to the LNG cargo through the cargo tank insulation. Composition and Characteristics of LNG Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons that. Chief Officer and Cargo Engineer. causing vapourisation of part of the cargo.g.the Master. Chief Engineer. This LNG is usually transported and stored at a temperature very close to its boiling point at atmospheric pressure (approximately -160°C). During a normal sea voyage. Chief Engineer. Other constituents will be small percentages of heavier hydrocarbons. but the main constituent will always be methane. propane and butane. these are: On the vessel (Ship's Staff) . The actual LNG composition of each loading terminal will vary depending on its source and on the liquefaction process.

e. . a.n explosion cannot occur if the O2 content of the mixture is below 13%. the lowest temperature to which the gas needs to be heated to cause self-sustained combustion without ignition by a spark or flame. When cold vapour is mixed with ambient air. At 2%. i.3 to 14% (by volume). Therefore when vapour is vented to the atmosphere. we can be sure that all areas are well away from the flammable range. To reduce this range.Introduction The flammability range of methane in air (21% oxygen) is approximately 5. but for practical safety reasons. hence the dangers of trapping residual liquid between valves. In theory. regardless of the percentage of methane. the vapour will tend to rise above the vent outlet and will be rapidly dispersed. This is because the flow path of gases through the tanks can make mixing less effective. The auto ignition temperature of methane. purging is continued until the 02 content is below 2%. the vapour-air mixture will appear as a readily visible white cloud due to the condensation of the moisture in the air It is normally safe to assume that the flammable range of vapour-air mixture does not extend significantly beyond the perimeter of the white cloud. The boil-off vapour from LNG is lighter than air at vapour temperatures above -110°C or higher depending on LNG composition. is 595°C. the air is diluted with nitrogen or inert gas until the oxygen content is reduced to 2% prior to loading after dry-dock. Volumetric expansion at the liquid/vapour phase change is 600-620 times the liquid volume.

the following style has been used to distinguish between the various types of text in this book: A text block like this will be used for general comment or a description of a step. Items in this italic type are extremely important and should have special note taken of them. Items in this italic type relate to safety and must always be closely reviewed and be given full consideration. Normal Trading Cycle for a Modern LNG Carrier (membrane type used as an example) Normal Cargo Operation .LNG Operational Practice For clarity. • A bulleted point like this will either be a check-list item or part of some other sort of list. An indented text block like this will be an instruction.

Post-Refit Operations

Section

Post-Refit Operations

1 Primary and
Secondary
Insulation Space

1.1 Inerting/Drying
Membrane Ships

ships operating manual should be followed
as there may be slight differences in the
operating procedures required.

Before putting a cargo tank into its initial
service, or after dry-docking, it is necessary
to replace the ambient humid air in the
insulation space with dry nitrogen (N2).

The following outlines the more complex
procedure involved where the use of
vacuum pumps is required:

To do this, use the ship's vacuum pumps to
evacuate the insulation spaces and refill
them with N2. Repeat this procedure until
the oxygen content is reduced to less than
2% and the humidity to less than -25°C.

To avoid major damage to the secondary
barrier, never evacuate a primary
insulation space while the associated
secondary space is under pressure and
never fill a secondary space whilst the
primary space is under a vacuum.

Vessels fitted with the GTT Mklll type of
containment system, or similar, are not
equipped with vacuum pumps. Instead the
by-pass valves on the exhaust from the
interbarrier and insulation spaces are
opened and a continuous supply of
Nitrogen is provided so that the spaces are
'swept' with a free flow of Nitrogen. Once
the exhaust from the spaces meets the
above criteria, the exhaust by-pass valves
are closed and the spaces pressurised. In
all cases the detailed instructions in the

Measurement devices which may
otherwise be damaged, should be isolated
prior to the commencement of the test.
Install temporary manometers of known
accuracy, each bearing an in-date test
certificate, to monitor the pressure in the
space concerned.
At all times, the barrier spaces must be
protected against over-pressure, which
might cause membrane failure.

LNG Operational Practice

Diagram 1.1 Vacuum Pumps

Typically, evacuation of the insulation
spaces will take approximately 8 hours.
Three cycles are usually necessary to
reduce the oxygen to less than 2% by
volume.
Before being refilled with N2, the insulation
spaces are evacuated to 200 mbarA.
It is important to have a clear understanding
of the pressures involved. For example, a
primary space evacuated to 200mbarA
exerts the same force on the primary

A

membrane as a positive pressure from
within the tank of 800mbarG - that is,
3.5 x the tank relief valve lifting pressure.
This procedure for evacuating the insulation
spaces is also used to check the integrity of
the barriers during the periodic global test
and the same stringent precautions to avoid
major damage must be in place.
To avoid possible damage to the secondary
membrane, evacuate the secondary
insulation spaces before you evacuate the

adjust the opening of these valves to balance the pressure rise in all the spaces. . the final humidity of the insulation spaces is an important consideration. liquid N2 is supplied from shore to the liquid manifold. Three cycles are usually necessary. It is necessary to maintain pressures of between 2 mbar and 4 mbar above atmospheric. Then. installed in the cargo compressor room and usually cooled by fresh water. Severe damage to the membranes will result if the differentials exceed 30 mbar. check the 02 content in all the spaces. the next step (or cycle) is to fill the insulation spaces with N2. Although the N2 produced by vapourisation from a liquid source is very dry. the pipe work at the vacuum pump's suction ensures that either: (a) the evacuation of the primary spaces cannot take place without having first evacuated the secondary spaces. maintain the pressure in the primary space at 100 mbar above the secondary space. Changes in temperature or barometric pressure can produce differentials far in excess of 30 mbar in insulation spaces that are shut in. Adjust the opening of the primary space supply valves to balance the pressure rise in all the spaces. Because of this.) During filling. repeat the inerting operation. With the cargo system out of service and during inerting. crack open the secondary space supply valves on each tank. Repeat the cycle until the oxygen content in the spaces is less than 2%. confirm it as acceptable i. better than-25°C.Post-Refit Operations primary insulation spaces. Do not shut down the LNG vapouriser until it has warmed back to the ambient temperature. it is fed to the LNG vapouriser. As with the 0 2 . If it is higher than 2%. Also check the 02 content at the vacuum pump discharge at regular intervals. Where it passes to the stripping/spray header through the appropriate manifold shore-connection liquid valve. on completion.e. draw from the appropriate headers and discharge to the vent riser. always maintain the secondary insulation space pressure to a level at or below the primary insulation space pressure. In normal design. (This procedure is a valvespecific matter. This is automatically maintained by alternate relief and make-up as the atmospheric pressure or the temperature rises and falls. After the final filling. For this operation. reinstate the vessel's normal supply from the A/2 generating plant and the associated pressure control systems as soon as possible after the procedures listed above have been completed. Two electrically-driven vacuum pumps. The primary and secondary insulation spaces are filled with dry N2 gas. When the pressure in the primary spaces reaches 300 mbar A (100 mbar above the pressure in the secondary spaces). Again. The N2 gas produced is passed at a temperature of +20°C to each insulation space. After evacuation. or (b) that both primary and secondary insulation spaces are evacuated simultaneously. The final filling of the insulation spaces up to 2 mbar is carried out at a reduced rate of flow. The initial filling process is supplied from a bulk liquid N2 source where the ship's N2 generating plant has insufficient capacity for this purpose.

@ Open the vent valves to the holds. From an operational perspective. branches are led to the primary and secondary insulation spaces of each tank. From the headers. • Ensure the IG plant is operating in the Dry Air mode and ticking over while discharging to the atmosphere. • To permit easy detection of an LNG leak through a barrier. Now. neither supply nor relief is taking place.'This supplies the primary and secondary supply or pressurisation headers through make-up regulating valves located in the cargo compressor room. the regulating N2 supply and relief valves for insulation space pressure control.{if available) by the vessel's own Inert Gas (IG) plant operating in the Dry Air mode. • Activate the Consumer Select facility on the IG control panel. GTT recommends a very slight control range overlap. These must be dried before any continuation of service. But. Dry air is introduced into the hold space through the inert gas filling pipeline. or its equivalent. commonly 22 m3 in size. if the dry air is supplied by the refit yard. the last point which is more associated with the older class of membrane vessels. Gas Transport Technology (GTT) recommends equal pressures of between 2-4mbar in both spaces. hold spaces contain a certain amount of moist air. The displaced air is expelled from the top of each hold to the atmosphere. vigilance. . can be set-up with an operational Dead- R @ Open the inlet valves to the holds. In normal service. is achieved by controlling the secondary space pressure at approximately 1-2 mbar higher than the primary space. To prevent membrane damage. Excess N2 from the insulation spaces is vented to the appropriate mast riser through the relief regulating valves. Note that on the older class of membrane vessels. Note these key points that cover the importance of maintaining insulation spaces in the inerted condition: The N2 provides a'dry and inert medium for the following purposes: • To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the event of an LNG leak. This formation can occur if the moist air is allowed to combine with sulphur and nitrogen oxides. N2 produced by the two N2 generators is stored in a pressurised buffer tank. to ensure a continuous minimal N2 flow through the space.) Now. *© To prevent corrosion within the insulated spaces.2 Drying of Cargo Tank Hold Spaces (MossRosenberg) During dry-docking or inspection.LNG Operational Practice Ensure that all relief valves have been reinstated and any blanks are removed. careful planning and tight operational control are essential at all times. it can take some 20 hours to reduce the Dew Point to less than -25°C. 1. If the vessel has its own IG plant. The vent valves are situated on each tank top. thus maintaining dryness and corrosion protection. the result can be better than -45°C. • To deter the migration of leaking LNG vapour from primary to secondary spaces. (Within this control deadband. mainly to avoid the formation of corrosive agents within the hold spaces. Dry air is supplied by the refit yard or . band of 10%. the inlet valves to the hold spaces are usually manually operated. which may be contained in the inert gas.

Nitrogen is supplied from the N2 generators as required. During the time that the inert gas plant is in operation for the drying and subsequent inerting of the cargo tanks. This space is known as the Annular Space'. The operation (performed either from shore or at sea). this is to avoid the formation of ice when they are cooled. This process removes any moisture that may be present within the insulation. the IG plant discharge valve to the aeration header will automatically open and the discharge valve to atmosphere will close. the Nitrogen inlet by-pass valves are closed and Nitrogen supply to the Annular Spaces is regulated by the appropriate control valves. 1. resulting in an inert atmosphere around the tank. The Dew Point for each hold is monitored at the respective outlet pipe. id Inerting of sulation and pace The insulation around the cargo tanks on spherical vessels is part of the leak protection system. cargo tanks that have been opened and contain humid air must be dried. usually No.3 Drying of Cargo During a dry-docking or inspection. Normal humid air is displaced by dry air. Prior to introducing cargo vapour or liquid into the cargo system. When a Dew Point of -25°C or lower is attained. and then opening the by-pass valves on the Nitrogen supply to the spaces on each tank. the insulation and annular spaces around the tanks are purged with Nitrogen. directing the liquid into the drip tray located beneath the tank. A modern shipboard IG plant can produce dry air with a dew point of -45°C and a flow rate of 14. enabling the leak to be detected quickly. but is also to avoid the formation of corrosive agents if the humidity combines with the sulphur and nitrogen oxides (which might be contained in excess in the inert gas). as the next part of the post-refit procedure. which if left would cause damage through the formation of ice. The insulation is fitted in such a way that there is a space between the tank material and insulation. the vapour will be transported around the annular space to the gas detector by a constant flow of Nitrogen. The Oxygen in the atmosphere is also removed. Dry air is introduced at the bottom of the cargo tanks through the filling pipes. . Once complete. The air is displaced from the top of each tank through the dome arrangement. any pipework not purged with inert gas must be purged with N2. The process is complete when the Oxygen content is below 2% and dewpoint is below -20°C. This procedure is undertaken by opening the exhausts valves from the Annular Spaces to atmosphere. the dry air is displaced by inert gas.1 (for'd). the inert gas is also used to dry and inert all other LNG and vapour pipework to below -45°C. will take approximately 20 hours to reduce the dew point to less than -25°C. into the vapour header and up the appropriate vent mast. Before the introduction of LNG or the associated vapour. In the event of a leakage of vapour from the tank.Post-Refit Operations Once the O2 level is satisfactory (approximately 21%) and the Dew Point is at (or lower than) -45°C. Then. the appropriate filling valve is closed and the corresponding vent valve also closes. In the event of a liquid leak the insulation acts as a splash back.000m3/h. Mainly.

in practice. Inerting is the process that reduces the oxygen level in the atmosphere of the cargo tanks. In order to avoid the formation of corrosive agents. may not occur.2 The relationship between gas/air composition and flammability for all possible mixtures of methane.LNG Operational Practice Area EDFE flammable ! Caution This diagram assumes complete mi which. which may be contained in the discharge lines from the cargo pumps.4.1 Over Commence this procedure immediately after the drying process is complete. before purging with inert gas. it is necessary to use dry air to lower the cargo tank's dew point to at least -25°C. must also be purged with dry air. float level piping and any associated pipe work in the cargo compressor room. Removing the flammability hazard . Mixtures of air and methane cannot be produced above line BEFC 40 50 Methane 60 % Area ABEDH not capable of forming flammable mixture with air Diagram 1. pipelines and associated equipment to a level where combustion cannot take place. 1. air and nitrogen Wet air.

ranging from 0% 02 (100% N2) at point A. at point D: CH4: 6. and we are always looking to provide a healthy safety margin. each present in specific proportion of the total volume. The addition of CH4 will cause the mixture composition to change along the line GDC. before the addition of CH4. 2.0% (read on axis A-C) 0 2 : 12. when gassing-up. In this example point X. to 2 1 % 02 (79% N2) at point B. If the 02 content is reduced further. The relationship between gas/air composition and flammability for all possible mixtures of methane (CH4). the ship must b'e operated to avoid a flammable mixture of methane and air. CH4) 02 and N2. the atmosphere in these spaces will never pass through the flammable zone.N2 mixtures with no methane present. which will move from Y to Z as increasing quantities of mixture Z are added.0% at point N.5% at point M.2% (read on axis A-B) N2: 81. to 100% CH4 (0% N2) at point C. ranging from 0% CH4 (100% N2) at point A. the composition of the resulting mixture will.Post-Refit Operations means that. and 9. Area ABEDH. passes through the flammable zone EDR that is. 3. complete mixing of air and N2 may not occur within the tank. Any mixture whose composition is represented by a point that lies within this area is not capable of forming a flammable mixture when mixed with air. Any mixture whose composition is represented by a point that lies within this area is capable of forming a flammable mixture when mixed with air. It will be noted that this does not pass through the flammable zone. Theoretically. However. Assume that point Y on the 02 . Flammability of Methane. when the CH 4 content of the mixture is between 5. The proportions of the three components represented by a single point can be read off the diagram. The Flammable Zone Area EDR Any mixture whose composition is represented by a point that lies within this area is flammable.2 page 8: At all times. be represented by point X.N2 axis is joined by a straight line to point Z on the CH4. but rather is tangential to it at point D. The horizontal axis A-C represents CH4_N2 mixtures with no 02 present.N2 axis. first assume that the tank is initially full of air at point B. N2 is added until the 02 content is reduced to 13% at point G. The latter point represents the composition of atmospheric air. at all times. Area HDFC.N2 mixture of composition Z. it would only be necessary to add N2 to air when inerting until the 02 content is reduced to 13%. Oxygen and Nitrogen Mixtures Using the diagram 1. Applying this chemistry to the process of inerting a cargo tank prior to cooldown. (between points A and G). The vertical axis A-B represents O2 .8% (remainder) The diagram highlights three major sectors: 1. Any single point on the diagram within the triangle ABC represents a mixture of all three components. . the change in composition with the addition of CH 4 will not pass through the flammable zone. If an oxygen-nitrogen mixture of composition Y is mixed with a CH4. representing changing composition. the 02 content is typically reduced to 2% during inerting because. For example. in practice. but contains too much CH4 to ignite. air and nitrogen (N2) is shown on the diagram. to any point between 0% and 13%.

N2 Generating Plant .' Before admitting CH4. it is produced by a purpose-built IG/Dry Air Generating Plant. As air is added. €> Aerate cargo tanks. •. special portable instruments such as the infra-red type have been developed and these are capable of detecting and measuring the hydrocarbon content in inert atmospheres (a purely non-combustible process). a similar procedure is followed. but does not pass through it.LNG Operational Practice When a tank full of CH4 gas is to be inerted with N2 prior to aeration. (b) the N2 generating plant is a low capacity. as before. Both have very different functions. # Inert cargo tanks. # Purge the cargo line. Before admitting air. This type of analyser will not work with CH4-nitrogen mixtures that do not contain oxygen (0 2 >13% Vol). # Provide a mast-riser fire-snuffing facility. Instead. the mixture composition will change along line HDB. <B» Inert/purge the cargo tank wedge and insulation/annular space (Moss Rosenberg). Inert boiler fuel gas line double-wall piping. For the same reasons as when inerting from a tank containing air. in practice.used to: if Inert/purge the primary/secondary insulation/annular space (membrane). Note that some portable instruments for measuring CH 4 content are based on oxidising the sample over a heated platinum wire and measuring the increased temperature from this combustion (catalytic process). that is. gas carriers do not use the ship's boilers to create inert gas (IG). whe. cargo pipelines and associated equipment. 4. tanks and piping containing CH 4 are to be inerted with N2 until all sampling points indicate 5%Vol CH4 or lower. 10 % Dry cargo tanks.3 Plant Comparison IG/N 2 Unlike oil tankers. Assume that N2 is added to the tank containing CH 4 at point C until the CH4 content is reduced to about 14% at point H. cargo pipelines and associated equipment. occur. For this reason. hold spaces and cargo pipelines. # Inert the gas compressor and bulkhead seal arrangements.::: Purge the boiler fuel gas line (element in the fuel gas on/off sequence). hold spaces. a low flow. from a combustion-based source that is used for inerting large volume spaces with high quality IG. which. To summarise procedures for avoiding flammable mixtures in cargo tanks and piping: Do not confuse the IG/Dry Air generating plant with the N2 generating plant.n inerting a tank full of CH4 it is necessary to go well below the theoretical figure to a CH 4 content of 5% because complete mixing of CH4 and N2 may not. low pressure throughput. . They provide these onboard services: IG/Dry Air Plant . tanks and piping containing air are to be inerted with N2 until all sampling points indicate 2%Vol or less oxygen content. (a) the IG/Dry Air plant has a high capacity.used to: . reasonably high-pressure process that is used to supply relatively pure N2 for pressure maintenance purposes. low 02 content and without any undesirable by products associated with the combustible source. is tangential at D to the flammable zone.

As with the drying process. In order to avoid asphyxiation from O2 depletion. associated equipment and instrumentation lines for at last 5 minutes. Also test at a purge valve at the filling line of one of the tanks being inerted to verify that the oxygen content of the inert gas remains below 2%. machinery. use the IG Blower to blow it through with air. The inerting procedure follows the completion of the drying process. To be sure. take samples of the discharge from the vapour dome at the top of each tank and test them for 02 content. • Main Cargo Pumps and Discharge Lines. ensure that the tank pressures are always higher than the insulation space pressures by at least 10 mbar. preparations for the drying/inerting procedures involve the fitting of cross-over bends into the cargo piping system. Line set-up and preparation are very much the same. IG/Dry Air Plant to Vapour Header Note: depending on the vessel's cargo piping configuration and whether or not an onboard IG/Dry Air Plant is fitted. i. the pressure in the tanks must be kept as low as possible to maximise on the 'piston effect'. this may vary. Make sure there has been a Risk Assessment and all personnel involved in the inerting procedure are familiar with the associated hazards. . but do not connect it to the system until the oxygen content and dewpoint are acceptable (02<2% and the dewpoint at or lower than -45°C). Gas Heaters. On membrane vessels. With most pipeline configurations. follow the directions contained in the relevant Cargo Operations Manual. Approximately once an hour. Three dedicated bends are normally required. blind ends. Start the IG generator and let it run. This Purge all the unused sections of pipelines. the flow loop directs IG from the plant to the liquid header and into the cargo tanks via the tank branch valves and the loading drop lines. Spray Header /'Spray Pumps / Spray Rails. Inerting is a multi-stage process and involves sufficient stages to purge: Cargo Tanks. They are: i IG/Dry Air Plant to Liquid Header (already fitted before Drying) IG/Dry Air Plant to Compressor House (already fitted before Drying) Monitor tank pressures and adjust the opening of the fill valves to maintain a uniform pressure in all of the tanks. Purged air from the tanks is exhausted to the vapour header via the tank dome vapour valves and released to the atmosphere through the vent mast riser. Before the IG Plant discharge is allowed to connect to the cargo system. During the inerting procedure. s Manifolds. Do not allow the tank pressures to exceed 180 mbar above atmospheric pressure. take great care to guarantee the safety of all personnel involved with any operation that uses IG.Forcing Vapouriser and LNG Vapouriser. LD and HD Compressors.Post-Refit Operations Procedure prevents accumulated debris from entering the cargo system. Inert gas and pure N2 can kill you.

' Instrumentation (Deck Boxes. An experienced team will be aware of the extensive invasive maintenance that happens during refit. safety relief lines). that would otherwise be . An essential principle for all membrane vessels dictates that tank pressures must be maintained within designed limits at all times while the vessel is in service. This provides the headers with volume and ensures that small pipeline leakages do not induce air into the piping spaces as they breathe under the influence of varying temperatures. When the 02 content sampled from a tank outlet reaches 2% (dew point <-25°C). It happens every 2J£ years (approximately) and is probably the only time in that period that the vessel is in service in the fully inert. Pressurisation Inerting should happen between leaving the dry-dock and achieving full plant availability. Whessoe Columns / Radar Still Pipes. it is 12 (a) the Work Planning Committee will consider what maintenance can be done. If the cargo system is tight. If this pressure is allowed to fall outside of the maker's recommended parameters. cooldown and loading. the IG plant will not need to be run up for topup purposes quite so often. except for No. From a cryogenic perspective. induced by the vessel's motion and vibration. condition. Prolonged exposure to fatigue stresses can contribute to an overall reduction in the life expectancy of the membrane or cause serious membrane-damaging conditions. > Fuel Gas Supply Piping to the E/R. these rigid cargo tanks are not internal-pressure dependent to the same extent as are the membrane tanks. which means that they cannot top-up on voyage. Emergency Cargo Pump Columns (Membrane only). the test will have been unavoidably warm and quite unlike the rigors of the cold operating conditions that may be experienced. no matter how much the associated equipment was tested during the refit after maintenance. Therefore. where the appropriate isolating valves are opened fully. then membrane fatigue stresses. isolate and shut down the tank. It is the internal tank pressure that keeps the membrane pressed against the underlying load bearing insulation. 1 R Poct-Pafit Rallact Although the Ballast Passage is covered under In-Service Operations (Section 2-4) the ballast passage immediately after refit requires a separate mention. In a standard post-refit set-up. increase dramatically. It may be many days before the vessel arrives at the first-load port for gassing-up. In the final stages of inerting. a cargo system has each cargo tank isolated from the connecting headers. stop the inert gas supply and shut down the IG/Dry Air Plant. impulse lines.1 (usually the smallest tank). important that these vessels depart refit fully pressurised with IG and with a cargo system that is completely free from leakage. a new membrane vessel can pressurise to 1160mbarA. Moss-Rosenberg vessels can pressurise to 15kPa or 2kPa above atmospheric. Due to their robust construction. On completion of all stages and final pressurisation. while the ship is in the inerted condition.LNG Operational Practice Gas Main. These are the specific implications: Some of the older class of membrane vessels (TGZ and GT) do not have an onboard IG plant.

For example. Is the starting current acceptable? Do all measured parameters settle back to normal after starting? S Has the motor winding resistance to earth and between phases been monitored throughout the ballast passage and are all readings acceptable? Has the cargo pump motor heating facility been disconnected correctly? (d) On completion of loading. what procedure should be followed? J As each independent High/High Level sensor operates. the cargo tanks will have to be purged with LNG vapour and cooled when the vessel arrives at the loading terminal. inside the compressor house. which has been exposed to invasive refit maintenance. when is the most opportune time? Are the pumps turning in the right direction? i. and completes the drying of the tanks. manifold valves. Safety awareness under these conditions is invaluable. Questions to be answered are: i During the procedure. (b) The team should consider where extra vigilance will be required when cryogenic equipment. . Unlike N2. such as carbon dioxide. cargo tank domes. If the purging has been done with inert gas.Post-Refit Operations impossible due to the Gas Dangerous Zones. guaranteeing official permission and co-operation? # Has a plan been drawn up and agreed? It is clear that this ballast passage is not only busy from the post-refit maintenance perspective. During purging/the inert gas in the cargo tanks is replaced with warm LNG vapour. contracts during first time operations under cold conditions. This action removes any freezable gases. This is known as Purge Drying. Consider these issues: Is the team familiar with this procedure? Has a Risk Assessment been carried out? $> Have allowable limits for the test been clearly established? ® If these limits are exceeded. tank gauging systems and gas compressors. especially among key members of staff. vent risers (flame trap arrangements) and similar equipment. cosmetic maintenance such as manifolds. inert gas contains approximately 15% carbon dioxide (C0 2 ). Consider tankloading valves. forward planning and elevation of awareness levels. have the implications of the resulting ESD Trip and required response been fully considered? ® Has the terminal been forewarned. the cargo tanks are filled with inert gas or N2. filters and nozzles. 2 Gassing-up Cargo Tanks (Sometimes Referred to as Purge Drying) After lay-up or dry-dock. (c) although a load port is next. A complete absence of the. which will freeze at around -56.6°C and produces a white powder which can block valves. it is normal practice to spin-test the cargo pumps at some point in the loading procedure. hydrocarbon gas hazard makes Risk Assessment for this work far more favourable at this time. . it is a usual Class/CCT requirement for the cargo tank High/High Levels to be tested by actual cargo transfer within the vessel. but it also demands a great deal of preparation.

2 Oimrmromu LNG liquid is supplied from the terminal to the liquid manifold where it passes to the stripping/spray header through the appropriate shore connection liquid valve or. (Note: 20°C is a typical process value. The inert gas then vents to the atmosphere.LNG Operational Practice Diagram 1. problems experienced may be due to vapour locking at the loading arms. The stripping/spray header can be purged into the cargo tanks through the vapour dome through the arrangement of spray valves and associated control valve until liquid reaches the LNG vapouriser. requiring an alternative venting arrangement. Where a cooldown bobbin is used. a dedicated cooldown bobbin. the piping system and LNG vapouriser are vapour locked i. usually through No. there is provision . As the LNG vapour is lighter than the inert gas its introduction at the top of the tank creates a clearly defined interface that forces the IG in the cargo tanks to be exhausted by displacement up the tank filling line into the liquid header. Because the flow of liquid from the terminal is relatively small for this operation. Then it is fed to the LNG vapouriser and the LNG vapour produced is passed at approximately +20°C to the vapour header and into each tank through the vapour domes.1 vent mast.e.) At the start of the operation. the reduced liquid supply for this purpose may be insufficient to prime the 1/1 pipework by displacing the vapour.3 An LNG Vapouriser 1. in some cases.

The NG outlet temperature (+207+25°C) and the temperature of the heating steam condensate returns are both critical. Test all associated trips.1 126.6 .62 55293. Take great care when shutting-down the unit. Due to local regulations on venting CH4 ga to the atmosphere.0 3037.3 40. When 5% Vol CH 4 (the percentage figure will be specified by the particular port authority) is detected at the No.432 72777. LD/HD compressors. (refer to the post-refit ballast passage routines).0 126.3 No. These values should be matched with the requirements of the LNG terminal.6 117. 2.Post-Refit Operations for intermittent venting of the loading arm through the appropriate vent mast.0 10. as the compressors create unnecessary turbulence inside the tanks. one or both of the HD compressors in service can be used. LNG Heating Value: 51. it is essential to monitor the operating parameters of associated equipment with care. maintain the heating steam until all residual LNG has been dissipated from the unit.9 59111.571.0 changes of the volume of the atmosphere the cargo tank. carried out with the exhausting gases being returned to the shore facility. Before introducing LNG. this operation can be done without the compressors. Required Heat Energy at Initial Purging Tank TK volume (m3) Required NG (m3) Required LNG (kg) Required LNG (kg) Heat Energy (MMBTU) No. Good practice requires this equipment to be purged with cargo vapour: f. carefully warm the unit. When a vapouriser is in use.00 205. alarms and controls beforehand and prove them operable. Main cargo pump discharge pipes.0 kg/m3 2. But if there is not enough backpressure.0 3038.06 59095. This normally entails approximately 1. Two are required: Liquid Header to Vapour Header and Liquid Header to HD Compressor.943 39497.5 No. it is better not to use them.9 2842.0 438.1 21. LNG Density: 469.1 Total 140. for example. the pipeline configuration as described in previous procedures usually requires purpose-fabricated bends to be fitted. some port authorities may require the entire operation to be Gas Heaters.0 Note: 1.831 68095. 68.5 No.2 40. However.4 37.566.1 vent mast riser. If there is enough backpressure.8-2.167. The target values for the N2 gas and the inert gas CO2 are equal or less than 1%.4 1648. The operation is considered complete whe the CH4 content exceeds 88% by volume a measured at the top of the cargo filling pipe.648 253.3 Other Useful Points Depending on the type of vessel.443 72796.400 MMBTU / ton . or to the boilers through the gas burning line. the exhausting gas is directed ashore via the HD compressor's bypass line.04 32071.

4 Cargo tank cooldown Required heat energy at initial purging for a typical 140. It requires approximately 1. V ( 1 0 0 % ) .167 m3 OF NG 16 Required LNG LNG Total Requirement = 1. © This operation takes approximately 20 hours.8 complete volume changes to displace the inert gas and attain a CO2 content of < 1 % by volume.8 x 140.8120 kg/m3 AT +20°C and 1.000m3 membrane vessel: The inert gas is purged and replaced by Natural Gas (NG) produced by the LNG vapouriser (+20°C outlet temperature) and fed with LNG supplied by the loading terminal.LNG Operational Practice Diagram 1.571 kg = 430.8 x 140.2 m3 of LNG (Density p NG = 0. .648x0. the cooldown of the cargo tanks and associated system normally follows immediately after.8.648 m3 (100% of Total Volume) 253.060 mbarA) On completion of the gassing-up procedure. P N G = 1.8120 = 205. Natural Gas Total Required 1.

the liquid manifold cross-overs. <$> To maintain the pressures in the insulation spaces to the requirements of the N2 generating plant and associated system. It follows a procedure that prevents a thermal shock to the primary containment system. To avoid splashing the cargo tank bottoms with LNG liquid. liquid header and loading lines are also cooled. especially in the initial stages. in-line with most LNG terminal requirements. In the initial stages of cooldown. This allows the LNG to vapourise at the sprays and allows cold gas to enter the tank. When these temperatures have been reached and the Cargo Transfer System (CTS) registers the presence of liquid. It is essential that the rate of cooldown is controlled so that it remains within the limits of the N2 system to maintain the primary and secondary insulation space pressures between 2 mbar and 4 mbar.Post-Refit Operations 3 Initial Cooldown of Cargo Tanks Cooldown is the process that brings the containment system to a temperature that will not cause excessive boil-off during loading or unacceptable stresses in the support structures. Cooldown is achieved by pumping LNG through the spray header and cooldown grids at the top of each tank. Cooldown of the cargo tanks is considered to be complete when the mean temperatures (except for the 2 top temperature sensors in each tank) indicate 130°C or lower. bulk loading can begin. pressures in these spaces can collapse and slow the rate at which we can complete the procedure. In practice however. (GTT has defined that LNG loading is possible when the mean target temperature is lower than -80°C). . which is open to the cargo tank spray rails. A controlled and design-compliant rate is essential to avoid damage to the primary containment and overcome potential problems: \ To avoid excessive stresses being induced in the pump tower or trellis. GTT recommends that the cooldown operation is continued until -130°C has been attained. Vapour generated during the cooldown of the cargo tanks is returned to the terminal through the HD compressors and discharged to the vapour manifold. During cooldown. To prevent vapour generation exceeding the capabilities of the HD Gas Compressors at any time during the process. N2 flow to the primary and secondary spaces will increase significantly. Procedure (Membrane Vessel) Unlike rigid cargo tank designs. control the stripping/spray header pressure. To avoid structural deformation to the insulation arrangement being caused by non-uniform contraction. Once the cargo tank cooldown is almost complete. LNG is supplied from the terminal to the spray header. as in the normal manner for loading. This is particularly the case on the older class of membrane vessel. vertical thermal gradients in the tank walls are not a significant limitation on the rate of cooldown.

boil-off from the cargo will be higher than normal at-this stage. or near to. . a liquid line pressure of 2 bar is required on the vessel's spray rail. Ensure the buffer tank is maintained at maximum operating pressure throughout the procedure. liquid cargo temperature. Prepare both HD compressors for use. Prepare the N2 generating system for maximum output. Preparation for Tank Cooldown: Prepare the cofferdam steam or gycol heating system as appropriate.> ^oe:. Adjust the spray rail pressure to obtain an average temperature drop of 20°C per hour in the first five hours . before cooling. Check the N2 pressure inside the insulation spaces. If there is a continuing downward trend that is outstripping the N2 supply system. cooling the cargo tanks from +40°C to -130°C. inform the terminal that cooldown is complete and prepare for a gradual ramp-up to bulk loading status. must continue until the equatorial region of the tank is at least 115°C.3 Basic Cooldown Procedure (MossRosenberg . Check that the gas detection system is in normal operation. This is controlled by a shore request from the vessel and adjusted to meet required parameters onboard. raise the N2 pressure inside the primary insulation spaces to 8 mbar as extra compensation for the inevitable initial pressure drop.and 10/15°C per hour thereafter. As with the membrane vessels. To avoid thermal stresses on the tank shell and tank support structure. reduce the rate of cooldown accordingly. the cooldown rate in the cargo tank and insulation spaces is dependent on the degree of LNG spraying. over a period of 10 hours. will require a total of about 800 m3 of LNG to be vapourised. 3. When the average temperature shown by the CTS sensors is -130°C. But it will take some hours to establish fully cooled temperature gradients through the insulation. On a typical new 140. the cargo tanks are gradually cooled by spraying LNG received from the loading terminal through the spray nozzles located round the centre column of the tank. Typically.LNG Operational Practice Once cooldown is completed and the buildup to bulk loading has commenced. which produces cold vapour that has to be returned ashore. If appropriate to the system. Start one HD compressor (or both as necessary) to maintain the tank pressures at about 100 mbarG.000m3 vessel. Check that the insulation space A/2 supply system is in automatic operation and has the capability of supplying the additional N2 necessary to compensate for the initial pressure drop experienced as the primary space atmospheres collapse. the cooldown procedure must be smooth and uniform. Prepare the records for the cargo tank. the maximum allowable rate of cooldown is 9°C per hour and must never be exceeded. Consequently. the tank membrane will be at. 18 Cargo Tank Cooldown: After cooling the lines. This operation. Therefore.. secondary barrier and inner-hull steel temperature readings.

Post-Refit Operations In normal service. Cargo Tank Cooldown: On completion of line cooldown. Expect a spray rate of 1. or by doing both. commence fuel gas supply to the E/R. The time value is usually clearly defined in the cargo manual. the operation will take approximately 24 hours. Start the first HD compressor when the pressure reaches 150mbar. On a typical 135. (b) the equatorial temperature in all cargo tanks has been reduced to below -115°C (c) tank pressures are fully under control then you may fully open the gate crossover valves in readiness for loading ramp-up. when the HD gas compressors are running. . Check that the gas detection system is in the normal operating mode.000kg/hr per tank. the spray main and branch lines to the spray nozzles. Monitor the pressure in the cargo tanks throughout the cooldown procedure. the ship will arrive with the equatorial region of the tanks at about (but not warmer than) -119°C. When: (a) the temperature in the liquid header at all the cargo tanks has been reduced below -120°C. LNG is introduced through the liquid crossover. LNG enters the cargo tanks through the spray nozzles and the vapour is returned to shore using the HD compressors as necessary to maintain tank pressures within acceptable limits. you may increase the spray rate. either by requesting more flow from shore control or by opening up more spray valves. The spray lines are cooled first.000m3 vessel. Before commencement. Request shore control to supply LNG at the agreed reduced rate. the HD compressors will automatically shut-down and at the same time the shut-off valves at the domes will close. Do not commence full rate loading until this figure is attained. On most vessels. particularly in the initial stages when it will rise rapidly. After approximately 2 hours. set the HD and LD gas compressors for free-flow operation with the appropriate low demand gas heater warming through. Preparation for Tank Cooldown Use the established Time/Temperature graph forms to prepare the records for the cargo tank equatorial temperature monitoring. Cargo line cooldown is usually carried out at some point during the tank cooldown procedure. If the tank pressure is allowed to fall to 40mbar below the void space pressure at any time. If not already in use. The E/R fuel gas burning requirement can be supplied by a regulated bleed-off from the discharge of the HD compressors. service from the LD unit is not required.

Jperational Practice In-Service Operations Section .

and on the newer Kawasaki turbine ships. The normal arrangement at most terminals is two and four loading arms and one vapour return arm. the maximum period allowed for a stationary prop shaft under these conditions is only 4 minutes. The usual requirement is lower than -50°C. that is. The usual requirement is below 1%. While depressurising. Connect the ESD umbilical cable. However. If these periods are exceeded. Connect the CommunicationiESD cable. they are depressurised in a controlled manner.In-Service Operations 4 Loading Operation Procedure Upon completion of mooring. which leads to rotor deformation. When the loading arms have been connected. With the vessel upright and even keel. If a system failure occurs during autoblasting.) Once the integrity of the loading arms has been proved. Dryness of the gas is an important issue and can be part of the standard checks at some terminals. If so it should be checked to make sure it is mechanically sound and be connected well clear of the manifold area. which is why the gangway and loading arms are not connected until the Main Engine Turning Gear has been engaged and the turbines appropriately secured. between arrival and departure standby. and provides the various channels for ship/shore communication and ESD interconnection. which uses steam from the manoeuvring valves to roll the turbines intermittently. the prop shaft rpm can increase and cause the vessel to move. unequal expansion may cause turbine shaft damage. lengthy periods of prop shaft rest are automatically broken by a programme in the Main Engine Bridge Control System called Auto Blasting. some national/local regulations still insist on the connection of a ship/shore bonding cable. old and modern. they are purged and pressurised with N2 supplied by the terminal to a pressure of 200kPa in each arm. usually a male/female plug arrangement. use a portable O2 meter to check the gas. You must also raise the engine vacuum and use warming-through steam to maintain a state of readiness. it is usual for the Chief Officer and Cargo . relative to the jetty. (Soapy water is still the preferred means of leakdetection. Under FWE (Finished With Engines) conditions. The responsible Ship's Officer checks all associated joints for leakage. usually a pneumatic connection ISGOTT no longer recommends the use of a ship shore bonding cable as the insulating flange at the cargo connection is effective in removing the current and any sparks. engage the main engine turning gear and close the master steam stop valve as the gangway is brought onboard and the loading arms are connected. fibre-optic or electrical. While on standby. On older Stal-Laval turbine vessels. you can arrange slow rotation of the main engine turbines by engaging the electrically-driven Turning Gear. while the vessel is alongside the loading/discharge berth: Maintain a slow rotation of the prop shaft at all times while the turbines are hot. it is only 3 minutes. Note: On steam propulsion plants.

15%. 42 Lo&dhig Prae&dyre In accordance with the IGC Code. confirm whether it is the vessel or terminal that will activate the shut-down. Hi Level @ 95% capacity. complete the ship/shore safety checklist and ISPS security check-list. (This prevents the LD compressor from being affected by cargo operations. At this stage. reset the ship's ESDS ensuring appropriate indicators all show Healthy. requires continued use of the LD compressor during loading. the Low Demand (LD) compressor is shut-down and the Engine Room (E/R) receives the required fuel gas by a controlled bleed system. the Officer on Watch (OOW) attends at the manifold to assist with and report on the progress of the tests.5Mtr. The IGC Code requires a closure time of less than 30 seconds.) In the Cargo Control Room (CCR).LNG Operational Practice Surveyor (or appointed person) to run the official Initial Cargo Custody Transfer data. Once ship and shore have confirmed correct ESD operation. commonly referred to as the Initial Gauging. open the manifold/ESD valves. with the ship's boilers maintaining duel firing throughout. When the vessel and terminal are ready to carry out ESD tests. With this system. Once the terminal has similarly re-set. With terminal permission. both can. Back in the CCR or Ship's Office. In normal operations. The vessel is now ready to begin loading. the terminal allows the vessel to burn boil-off gas throughout 24 Enable and ensure all cargo tank level alarms are operative (recommended as Low Level @ 0. This is sensitive to combustion control requirements and tapped from the gasto-shore line. However. 2. the ship may request permission from the terminal to send gas ashore. Tank Fill Level @ 98. Associated lines and valves are set accordingly. switch any associated override facility on the vessel's system to Override Off. reopen the appropriate valves (Manifold/ESD) and reset the ESDS. . The Hot-Line and Plant phone are tested and proved satisfactory. you may use the speciallyinstalled blocking circuits to inhibit certain lalarm systems. slightly higher loading capacities are in force for LNG vessels. Conduct the Hot ESD test as agreed. backed by Flag State approval and allowing for an average daily boil-off rate of 0.8%. Bring the manifold spray-water curtain into service. the loading procedure. On passage. but is closely monitored from the CCR and at the tank dome in case manual .5% volume and a Moss-Rosen berg ship will take up to 98. the ship/shore communication system is powered up. a membrane vessel will load to 98. Normally. On average. There are two recognised ways of doing this: 1. in compliance with contractual requirements.5% capacity and HiHi Level @ 99% capacity). the LD compressor is removed from the ESD trip logic circuits. the maximum filling capacity for any cargo tank is 98% by volume. It is normal at this time for the terminal to require Manifold/ESD valve closure to be timed. When the valves are confirmed fully open. Closure of the tankfilling valve at these levels is usually automatic.

must always remain within recommended safety limits. Critical to this procedure is the level at which the valve starts to close. Therefore.and the time it takes to close. . The secondary float level gauge system must be ready for operation. partial-loading valve closure at the topping-off stage is not part of the normal procedure. The loading valve must close as the required level is reached. the ship may be trimmed within the terminal's maximum draught requirements during loading. correctly lined-up and set for line cooldown. Assuming that the vessel has arrived in the Cold Condition. HD compressors must be ready for service. To make it easier to empty the ballast tanks. this is the recommended sequence of events: Ensure manifold/ESD valves.In-Service Operations Diagram 2.1 Ship-Shore Optic Fibre Transmission intervention is needed. stripping/spray main crossover connections. cargo loading valves and the cargo tank spray rails are The structural loading and stability as determined by the loading computer.

inform the terminal and request control to standby pending the start of loading.LNG Operational Practice Temperature recording systems. the progress of cooldown is indicated by a sudden reduction in liquid header/crossover temperature. liquid header/crossover pressure and temperature. (design dependent) start the first HD compressor. With both HD compressors running steadily in parallel. a reduction in noise level at the loading valve. approximately 100mbG would be more appropriate. simultaneously cooling lines ashore and on the vessel. associated flanges and instrument connections/impulse lines. At the same time. Any sign of liquid/vapour leakage must be reported back to the CCR immediately. tank pressures are lowered to that required for the duration of the bulkloading period. Line cooldown. When cooldown on the vessel is complete. Terminal control will gradually increase the cooldown rate. Start the second HD compressor as boil-off generation begins to exceed the capacity of the in service unit. Again. according to the approved ship specific procedure. On deck. While on the older TGZ or GT vessels.1 Tank). On deck. Tank loading valves are set in the prescribed manner. the OIC is responsible for monitoring tank pressures. Other indicators include (usually at No. The vessel will then request the terminal to standby pending cooldown completion on the vessel. this pressure is around 12kPaG. The gas detection system and alarms must be in continuous operation. which should be carefully monitored during the procedure. Usually. In the CCR. But before starting. frosting along the liquid header and frosting along the spray header. Request the terminal to "start cooldown. 26 Request terminal control to start loading at the pre-arranged reduced rate. request the terminal to increase the loading rate up to maximum over the pre-arranged time scale. On a modern Moss-Rossenberg vessel. Frosting provides a very clear indication in this respect. inform terminal control and the E/R before starting. the terminal is the first to report that cooldown is complete. as monitored in the CCR. is considered complete when the liquid header temperature is approximately 157°C. the N2 supply to the holds/interbarriers is closely monitored to ensure the correct pressures are maintained. a noticeable drop in the interbarrier space pressure and a significant drop in the tank bottom temperature. alarms for the cargo tank barriers and double hull structure must be in continuous operation. As a guide. Providing that boil-off gas generation and N2 supply to the holds are both under control. inform terminal control and the E/R. achieving . When tank pressures reach the appropriate level. the OOW and assistants check the cargo system and report cooldown progress. especially at the loading arms. The OIC should remember that in the interest of cargo conditioning considerations while on-passage. vapour header pressure. cargo lines. frosting along the loading line. recommended as 12mbG (12kPaG). returning gas ashore. the OOW and assistants continue to monitor the integrity of loading arms.

while loading at the lowest pressure appropriate for the containment system. The terminal will normally require QOB and % cargo loaded as recorded by the vessel every hour. Commence de-ballasting operations as per the Cargo/Ballast Plan requirements. In the CCR. loading valves can be adjusted to prevent flow preference (unequal filling.2 HD Compressor maximum gross heating value out-turn for the receiver. an hourly record is maintained of tank levels. which may occur in all designs). loading rate and manifold pressures. The Cargo Control Room (CCR) officers wil also maintain a close scrutiny on the weather data (wind and sea state) and mooring tensions. provided a mooring tension monitor is part of the ship/shore installation. The procedure usually runs in parallel with loading. These'are normally recorded every hour. achieves good drainage of the required ballast tanks and keeps the vessel upright. Quantity On-board (QOB). is an important safety factor. Once the full loading rate is achieved. . Loading operations also provide the opportunity to log-HD compressor parameters.In-Service Operations Diagram 2.

In common with sound tanker practice. except on the tank nominated for line drainage where the valve is left fully open. Record the readings at final gauging and compare them to the remote system (typically Fox IV Trans-sonics or Radar). Give one hour's notice of the first loading rate reduction to terminal control. which will include the point at which the 95% Hi-alarm activated and when the level auto-closure of the loading valve commenced and completed. As each tank successively approaches topping-off. the vessel should provide terminal control with 5 minutes notice for the next loading rate reduction. As the first tank shut-down level is approached.for example. Cargo Engineer and the OOW. Ensure the vessel is upright and on an even keel. automatic closure is disabled in case the line drains exceed the appropriate level. Then give terminal control a 5 minute warning. lower the back-up manual float gauges (typically Whessoe). T Topping -cm All Responsible Officers . On the tank designated for receiving the line drains. the OOW on duty at the tank dome will tell CCR when valve closure has commenced and when valve closure has been completed. confirm full closure using the manual gear. When the 95% Hi-Level alarm operates. 28 Give 15 minutes notice to terminal control before the first reduction in loading rate is anticipated. If appropriate. Best practice dictates that on completion of closure of each valve. that is. the OOW should disengage the remote activation and. the OOW on duty at the tank dome will test the loading valve (and/or branch valve) operation locally. When this task is complete. a Nominated Officer in the CCR should record all critical cargo tank levels in the Deck Operations Log (DOL). boil-off tends to reduce and it may prove necessary to stop one of the two HD compressors. inform terminal control and the E/R accordingly. automatic' mode has been re-engaged and that the valve is full open. even by a minimal amount. the Officer should report positively back to the CCR that the valve concerned operates correctly. the CCR will make sure that the level in any closed tank does not continue to creep upwards.LNG Operational Practice As bulk loading progresses. When the last tank approaches the finish level minus the line drain . Stop the final HD compressor. Adjust loading valve openings to provide the desired stagger between the tanks. Plan to complete de-ballasting approximately one hour before completion of cargo and before topping-off the first tank.must report to the CCR in good time. when the first pump is to stop. As each tank loading valve commences auto closure. The spray valves on each tank are also closed at this time. commence preparation of the LD compressor for the reinstatement of fuel gas burning. where possible. the Chief Officer. The loading valve must begin to close at the known and pre-determined level. At some point towards the end of the procedure. request loading rate reduction. Throughout the topping-off procedure.

you can close the gas-to-shore connection reinstate gas fuel burning with the LD compressor. Purging will continue in the approved manner until the CH4 content is reduced to less than 1% by volume (1. With the terminal's permission.:-. an upright position after letting-go counters the tension effect of taut mooring wires. Other vessel-departure procedures are run concurrently with Post-Loading procedures: Conduct a stowaway search in compliance with ISPS requirements. *"» f \ » **% f*a " . . Experience shows that giving the vessel a slight list towards the berth so that she assumes (as near as possible). When closure is confirmed. Associated valves are usually manually cracked-back for the first day. commence line drainage. Once terminal control has confirmed all cargo loading stopped. iu On completion of final gauging.In-Service Operations quantity. Loading Master and/or Surveyor. After leaving the-berth. Shut-down the manifold overside water sprays. fk n U ^ ^ i f ^ T I ! ••-. adjust the ballast to bring the vessel upright and trimmed appropriately for the sea passage. On completion of draining. final gauging is conducted in the presence of the Chief Officer. Return back-up float level gauges to their stowed position. With the terminal's permission. Follow the standard procedures and safety precautions. ask terminal control to stop loading. Once the loading and vapour arms have been secured and re-stowed ashore. and with the terminal's permission.. the Loading Master will request the terminal to pressurise the liquid lines and vapour return line to the agreed pressure with N2 (typically 2bar). remove the gangway. but whichever way purging is arranged.2% at some installations).•v:.. you can start the disconnection after the final depressurisation. close the liquid manifold/ESD valves. set cargo lines to keep one tank open to the liquid and spray header. . This procedure pressurises/ depressurises the loading arms to purge them of hydrocarbons. The Master/Chief Officer will now complete and issue all paperwork as appropriate. As the QRCs (Quick Release Connections) are released. •'-=•• ••'. : . the principle remains the same.-. J c i L . . the vessel should secure and blank the manifold connections for sea conditions. When all shore personnel have cleared the vessel. The actual method will vary according to the terminal and vessel type. . Make sure that the in-house reading is correct in each case. In the CCR cargo tank level. Once clear of the jetty. reengage the alarm blocking circuits. #*•%. This action prevents the build-up of internal pressure through vapourisation of residue liquid. the fibre-optic/electrical communication IESD link is disconnected and re-stowed ashore.

. producing boil-off gas that becomes available'as a supplementary fuel source for the vessel's power plant. as arranged between supplier and receiver. SG and N2 content may be determined at source by sampling. On a standard steam propulsion plant. the various control requirements are consolidated by DCS (Distributed Control System). if fuel consumption is not sufficient to burn the generated amount of boil-off.2. ! Delivery of the cargo within the customer's quality parameters and/or as per the contractual requirements of an established Sale & Purchase agreement. the tank pressure will increase.15% of the liquid cargo per day. This causes the relatively warm LNG to rise to the surface. which includes the ACC (Automatic Combustion Control). the main steam dump system is designed to dump sufficient steam to let the boilers burn the boil-off gas.1 Op The cargo tank boil-off gas enters the common vapour header through the cargo tank vapour domes. the movement of the vessel and the ingress of external heat through the tank insulation generates convection currents in the bulk cargo mass. This process can account for 0. A combination of both methods may be used. I nrnviuA Son^yfi Gas Burn-in® During a sea passage where the cargo tanks contain LNG. the naturally-generated boil-off from the tanks is burned in the ^n ship's boilers. or allow it to rise above a predetermined maximum. This pressure increase can be controlled in one of two ways either provision of a steam dump system.1 vent mast as a last resort. by increasing the speed of the vessel. In most cases.8DegC) and a window of allowable vapour pressure. 5. The system is designed to burn all boil-off gas normally produced by a full cargo maintaining the cargo tank pressure and temperature at the required level.LNG Operational Practice 5 Loaded Passage 5. Compressor throughput is controlled by speed of the prime mover and/or inlet guide vanes at the compressor suction. which delivers the fuel gas to the E/R through a gas heater. The operation is started on deck and controlled by the ship's engineers in the CCR and ECR. Cargo venting avoidance in-line with the operator's EP Policy. If required.1 Overview During the laden voyage. or if the volume is too great for the boilers to handle. even when the ship has stopped. Maintenance of cargo containment integrity. . The heated gas is delivered to the vessel's power plant at approximately +30°C by a fuel gas control valve. then excess vapour as a last resort may be vented into the air through the No. or alternatively. particularly the inner-hull steel work temperatures. Associated logics use a pressure input from the cargo tank vapour system to make sure the gas delivery to the E/R does not suppress the cargo tank vapour pressure below a pre-determined allowable minimum. These may include a maximum delivery temperature (>-158. On a modern carrier. If the boil-off cannot be used for gas burning purposes. It is then directed to the in-service LD compressor. It is the responsibility of the vessel's operators to achieve these goals: > Safe carriage of the cargo in compliance with the operator's SMS and associated international regulations. Full use of boil-off as a supplementary fuel source for the vessel's power plant. Achievement of maximum out-turn across the manifold for the customer.

If the normal boil-off control value has been correctly adjusted. is normally set at approximately 25-30mbar below the tank relief valve (typical "luceat") upper operating level. the cargo vapour and gas burning piping system is arranged so that excess boil-off can be vented automatically. usually sited at the No. } Gas pressure High/High. If the tank pressure value continues to fall below the minimum value selected. boil-off provides 60% of the fuel required to produce 90% of full steaming capacity.In-Service Operations Although venting is also a means of automatic vapour pressure control. The minimum/maximum tank pressures are selected at (for example). ' Gas detected in boiler combined gas hood. . tank pressure will slowly reduce until it reaches the minimum value selected. it should be avoided. in the interest of Environmental Protection (EP) compliance and operating efficiency. When gas-burning is initiated. If anything should stop the gas from being burned in the ship's boilers. Typically the gas burning security valve G will operate (shut) under these circumstances: P Gas to E/R temperature Low/Low. the normal boil-off rate will be increased until the tank pressure falls to a level below the selected setting. 1050 and 1090 mbarA (for a standard membrane-type carrier). Gas pressure Low/Low. If the tank pressure continues to increase because the steam consumption is not sufficient to burn all the required boil-off. An automatic control valve. In each case. this is directed by the DCS. If the gas-burning system shuts down for any reason. r\A . If the tank pressure value increases above the maximum selected setting. it is not an option under normal operating conditions and. the steam dump will open. the Automatic Combustion Control (ACC) compensates for the boiler fuel requirements by varying the amount of HFO delivered -which is variable between 0% HFO (100% gas) and 100% HFO (0% Gas). adjust the inlet guide vane position. the DCS will reduce the normal boil-off value until the tank pressure has increased again above the selected value. Should the selected normal boil off value be too large. the normal boil-off value is selected at approx 60%. the tank pressures will remain within the selected values. At this setting. Gas detected in the vent duct. that is. The steam dump is designed to open when the normal boil-off rate is 5% above the original selected value and/or when the tank pressure has reached the pre-selected dump operating pressure. the tank pressure will slowly increase until it reaches the maximum setting selected. For normal operation. If the selected normal boil-off rate is too small.•'••v Gas duct exhaust system failure.1 vent mast. This is the standard logic arrangement for boil-off gas pressure control by a Distributed Control System (DCS): To control the flow of gas through the LD compressors. an increase of 5% of the normal boil-off corresponds to an increase in tank pressure of approximately 40 mbar above the maximum tank pressure selected. Select the normal boil-off in the boiler combustion control. Select the maximum/minimum allowed tank pressures. an integral part of the shutdown sequence automatically initiates a thorough purging of all associated lines with N2. Select the tank pressure at which the main steam dump operates.

Bridge). called Forced Boil-Off. : Loss of authorisation from CCR or Bridge..LNG Operational Practice Manual operation (E/R.. This operation. i E/R C0 2 fire-fighting release. 5. o. Pureed BoH-Df? Gas Burning Before undertaking forced boil-off. during a loaded passage. if applicable.. • Blackout.3. can be used to complement gas burning for up to 100% of the boiler's fuel requirement. E/R exhaust fan failure. This uses a single stripping/spray pump in conjunction with the LNG forcing vapouriser. If.3 Forcing Vapouriser 3? . it can be made available by forced vapourisation. using a dedicated Forced Vapouriser. CCR. The excess flow from the pump is returned to the same tank Diagram 2. additional fuel gas from the cargo tanks is required to be burned in the ship's boilers over and above current natural generation. .1 Operatior The normal gas burning arrangement is maintained and the forcing vapouriser is brought into operation. consider the economics of gas versus fuel oil burning and the charter agreement.

barometric pressure. In normal forced vapouriser operation. Air-Swept Duct Exhaust Fans .i Daily Cargo Log. E/R and Bridge.Independent and operated by any of the above listed elements. This is a list of essential safety equipment: Air Swept Duct .Maintains air flow through the air-swept duct. Main Permanent Gas Detection System . tl Weather Report (sea state. the controlled return from the pump is always directed back to the same tank where the liquid is being drawn from as an insurance against cargo transfer between tanks. Records Maintain these records at all times: . The generated vapour then combines with the natural boil-off gas from the vapour header before being drawn into the suction of the LD compressor. A Fully Integrated Alarm System .In-Service Operations through the stripping header pressure control valves.Used where the fuel gas lines exits the air-swept duct and connects to the furnace front/top burner gas valves. •1 Alarm Test Register (on-going from an established register or PM). : Dedicated Fuel Gas Detection System .Conveys fuel gas line. •s Monitor inner-hull and insulation space temperatures. as appropriate. •'••.Sounds in the CCR. The process is controlled by the DCS. and reducing the risk of droplet carry-over. ® Automatic Sequence Controlled N2 Purge System -When a gas burning shut-down is initiated. etc. Double-Walled N2-Jacketed Gas Line . insulation spaces and hold spaces. © Daily LD Compressor Log. Daily Fuel Oil Equivalent (usually calculated as part of the Voyage Abstract). Gas Burning Security Valve G . Stand-by fans automatically cut-in on failure of in-use units. •i Insulation and Inner-Hull Temperature Sensors # .i Inner Hull Inspection (IHI) Record. -' Daily trend monitoring of Average Liquid Temperature (for delivery). all have an effect regarding cargo conditioning considerations). it renders an inert atmosphere within all gas burning pipe work. . sampling from the N2 rich interbarrier spaces. as appropriate. . purge lines and N2 lines through the E/R space to the boiler furnace fronts/top.Infra-red. E/R and compressor house.Samples furnace front/top fuel gas line canopy/hood arrangements and the swept-duct exhaust air for gas leakage. Positive detection incorporated in the gas burning security chain.One of the main line defences against primary containment leakage and inner-hull steel work cold-failure protection. Initiated by ampere load-sensing relays.>i Loaded Passage Essential Safety • Catalytic Gas Detection System -Atmospheric sampling of strategic spaces round the accommodation.

. and to standardise the entries in associated records. Plain carbon steels have a brittle to ductile behaviour transition that generally occurs in the range of -50°C to +30°C. particularly under ballast tank suction strums in-way-of striking plates and behind heating coils. cofferdams. or the absence of cold spots where previously reported. Because of this. To meet this requirement. in a tough material. Ballast line condition. As a Class requirement.. When the inspection is complete. • The extent of corrosion on both inner and outer hulls. Such failures can be catastrophic because once brittle steel starts to fracture. and then posted at the tank entry location. . # Ballast line/valve integrity checked if appropriate by applying a static head pressure. meaning that all spaces will be inspected during the designated period as defined by Class. structural steels can suffer brittle fracture. especially at bends and expansion pieces. 9 Any damage or fractures. especially within the midships section of the vessel. condition of the spray-shield and taped joints. © Condition of inner-hull paint work or appropriate tank coating. These spaces include ballast tanks. conduct your IHI after the same time has elapsed. It is a Classification requirement for the granting of a valid Certificate of Fitness for ships carrying liquefied gasses in bulk that routine cold spot inspections are carried out and that the results are recorded in the LNG survey record book. the report is signed by the Master.r h ^ l ^^pecllon These are the inspection points: • The position and temperature of cold spots. it is good practice to divide your spaces into zones and inspect a number of zones on each occasion.LNG Operational Practice •^6 . On Moss-Rosenberg vessels.Condition of scupper pipes. with particular attention paid to the external portion of the inner-hull and at the associated turn of bilge areas. considerably more energy is required to turn a small crack into a larger fracture. :::: Evidence of hydraulic oil or heating coil leakage (steam or glycol). At low temperatures. §. Chief Engineer and Cargo Engineer. all spaces around the cargo tanks must be inspected once in every six months. more so on membrane vessels than the Moss-Rosenberg designs. only a small amount of energy is required to make it spread. whaleback spaces. However. These are the IHI hazards and safety precautions: 9 Risk Assessment completed and tabled with all those involved present. # Condition of fittings for any ballast level detecting systems. & Full enclosed space entry procedures implemented in accordance with the operator's SMS and permit to work O/l . $ Condition/wastage of ballast tank sacrificial anodes. @ Position and amount of sediment in the ballast tanks. h ^ r . MossRosenberg hold spaces and duct keels. On completion of loading. the composition of structural steels used in the containment system needs to be carefully chosen and protected from the cold cargo temperatures (-160°C) throughout the service life of the vessel. IHI (or Cold-Spotting) is an important procedure.

usually conducted at the TBT In the event of a cold-spot forming. The following procedures would be normal: i> Note size. Even on the older TGZ and GT membrane vessels (now in excess of 28 Years old). Each person equipped with a torch or helmet mounted headlamp.. The contingency safety trolley is fully equipped and standing-by. Communication with the Bridge confirmed and the reporting system fully established. > Operation discussed at the previous Daily Work Plan Meeting and'the associated requirements for all departments clearly identified in the Daily Work Plan. Personal pocket-sized motion sensors with activated locating beacon worn by each team member. . but continue to monitor until a temperature approaching the brittle to ductile transition range for the steel is reached. ® All participants invited to express concerns before entry.n-Service Operations system. D? s e n a r y Preparation 5. it would be a very rare and isolated case. . # The dangers posed by the presence of N2 pockets highlighted and understood by all concerned. Personal O2 meters worn by all personnel and their correct operation confirmed before entry. Multi-point/level testing for hydrocarbon gas and the presence of enough O2. # Assess the level of stress and loading in the steel structure affected. All personnel wearing adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). In accordance with standard enclosed space entry procedures. which is then posted and circulated accordingly. A worksite Toolbox Talk (TBT) given by the Supervisor to all those involved. tested and tuned to the correct channel. Inspection route for each team clearly established. the response is controlled and graded according to severity. Head Office should provide back-up.1 Two day' at the Disport This is a check-list of tests to be carried out and items to be'verified: ESD system -Tested and proved fully operational. fitness certificates in date as appropriate and electrical equipment Intrinsically Safe (IS) by design. consider the stresses on the vessel and arrange to flood the space concerned. plus an emergency chemical light-stick. All equipment must be approved. Temporary in-tank aerial rigged and tested. One person in each team equipped with a radio. Standby man present at the main deck level to liaise between the in-tank team and the Bridge. . Permit posted at the tank entry location. # Take no further action. $•• If the situation continues to deteriorate.7. location and minimum surface temperature of the affected steel. initiate ventilation in good time and maintain it throughout the inspection. For this.

. .) Ballast valves . this procedure opens the spray valve on the tank to be used for cooldown.Use line-surge avoidance to check the speed of remote operation. place stainless steel buckets filled with fresh water filled and provide and adequate supply of fresh clean rags and PPE. ensures that all other tank spray valves are closed.Check for moisture ingress. (Critical with regard to the loading arms and damage-avoidance in the event of an ESD. opens the crossover . Pressure-test the liquid and vapour manifolds. opens (fully) the loading valve on the same tank. (Important where the ballast lines are made of GRR which is the preferred type of construction on many Moss-Rosenberg vessels.Remote/manual operation tested. fill with fresh water. Use soapy water to detect for leaks. ® Rig the standard international ship/shore hose connection.Inspect and ensure the intended offshore manifold is secured and pressurised with N2. Mooring winch savealls -Clean and mop out.Check systems (normally infra-red and catalytic) and prove operational on all points. rig/arm dry powder monitors and open dry-powder house doors.Depending on the system. Gas Detection .Check and ensure it is operable on all points.Remote/manual operation tested. . .On the older membrane class. . gaskets and presentation flanges . 3fi 5.Where appropriate.Make sure all closed. CCTV .) Cargo savealls . Bunker/hydraulic savealls -Clean and mop out.3 Day prior tc the Disport This is a check-list of tests to be carried out and items to be verified: @ Cargo system .The Chief Officer and/or the Cargo Engineer are responsible for this. Deck scuppers . the test pressures should be 5Bar at the liquid manifold and 1 Bar at the vapour manifold.7. .Adjust for appropriate arrival draught and trim. Prepare the deck fire-fighting equipment. Cargo/spray pump motors and associated transmission cables . . ay of Arrival at the Discharge Terminal Ballast .LNG Operational Practice Cargo valves . •& Prepare the Oil Pollution Trolley and its associated equipment. Manifolds .Check for mechanical damage. prove the integrity of the electrical safety chain for each pump at the same time As far as is practical. .Check the insulation resistance to earth.Speed of remote operation checked and confirmed to be within surge avoidance parameters which should be 25-30sec. Record the results as they may warn of potential electrical failures and a possible break-down of electrical insulation. In the designated areas.Replace drain plugs. filters. Manifold bobbins. If using N2.Replace drain plugs. set the cargo lines for the intended discharge procedure. (Used as a temporary way to stem a minor leak).

Prepare/check all. as distinct from the N2 pressure test procedure mentioned above. the cargo lines can be cooled before arrival at the disport terminal. Fire pump. the excess steam dump is used. that is. . Moorings and associated equipment. Note On the newer Moss-Rosenberg and GTT Membrane vessels. Vapour displaced from the crossover pipe work passes through the liquid header. Cargo lines and cargo plant are cooled to the lowest possible temperature before arrival at the terminal so that cargo operations can begin as soon as the vessel is moored and all procedures have been completed. -The high freeboard of an LNG carrier and the fine tolerance regarding the ships position relative to the loading arms often places a high demand on this equipment. storing/bunkering requirements and the arrival/departure programme are discussed. terminal requirements. To do this. IMO pump. using the LD compressor and gas heater system. Chief Officer to prepare arrival/departure paperwork. Pilot hoists and/or accommodation ladders . use one spray pump (from No. As the cargo lines are being cooled.1. through the filling line.) To run a line cooldown procedure. Vapour generated by this process is burnt in the boilers.In-Service Operations valve between liquid and spray headers and cracks open all discharge valves slightly to remove any possibility of jamming during cooldown. intended reliefs. 2 & 4 cargo tanks and then back to No. If the time between line cooldown completion and berthing is . Cargo boil-off control systems. stop the spray pump. wait until the manifold spoolpieces. If there is more vapour than is required by the propulsion plant at this stage in the voyage. . use the actual cooldown liquid to pressure-test the system.and then increase the system pressure to approximately 5Bar. Manifold overside water sprays. . depending on the Expected Time of Arrival (ETA).3 tank. . This can be done the day before or on the same day. reducers and discharge filters have been fitted .Check and prove all systems operative. safety. Valve opening is usually achieved by a manual adjustment of the controller's Set Value (SV) from the CCR and emergency closure is observed as the Bridge activates the appropriate control.3 Tank. Chief Officer to prepare arrival/sailing stability conditions. Cargo/Ballast Plan .Chief Officer completes the approved plan and obtains the authorising signatures as required.Test as appropriate.Test the operation to ensure hull protection against LNG leakage.Prove the emergency closing facility for the For'd Vent Riser (activated) from the Bridge. In accordance with the Company's SMS. A similar procedure will usually apply at the load port. the Master chairs the pre-port meeting that provides the interface between the various departments of the SMT At this meeting. known system/vessel defects. When line cooldown is complete. (This test is not a requirement but it ensures that you have a tight system. ISPS security/compliance. shore-leave control. for example) to pump LNG through the spray header to the liquid manifold pipe work. Emergency fire pump and emergency generator .Ensure/confirm that all are available for the loading procedure. the return valves of No. the spray bypass.

Use soapy water to check for leaks. . Before the operation begins. usually a pneumatic connection Connect the shore ground cable at the approved location on the vessel. record all key events in the Deck Operations Log (DOL) QP. .••• . . use NEW gaskets on all connections. especially when compared to the previously-described loading procedures.. restart the spray pump as required.. return vapour is normally supplied from the terminal or. (fibre-optic or electrical) and provides the required channels for ship/shore communication and ESD interconnection. As appropriate. . they are purged and pressurised with N2 supplied by the terminal. A pressure of 200kPa may be raised in each arm. ' • ! > . Connect the ESD umbilical cable. you are not permitted to immobilise the main engine for maintenance or any other purpose and the main engine must remain in a state of readiness throughout the process. .. by LNG vapourisation on board. At most LNG terminals. •. Connect the Communication I BSD cable.- j • ' " : . - " ' - • i. The main engine turning gear is engaged and the master steam stop valve closed prior to the gangway being brought onboard and the loading arm connections made.LNG Operational Practice extensive. To replace the LNG being discharged from the vessel's cargo tanks. Both methods are supplemented by normal boil-off from the liquid in the cargo tanks. . Common underlying principles should be evident. These procedures are as detailed as it is possible to make a non-specific class description. As with the previously described Loading Procedures. Most terminals use between two and four discharge arms and one vapour return arm.! : . This is usually a male/female plug. • : . 6 Discharge Operation 6 " .3). • : • . " • ' .• . While depressurising.. / . they are depressurised in a controlled manner. Return of cooldown liquid to the bottom of the cooldown source tank through the loading line (in this case No. Once the discharge arms have been proved leak-free. this condition should be checked and confirmed by a Responsible Officer (usually the Cargo Engineer) to the Terminal Representative on duty at the manifold.-!. When the discharge arms have been connected. if the terminal supply is unavailable. can cause a local temperature increase at the appropriate tank bottom sensor. Allow sufficient time for this to stabilise before the post discharge gauging. The Responsible Ship's Officer checks all associated joints for leakage. Most discharge terminals require the manifold valves to be fully shut and put into manual operating mode before the discharge arms are connected or disconnected.

Tank Fill Level @ 98. however.In-Service Operations use the portable O2 meter to check the gas. At this time. open the manifold/ESD valves. Enable and ensure all cargo tank level alarms are. With the vessel upright and even keel. With permission from the terminal. Below 1% is the usual requirement. which are now in the Automatic mode. a predischarge meeting is held to confirm discharge procedures and to exchange relevant information with respect to the vessel's time alongside. At this time. EIR fuel gas burning may not restart until discharge and final gauging have been completed. When the vessel and terminal are ready to carry out ESD tests. the liquid manifold valves remain closed until the line/discharge arm cooldown procedures are complete and the terminal gives permission. Conduct the "Hot ESD" test as agreed with the terminal representative. operative (Low Level @ 0. All parties should confirm their agreement with the calculated quantities. When it has been confirmed that no oil leakage from any of the deck hydraulics has taken place. the ship/shore communication system will be powered up. At the same time a Responsible Ship's Officer will witness the connection process and the leakage tests. many terminals require EIR fuel gas burning to be terminated and secured. confirm whether the ship or the terminal will activate the shut-down as they run through. manifold/ESD valves are opened fully at this stage. Test the HotLine and Plant phone and prove that it works.5% capacity and HiHi Level @ 99% capacity). O^moisture checks and (if required). report the progress of any storing operations to be completed before cargo operations can commence. The ESDS. The OIC normally attends at the manifold to assist and report on the progress of the tests. switch all the ship's associated override facilities to Override Off. bring the manifold spraywater curtain into service. Set associated lines and valves accordingly. At this point in the procedure. the ship/shore safety check-list and ISPS security check-list are completed. On the older class of vessels. On the newer Moss-Rosenberg and GTT vessels. The usual requirement is lower than -50°C. Hi Level @ 95% capacity. When the valves are confirmed fully open. is reset and seen to be healthy both terminal and shipside by utilising the appropriate "Manifold Valve not fully open" over-ride facility. In the CCR. Most LNG terminals have a representative in attendance at the manifold while the discharge arms are being connected. Now the ship can request permission from the terminal to open the return gas from the shore vapour valve. Dryness of the gas is important and can be part of the standard checks at some terminals. it is usual for the Chief Officer and Cargo Surveyor (or appointed person) to run the official Initial Cargo Custody Transfer data. Back in the CCR or Ship's Office. At such terminals. .5Mtr. it is quite normal for the terminal to ask for the closure of the Manifold/ESD valve to be timed. reset the ship's ESDS and make sure that the appropriate indicators all show Healthy Once the terminal has completed a similar reset. no matter how slight.

3 Discharge Procedure When the vessel is informed by the shore representative that the terminal is ready for cooldown. Diagram 2.LNG Operational Practice On passage. depending on the age of the vessel. it is normal practice to use the dedicated blocking circuits to inhibit certain level alarm systems. 6.1 Olc Main Carg Make sure that vapour return from the shore is available. starting with the cooldown of the discharge arms. The vessel may now begin the discharge procedures.3. With the terminal's permission.4 Custody Transfer System An . are in close radio communication if one is absent 6. one of these two procedures will applyThis assumes that both Chief Officer and Cargo Engineer are present in the CCR or. Fully open the loading and spray valves on the nominated cooldown tank (normally No.3 or 4 on a 5-tank vessel). open the liquid manifold bypass valves by the approved amount (normally 1 A-1 turn).

Close the liquid manifold bypass valves. Remain aware of the mechanical damage that flow disruption or repeated starts can cause. Make sure that a Responsible Officer (usually the OOW) is standing-by at the tank and in close radio communication with the CCR. This means that the ESDS is now fully enabled. fully open the tank loading valve and allow the liquid header pressure to fall below LObarG. In some discharge ports. When the ampere loading and discharge pressure stabilises. If necessary. gradually increase opening until the ampere loading is steady at the approved first level (this is nominally 40Amps below normal full load). inform the EIR and adjust the discharge valves to give either the maximum flow rate permitted by the terminal. When all the pumps are running. Use the midships crossover temperatures and the frosting along the liquid manifold bypass lines and chiksan arms to monitor the progress of cooldown. throttle in the discharge valve on the pump being used for cooldown to make sure that the chiksan arms are not subjected to hydraulic shock as the liquid manifold valves are opened. Close the loading valve on the cooldown tank. Regulate the manifold bypass valves to maintain an even rate of cooldown on all discharge arms. This is normally ten minutes for the second pump and five minutes thereafter. Remember that pump protection usually includes a time-delayed trip facility on Low Amps and Low Discharge Pressure. Adjust the pump ampere value back to the first level by adjustment of the discharge valve opening.8 to 2. Close the loading valve until the liquid header pressure is between 1. When the discharge valve body is completely frosted. As cooldown progresses. crack the discharge valve (typically 1 turn) to elevate the amps. Each pump is started in the approved manner. a manifold/ESD valve Cold Function test is carried out on completion of cooldown to verify the correct operation of the valves when they are in the cold state. the maximum allowable continuous running amps for the pumps or a stipulation regarding EIR . When the terminal informs the ship that cooldown is complete.0BarG. When manifold valves are confirmed fully open. With the discharge valve fully closed. After informing the EIR. start the nominated main cargo pump.n-Service Operations Inform the EIR that you are about to start the first cargo pump. switch the ESDS 'Manifold Valve Not Fully Open' override facility to the Off position. start the remaining pumps with the approved time interval between each start and as agreed at the pre-discharge meeting. a further adjustment may be necessary to maintain this pressure. With the terminal's permission. Close the cross-over between liquid and spray headers. open the liquid manifold valves.

a certain amount of cargo (heel) is retained onboard in each cargo tank after discharge. Liquid is then forced into the discharge manifold and the discharge arms at a controlled rate. hourly rates and individual tank finishing times are calculated and relayed ashore as required by the terminal. whichever is the prevailing parameter.LNG Operational Practice generating capacity.3. normally 40mbar). They will remaining in close radio contact with the CCR throughout the process. At all times during Ramp-Up. then return gas may be supplied by FreeFlow only. The spray header is cross-connected to the liquid manifold through cooldown bypass valves which go round the manuallyoperated liquid manifold discharge block valves. the length of the ballast passage and fuel gas requirements. . fittings and the manifold (including the off-shore manifold).3 on a 4 tank vessel) with the stripping/spray pump discharging into the spray header. Line-up the spray manifold for return to the source tank through the spray return line. For this procedure. This figure is calculated according to an agreed formula that considers the Charterer's requirements. During discharge. If an RGB is not available at some terminals. Once you have permission from the terminal. Cool the spray header first. start the spray pump with the discharge valve approximately 10% open. patrolling watchkeepers will keep a watch on deck lines. Once the spray header has cooled. in practice. If tank pressure continues to fall. use a liquid supply from the cooldown source tank (typically No. Cargo valves are adjusted to maintain the maximum permitted rate and for all tanks to finish closely together. open the liquid discharge manifold/ESD valves. the cargo heel does not vapourise equally from each tank. stop the spray pump and close the manifold cooldown bypass valves. Ballast operations are carried out concurrently with cargo discharge and in accordance with the Chief Officer's Cargo/Ballast Plan. When the pressure in the tanks has fallen to approximately 65mbarG. This procedure is called Ramp-Up. obtain permission from the terminal to open the spray pump discharge valve a little more. to ease the spray return into the source tank. ask the terminal to start the Return Gas Blower (RGB). Under normal circumstances. Once the manifold and discharge arms have been cooled (-130°C) and the terminal has given their permission. which must be clearly established in the operating procedures (on the older membrane class. 6. do not allow tank pressures fall below a minimum level. you must either reduce the discharge rate or use the ship's dedicated vapouriser to generate vapour internally. Depending on the design. Reference to previous records will give you the optimum distribution of this quantity between the tanks because.2 Me IT To cool the manifold and discharge arms.

To . some designs of vessel use the spray pump to prime the discharge columns on the first start main cargo pump(s).n-Service Operations Diagram 2. This avoids a pressure surge in the lines. When the cooidown procedure is complete. relieving the expanding residual liquid in the spray header.5 Stripping/Spray Pumps The spray line is drained back to the source tank through the tank's spray master and spray nozzle valves.

44 . Good practice recommends that you maintain an hourly log of associated critical parameters. Cargo Pump Operation Operator vigilance and the correct operation of the cargo pumps is of prime importance. the columns can be vented through appropriate vent valves.6 Stripping/Spray Pumps Start Control accommodate this. The vessel is now ready to start discharge and the principles involved are similar to the procedure already described. for example: Ampere Loading / Discharge Pressure / Flow Rate. Investigate abnormal events immediately.— Diagram 2.LNG Operational Practice .

just in case a cargo pump parameter(s) becomes unstable and cannot be steadied out by normal means. If the shore facility is unable to accept the cargo for intermittent periods. when the liquid reaches 1 mtr or less. try not to stop the pump until the cargo has been fully discharged. This represents the minimum level attained by pumping.In-Service Operations Diagram 2. there should be a clear CCR response procedure. Do not restart a cargo pump with a low suction head of Jiquid remaining in the tank. reduce the flow rate until the readings stabilise down to the NonPumpable Suction Height (NPSH). As a general rule.7 Cargo Pump Start Control Diagram For operator guidance. keep the pump . the required NPSH will be about 10cm.000 M3 Moss-Rosenberg vessel. when the flow rate is throttled down to approximately 230 M3/Hr. If there are fluctuations on the motor ammeter or pump discharge pressure gauge. On a new 135.

as the discharge valves are closed. stop the main cargo pumps in each tank and close the discharge valve. the terminal will request closure of the liquid manifold/ESD valves. the purge gas is sampled for hydrocarbon content. Then the supply is stopped and the manifold/ESD bypass valve re-opened to depressurise the discharge arm.5barG. The terminal will then request the officer at the manifold (usually the Cargo Engineer) to open the manifold/ESD bypass valves to drain the discharge arms. the bypass valves are closed and the liquid discharge arms are pressurised for purging with N2 supplied from the terminal. the vessel should be upright and on an even keel for the completion of the cargo. The OOW should standby each tank. the N2 purge pressure is steadily increased to 2. This procedure may be repeated as required to purge each liquid arm in turn. If two main cargo pumps are in use in a tank. one at a time On the final purge depressurisation. 4fi When all of the pumps have been stopped and the discharge has been confirmed as complete. On completion of draining.5 Completion of Discharge Procedure Most terminals require one hour's notice before the first pump. This avoids initiating an ESD trip.e.can be stopped. Before controlled closure of the manifold/ESD valves can be accomplished. most terminals request the mode of operation to be switched to manual for eventual disconnection of the discharge arms. . Before stopping the pump. the ESDS 'Manifold Valve Not Fully Open' override function must be switched to override. The OOW will confirm this to the CCR. In a normal operation. As the predetermined heel quantity is approached.LNG Operational Practice going by re-circulation back to the tanks until discharge can be resumed and completed. and as requested by the terminal. When manifold/ESD valves are closed. when the level reaches an approved predetermined level (typically 0. inform the EIR that your cargo discharge is about to finish and that the first cargo pump will stop. then stop that pump. 6.8Mtr). purging is complete when this is below 1% by volume. and after all cargo pumps have been stopped.6 Post Ofeeh&rge Procedure On completion of cargo discharge. For most terminals. i. throttle-in the discharge valve on one pump to 40%. 6. adjust the discharge valve to maintain back pressure and ampere loading above the associated tripping levels. This action reduces turbulence around the pump suctions as the suction head is being reduced. One hour before. throttle-in the main cargo pump discharge valve to 40%. As the suction head reduces on the final pump in each tank. Normally. to monitor the operation. and with a pressure of 1barG still remaining in the chiksan arm. This makes sure that the CCR indicators display healthy operation and full closure. open the discharge valve on the tank nominated to receive line drainings.

It is good practice to change the operating mode to manual and make sure that there has been a full closure. The vessel is then given a slight list towards the berth so that she assumes. 7 Ballast Passage In Service 7. For cargo/deck or related work. Once clear of the jetty.1 Overview There are certain fundamental objectives that the SMT must consider on every ballast voyage. When all shore personnel have cleared the vessel. an upright position after letting-go. leave the loading valve partially open so that the final liquid residues can all drain back. as near as possible. Once all discharge arms have been disconnected. remove the gangway. you should avoid serious maintenance (especially of an invasive nature) that could cause a serious disruption. who must all agree with the quantities shown on the final OCT document. remove them for inspection. the vapour manifold remains open until just before final gauging. Most experienced operators believe that when a gas carrier is'in a fully laden condition. The Cargo Engineer should now prepare to reinstate the LD gas compressor and the supply of fuel gas to the EIR. Then with permission from the terminal. With the permission of the terminal. This completes the discharge procedure. The Master/Chief Officer must be sure that all paperwork has been completed and issued as appropriate. Check for debris. disconnect the appropriate discharge arm from the ship's manifold. adjust ballast to bring the vessel upright and trimmed appropriately for the sea passage. With the vessel upright and on an even keel. On the receiving tank for line drains. Before itemising these objectives. If discharge strainers have been used. stop and secure the manifold overside sprays. disconnect the fibre-optic/electrical communication/ESD link and re-stow it ashore. Other vessel departure procedures will have been running concurrently. start securing/blanking the manifold connections for sea conditions. there is a basic underlying principle to be made clear. . Once the loading and vapour arms have been secured and re-stowed ashore. A stowaway search should be conducted in compliance with ISPS requirements. perform the final gauging with all interested parties present. the status of the hazard or risk will only increase when a vessel is fully laden. Reinstate the fuel gas supply to the EIR. Normally.In-Service Operations After complete depressurisation. close the valve. Purge the vapour arm (as the discharge arms were purged) and disconnect.

filters. (In the event of an ESD. s Gas Detection: . resulting in the best possible Cold State on arrival at the load port.) Maximisation of the use of the LNG boil-off from the retained heel as a supplementary fuel source will help to conserve bunkers. from a safety and commercial point of view. 7. 1' Manifold bobbins. cargo tank pressure on a membrane vessel > 70mbarG or 1083mbarA at all times. With operator approval.Check and confirm speed of remote operation to be within surge avoidance parameters. gaskets and presentation flanges: . 1 Manifolds: . completion of any cosmetic maintenance that is in or adjacent to a gas-dangerous zone. these are the main objectives for SMT consideration: ® ESD system: -Tested and proved fully operational. loss-of-way through the water or a delay to the schedule. Maintain cargo tank pressures within maker's recommendations .Inspect the intended offshore manifold. This is the responsibility of 48 .Check for moisture ingress. Completion of any potentially disruptive planned maintenance (PM).that is. as recommended 25-30sec. .2.Check for mechanical damage. . Ensure it is secure and pressurised with N2. fr Cold maintenance of the cargo tanks.LNG Operational Practice Commitment to the customer/receiver means that you should avoid non-essential work in the E/R that has the potential to cause a delay to the schedule.1 Two Days bef< at the Load Port Although following this guideline may put ballast passage under pressure. # Set Cargo Lines for the intended load procedure. Completion of E/R maintenance on the vessel's power plant that has the potential for blackout. This avoids exposing the membrane to unacceptable levels of fatigue stress. f • Completion of any alarm or trip tests that could disrupt the schedule.2. Ballast valves: -Test remote/manual operation. • Cargo valves: -Test remote/manual operation. this is important with regard to the loading arms and damage avoidance. 722 Da Load Port This check-list details the tests to perform and the items to verify: # Cargo system: .Check and prove system operational on all points. BsMm Vc-V':. This checklist details the tests to perform and the items to verify: On the ballast passage.Use line surge avoidance to check the speed of remote operation. @ Completion of any potentially disruptive unscheduled maintenance. this is a better time to manage such an issue.Vz: Loading Preparations 7.

storing/ bunkering requirements. Chief Officer to prepare arrival/ departure paperwork.Adjust for appropriate arrival draught and trim. This is an important interface between the various departments within the SMT Terminal requirements. fill with fresh water.) ® Oil Pollution Trolley: . arrival/departure <§ Designated areas: .Check and prove all these systems operative. safety. IMO pump. . ISPS security/ compliance. known system/vessel defects. shore-leave control.Place the fresh water filled stainless steel buckets with enough clean rags and PPE. . . Moorings .Replace drain plugs. Manifold overside water sprays.Ensure/confirm that all are available for the loading procedure # Cargo savealls: -Where appropriate.Recommended elevation = 2mb each to provide a buffer against the . In accordance with the Company's SMS. ft Elevate interbarrier/insulation space pressures (design dependent). c CCTV . These include the HD compressors and associated security/safety circuits. and the fine tolerance regarding the ship's position relative to the loading arms. (These are for temporary stemming of minor leakages. e Ballast: . <§> Deck scuppers. Note: that the high freeboard of an LNG carrier.Make sure all deck scuppers are closed. programme are all potential issues for the agenda for this meeting. 7.Test as appropriate. Emergency fire pump and emergency generator.In-Service Operations the Chief Officer and/or the Cargo Engineer. Cargo/Ballast Plan .Check and ensure it is operable on all points.Rig/arm dry powder monitors and open dry powder house doors.Replace drain plugs Fire pump. Pilot hoists and/or accommodation ladders .Chief Officer completes the approved plan and obtains the required authorisation signatures.Prepare and check all associated equipment.Make ready the trolley and its associated equipment. . ® Mooring winch savealls: -Clean and mop out. . # Rig the standard international ship/shore hose connection. places a high demand.Test the operation to ensure hull protection against LNG leakage # Bunker/hydraulic savealls: -Clean and mop out . .2.on this equipment. the Master will chair a pre-port meeting. Chief Officer to prepare arrival/sailing stability conditions.3 Day of Arrival at the Load Port # Cargo boil-off control systems. ? Prepare the deck fire fighting equipment: . intended reliefs.

As well as the quantity to be sprayed. For reasons of safety. 50 . 7. you must maintain the cold state of the vessel. Cooldown the tanks just before arrival at the loading terminal. all equatorial temperatures can be maintained within 2DegC. Heel Ageing is a phenomenon for the operator to consider. for example. each tank retains enough LNG heel from the discharge for the tank bottom to remain covered until it reaches the load port. the LNG heel is retained in one of the tanks. This removes the need for spraying during the ballast voyage. periodically spray the LNG so that the average temperature inside the tanks does not exceed the designed maximum. At the end of the previous cargo discharge. Other operational considerations include gas burning requirements and the elevation of cargo tank pressures. supplied by the terminal before loading. depending on the Charterers requirements. As a spray medium. butane. As above. To keep the cargo tanks cold during a ballast voyage. carrying a risk of droplet entrainment into the vessel's vapour system. Consequently. control of the operation is automatic and DCSprogrammable. It will also determine the load procedure required at the terminal. ethane) remaining. the lighter fractions of the liquid can evaporate. This would be the Moss-Rosenberg equatorial temp of -113DegC or -130DegC for GTT vessels. # For short voyages. On Moss-Rosenberg vessels. which may prevent pumping because of the high ampere loads induced in the pump motor.LNG Operational Practice inevitable collapse in the pressure that always occurs in the initial stages of the loading procedure. Maintaining the cold state allows the vessel to start loading at the terminal on arrival and so reduce port time and turn-round to a minimum. These are the four main methods of maintaining the vessel in a cold state during the ballast voyage: Heel out at the end of discharge and subsequently cooldown the tanks with LNG. In many cases. Remember: if the ballast voyage is too long. with only the heavy fractions (for example. Eventually. propane.3 Cold State of the Vessel on Arrival at the Load Port On the ballast voyage. the CH4 content will be minimal. spraying is normally carried out during the hours of daylight. the LNG heel is consolidated in one of the tanks. calculate the amount of LNG heel to be retained by assuming a boil-off equal to 45% of the boil-off under laden conditions. On extended ballast voyages. this liquid mass will have a relatively high saturation temperature and density. it also becomes ineffective. . 6-8 days.

LNG Operational Practice Pre-Refit Operations Section .

the vessel is trimmed by the stern (normally 2. void spaces and duct keels and send the appropriate report to management. remove the last of the cargo until they also trip on low current (procedure referred to as Tank Stripping I Line Drainage). 8. stop it and change to the next tank. Start the spray pumps soon enough to avoid any possible starting problems that could be caused by very low tank levels. Previous statements regarding damage to cargo pumps caused by running for extended periods with a partially disrupted flow still apply. One main cargo pump in each tank is used until it trips on Low Ampere Loading or Low Discharge Pressure. At the next stage.5Mtrs) and upright to maximise discharge at the discharge port. . Tank levels should be reduced to the point where the main cargo pumps trip on low current. A Class surveyor may attend the last discharge before refit to inspect selected ballast tanks and cofferdam spaces. During the last loaded voyage before refit. It a condition that should be avoided whenever possible. cofferdams. This is a Customer I CCT requirement. At most terminals. this is a Class requirement that confirms the absence or presence of cold spots. you can extract as much of the cold from the insulation as well. From this. Then when the procedure is terminated.Pre-Refit Operations 8 Cargo Tank Warm-up Formal written confirmation by management sets out the requirements and a timetable of operations. The ship will carry out a maximum discharge. Using the stripping/spray pumps. the liquid remaining in the tanks when the stripping process is complete must still be gaugable by the level-measuring system. the minimum gaugable level is approximately 50mm. The ship will then proceed to sea and begin the warm-up. inerting and aerating procedures before its arrival at the refit yard. Note: the quantity remaining onboard must still be gaugable for commercial reasons regarding measurement of cargo ou-turn. and keeping the temperature of the cargo vapour elevated. By creating a 'Heat Sink' effect within the tanks. less cold will ingress back into the primary containment from the insulation.1 Tank Stripping / Line Drainage With permission from the terminal. the temperature differential between the inflowing IG and the cargo vapour within the tank will be as low as possible. As with the main cargo pump. This is normally done before refit. An effective warm-up will produce a successful inerting process. For an up-todate trans-sonic level measuring system. when the stripping/spray pump loses suction. the drive moves towards optimum efficiency for the process of inerting by displacement. conduct a full inner-hull inspection of all ballast tanks. This will produce a maximum density differential between the two mediums. when IG is introduced into the tank bottoms. Usually. Underlying Principle Vapourisation of residual cargo and warmup of the primary containment are not the only objectives.

The vapour is recirculated by the two HD compressors and heated by the cargo heaters to a preset value. the final discharge temperature from the compressors is restricted to 50°C. Temperatures within the tank and insulation are displayed in the OCR on the appropriate system (DCS or similar). Initially. the warmup operation continues until the temperature at the coldest point of the secondary barrier of each tank reaches +5°C. hot vapour is introduced through the filling lines to the bottom of the tanks. The period of time the warm-up operation requires depends on the amount of liquid. In normal operation. single stage heating may be the only option. even beyond the target figures stipulated. On new MossRosenberg vessels. (1st stage = 0°C. warm-up is considered complete when the temperature of tank equator is above -20°C (tank wall temperature approximately +5°C).2 V^J arm-up Operation Tank warm-up is part of the gas freeing operations performed before dry-docking or when preparing tanks for inspection purposes. when the temperatures have a tendency to stabilise. On completion of evaporation. A successful warm-up operation is essential preparation for the inerting process. All remaining LNG in the downward leg of the discharge arms and manifold connections is usually drained back to the tanks through the spray Ifhe. 8. It also ensures maximum difference against the density of the incoming IG. This avoids the risk of damage to gas compressor seals or the deformation of primary containment/ insulation.000 and 2. Excess vapour generated during the warmup operation is vented to atmosphere when at sea or. The following points apply to the standard situation of venting to the atmosphere at sea: On new GTT membrane vessels. the composition of liquid remaining and the initial temperature of the tanks and insulation spaces. the tank temperatures will rise slowly as evaporation of the LNG proceeds.000 m3/h at steadily increasing temperatures. hot vapour is introduced through the vapour piping at the top of the tanks (new GTT membrane vessels only).LNG Operational Practice When all pumpable cargo has been stripped ashore.000 m3/h at 60°C. 2nd stage = 75°C). This causes any liquid remaining in the tanks to evaporate. drain the system back to the nominated drain tank. and on these vessels. cold ingress from the insulation on completion of the warm-up will be minimised (heat sink effect). returned to shore. By continuing the warm-up process as long as possible. the warm-up will take about 48 hours for membrane vessels and 60 hours for MossRosenberg spheres. This is helped by pressure from the terminal supplied purge N2. tank temperatures will rise rapidly and the venting rate will fall to between 1. As well as warming up the membrane. if in port. which in turn enhances the results of inerting by displacement. 54 In a first step. . efficient warm-up of the insulation is also essential. On the older class of vessel. In a second step. On the older membrane vessels (GT and TGZ). This process is accompanied by high vapour generation and venting. Tanks are warmed-up by re-circulating heated LNG vapour. this parameter is determined by achieving +15°C at the tank bottom sensor. This ensures that the temperature of the cargo vapour remains elevated and so has as low a density as possible. Expect an approximate venting rate of 8.

In such a situation. A slight listing of the vessel will help to correct uneven warm-up in any one tank. Normally. On membrane vessels. In cases where you are not required to warm-up all the tanks.e. Continue gas burning for as long as possible. before the process goes into the closedcycle. venting has ceased and tank pressures have started to fall. even if you are preparing for a single tank entry. . follow the same procedure as for all tanks.Pre-Refit Operations .1. the tank(s)'to be inspected must be completely separated from the other tanks and associated cargo systems. This guarantees that the automatic relief systems can handle the increased demand. that means until all the liquid has evaporated. temperature sensors at the aft end of the tank give a good indication of the progress of warm-up. Gas Heater Rolling and pitching of the vessel will assist evaporation. Diagram 3. Keep the Interbarrier/lnsulation space pressures under close observation as the spaces warm-up and the N2 atmospheres expand. i.

. membrane load bearing insulation or sphere equatorial structure. 8. Before connecting inert gas generator to the cargo system. Set the lines as defined in the procedure from the 'Cargo Operations Manual'. Make sure that all warm-up parameters have been completed (as described in the previous section). Inert gas from the inert gas plant passes through the LNG loading lines to enter at the bottom of the tanks. A typical operation will take about twenty hours to complete. Fittings and lines are usually filled with inert gas or N2 while the plant supplying gas to free the tanks. or to shore if the vessel is in port. cargo valve seals. make sure the prevailing wind direction at all times allows the vapour to disperse away from the accommodation block and machinery intakes.2 Porting CUU:W:M^}. The highest level of the No Smoking Policy should be clearly posted and in force during the operation. the LNG vapour is displaced with inert gas. preheat the vapour heater(s) thoroughly with steam. all cargo pipe work. Before you admit the cold CH4 vapour. Prepare to use the inert gas plant in the inert gas mode.5%Vol. associated fittings. It is a multi-stage process that requires continuous planning and monitoring. The operation continues until the hydrocarbon content is reduced to less than 1. In addition to the cargo tanks. compressor house machinery and fuel gas supply lines must also be freed of gas. gas compressor seals. Monitor tank pressures and adjust the opening of the fill valves to maintain a uniform pressure in all the tanks. This is to avoid possible damage to the cargo piping insulation. When returning heated vapour to the cargo tanks.LNG Operational Practice With the vessel underway and venting. 9 Inerting of Cargo Tanks After the tanks have been warmed up. do not exceed the maximum stipulated heater outer temperature for the system design. start and run it until the oxygen content and dew point have reached the recommended levels (02 <2% and dew point <-45°C). primary membranes. and before the final Aerating stage can begin. Displaced gas from the cargo tanks is vented from the top of the tank through the vapour header to vent-mast No. 56 These points apply to the standard situation of venting to atmosphere while the vessel is at sea: Inerting is necessary to prevent the risk of having an air/LNG vapour mixture in the flammable range. This prevents the formation of ice which could damage the equipment. impulse lines.1 (most forward riser).

take great care to guarantee the safety of all personnel involved with any operation that uses IG. test the purge valve on one of the filling lines to verify that the oxygen content of the inert gas remains below 2%. Use the inert gas blower to avoid any debris entering the cargo system. Reset the system for the aerating process. machines. blow it through with air. Make sure there has been a Risk Assessment and all personnel involved in the inerting procedure are familiar with the associated hazards. On one of the tanks being inerted.. blind ends. 1 Aerfdii:. stop the inert gas supply and shut down the inert gas plant. make sure that tank pressures are always higher than insulation space pressures by at least 10 mbar. Include the pipelines (liquid and vapour). replace the inert gas from the previous procedure with dry breathable air. With the Inert Gas and Dry-Air Plant in DryAir production mode. All unused sections of pipelines. cargo machinery.g Overv^evy Before anyone can enter the cargo tanks. . Inert gas and pure N2 can kill you. associated heat exchangers and fittings in this process. purge the cargo tanks with dry air until you reach a reading of 2 1 % oxygen by volume. take samples of the discharge from the vapour dome at the top of each tank and test for hydrocarbon content. With the vessel underway and venting. equipment and instrumentation lines must be purged for five minutes. make sure the prevailing wind direction at all times allows the vapour to disperse away from the accommodation block and machinery intakes.5%. The highest level of the No Smoking Policy should be clearly posted and in force during the operation. When the hydrocarbon content sampled from a tank outlet falls below 1. In order to avoid asphyxiation from 02 depletion. On completion of tank and pipeline inerting. Before the inert gas line is connected to the cargo system. keep the tank pressure low to maximise the piston effect. and that the tank pressures do not exceed 180 mbar above atmospheric pressure.Pre-Refit Operations On membrane vessels. During gas freeing. 10 Aeration 10. isolate and shut in the tank. At about one-hourly intervals.

take appropriate precautions as given in /SG07T*and other relevant publications. 5fi . both primary and secondary. •uKM2£i^iiy y 111*9 N2 gas in confined spaces is hazardous to personnel and all possible precautions are required to avoid a concentration. The inert gas/dry-air mixture is exhausted from the bottom of the tanks to atmosphere at No. keep the pressure in the tanks relatively low to maximise the piston effect. test for traces of noxious gases (C0 2 less than 0. even when optimum temperatures are achieved.e. you can only implement cargo tank entry procedures when the shore chemist has tested and passed all associated spaces. i. 10. International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals.5% by volume. On membrane vessels.LNG Operational Practice Note: the difference in density between IG and dry air is only slight. and CO less than 50ppm) which may have been constituents of the inert gas. On the older class of membrane vessels (GT and TGZ). the liquid header. 1 vent mast through the tank filling pipes. The operation is complete when all the tanks have a 20-21% oxygen value. Adjust the pressure in the tanks to approximately 120 mbar. During aerating. Cryogenic cargo tanks are not opened when this stage is completed. When aeration is performed at sea (as a continuation of pre-refit procedures) it will take approximately twenty hours on a 135. the cool dry air enters the tank bottoms through the loading lines and the displaced IG is expelled through the vapour header system. test for sufficient oxygen > 20% and for traces of noxious gases: C02 < 0. differential pressure across the barriers. Most Cargo Operation Manuals on these vessels include a procedure for both methods. Before entering such an area.2% by volume (or a locally-required equivalent) and a dew point less than -40°C.published by Witherbys Publishing. the line configuration for Aerating is the same as for the Inerting operation.2 Aerating Operation The Inert Gas and Dry-Air Plant produces dry air with a dew point of -45°C. The dry-air enters the cargo tanks through the vapour header to the individual vapour domes. Before anyone can enter a tank. In addition. On the newer class of vessels (both GTT and Moss-Rosenberg). and dry air is usually introduced at the top of the tanks through the vapour header system. this trend has been reversed. Fifth Edition . a CH4 content of less than 0.000m3 vessel. During pre-refit preparations.5% and CO < 50 ppm. and appropriate system spool piece. Strict procedural guidelines are subject to rigorous and specific safe-working procedures. must be maintained within acceptable limits.

Glossary and Index .

as displayed on a standard pressure gauge. For'd: An abbreviation for Forward. modern day builders of membrane type gas carriers. .Glossary Glossary CCR: Cargo Control Room. either by forced displacement or mixing. LNG: Liquefied Natural Gas. ACC: Automatic Combustion Control system. A unit of pressure equal to onethousandth of a bar.e. focal point for the control of cargo operations. sometimes referred to as Automatic Boiler Control. Inerted: The condition that exists in a space on completion of an atmosphere exchange. i. PPE: Personal Protective Equipment. compressors designed for a lower volumetric throughput. i. i. as used to describe the LD Compressors.000mbar±). Relief: In the context of this publication. using Nitrogen or Inert Gas (IG) from an IGG. ESD: Emergency Shut Down. rules and regulations in a manual format. QRC: Quick Release Coupling. The atmosphere is then unable to support life or sustain a fire/explosion.e. Inerting: Exchanging a gaseous atmosphere in an enclosed space or tank. A bar is a unit of pressure equal to 105 Newton/m3. SMT: Ship's Management Team. as in the leading section of a ship or structure. but usually capable of higher discharge pressures. as produced by an IGG. mbarG (Gauge): Pressure expressed in terms of mbar as measured above atmospheric pressure. (electronic or hard-copy) as prescribed and kept updated by the operators. a term used to describe a device or system for controlled pressure release from an enclosed space or vessel.e. EIR: Engine Room. Makeup: In the context of this publication. . SMS: Safety Management System. LD: Low Demand. IGG Plant: Inert Gas Generating Plant. DCS: Distributed Control System. mbar. using Nitrogen or Inert Gas (IG) from an IGG. data acquisition and control system. GTT: Gas Transport / Technigaz. sometimes expressed as Fwd. as used to describe the HD Compressors. comprising of department heads and associated supervisors.(system) IG: Inert Gas. monitoring. mbarA (Absolute): Pressure expressed in terms of mbar as measured from absolute zero pressure. or approximately equal to one atmosphere (1. A computer based alarm. a term used to describe a device or system for supplementing or maintaining the pressure in a vessel or enclosed space. A committee usually chaired by the ship's Master. HD: High Demand. as used to connect the loading arms to the vessel's manifold. for the safe manning and operation of their vessels. affording an instantaneous dry break. compressors designed with the capability of a large volumetric throughput.

The manuals provide ease of reference on all critical onboard operations and for new or recently transferred personnel. the objectives of which ensure safety at sea. now part of GTT ISM Code: The purpose of this code is to provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. IHI: Inner Hull Inspection. and avoidance of damage to the environment and to property.e. is an approved/certificated mea'ns by which the quantity of cargo onboard -can be determined at any point in time. to replace the liquid volume discharged. GRP: Glass Reinforced Plastic. The manuals are normally categorised into Bridge (BIB). RGB: Return Gas Blower.e. Deck (DIB) and Engine Room (EIB). accommodation. prevention of human injury or loss of life. correlating all deck. Deck Operations Log (DOL):A hand-written continuous record of events in real time. the primary purpose of which is to supply the various spray-water fire curtains round the vessel. a means of enhancing familiarisation with their duties. GT: Gas Transport. CCT: Cargo Custody Transfer system. i. Hot ESD: A term used for an ESD test. 62 TGZ: Technigaz. Deadband: A control engineering term used to describe that portion of a split-range control band in which both of the controlled functions are normally closed and inoperative. ISM Drills: Drills regularly rehearsed onboard in compliance with the ISM Code. compressor house. cargo temperature sensors and an Input/Output box for the communication interfaces. builders of membrane type gas carriers. i. Information Books: Manuals compiled onboard to provide a readily available source of ship specific information for all personnel. IMO Pump: A term used to identify a dedicated high pressure fire pump. cargo and bridge operations associated with a particular voyage. not at -160°C(±) cargo temperature. cargo tank level gauging system (Radar or Trans-sonics).LNG Operational Practice N2 Gen: An abbreviation used for the Nitrogen Generating Plant and not to be confused with the Inert Gas Generating Plant. which is carried out when the associated equipment is still at ambient temperature. tank domes. . System components comprise of. SG: Specific Gravity (density). The system is sometimes referred to as the CTS (Cargo Transfer System). trim/list indicator. builders of membrane type gas carriers. Overlap: A control engineering term used to describe that portion of a split-range control band in which one of the controlled functions commences response before the other has completed its full responsive action. EP Policy: Environmental Protection Policy. vapour pressure measurement system. in particular clauses 7 and 8. Usually part of the shore installation used for returning pressurised gas to the vessel. Disport: Discharge Port. primarily to determine the gross heating value delivered to the customer.

e. Classification Society. Spin-Test: In this context. i. i. a term used to describe the testing of a cargo pump by initiating the start arrangement and then observing associated parameters. a non-flow process. . i. Impulse Lines: Small bore piping connecting a transducer/sensor to a measuring device. or IG with air. Saturation Temperature: The temperature at which. for example. a term used to describe the process whereby the light factions contained in a liquid mass evaporate.e. i. a liquid mass starts to change state into vapour.e.Glossary Purge: In this context. just long enough to prove the pump's operation without disrupting other conditions prevailing at the time. a term used to describe any operation that involves replacing one medium with another in a controlled manner and to prescribed limits. Class: A general term for. Lloyds or DNV. Out-Turn: In this context. the actual amount received by the buyer. a term used to describe the quantity of cargo delivered by the vessel. i.e. Heel Ageing: In this context. leaving behind the heavier ends. hydrocarbon gas with IG. a pressure gauge. The medium in the impulse line is usually static. The test is usually brief.e. etc.

35. 6. 7-11.-11. 40 discharge strainers. 38 Discharge Procedure. 53 compressor seals.38-46. 53 cargo pump. 49 Flag State. 12 Cold Function. 50 bypass valves. 15. 44. 30 Deck Operations Log. 33 Cargo Operations Manual. 23 Average Liquid Temperature. 24.50 brittle fracture. 33 blackout. 38 Deck scuppers. 28. 39 Cargo Tank Hold Spaces. 20. 44. 11. 19. 34. 16-19 cooldown bobbin. 6 Cool down. 38. 40-46 calculated quantities. 10 . 50. 56. 30. 38. 5. 34. 49 EP Policy. 6. 24. 36.48 ethane. 49 atmospheric pressure. 37. 11. 6 dry powder monitors. 29. 18. 46. 49 catalytic process. 41 Cold maintenance. 26. 13. 18.Index ACC (Autoc Combustion Control). 47 discharge valve. 37. 34. 48 fibre-optic. 49 Dew Point. 36. 50 Dry Air mode. 6. 40 corrosive agents. 35 Class requirement. 17. 47. 38 discharge columns. 48 ballast voyage. 24 flammable mixture. 37. 48 blocking circuits. 34. 29. 34. 17. 6 double-wall piping. 55 DCS (Distributed Control System). 5. 37. 10 CCTV. 53 emergency generator. 56 conserve bunkers. 55 CO. 26. 47. 50 barometric pressure. 33 droplet entrainment. 7. 32. 33 droplet carry-over. 39 carbon dioxide (C0 2 ). 57 flammable zone. 43. 48. 23. 37. 47 filling pipes. 49 Certificate of Fitness. 53 dome arrangement.49 Aeration. 56 ESD. 6 cosmetic maintenance. 34 buffer tank. 18 butane. 53 Cargo/Ballast Plan. 13 creep. 58 cargo conditioning. 35 chemical light-stick. 6 cargo tank wedge. 57 Auto Blasting. 58 filters. 53 closed-cycle. 33 ballast tanks. 49 Dry-Air Plant. 30-33. 12. 48 Cold Spotting. 13. 48 Consumer Select. 37. 10 Cargo Tanks. 25. 30-31 accommodation ladders. 41 displacement. 53 cold conditions. 13. 34. 29. 48. 57 Air Swept Duct. 28 cross-over bends. 33 Daily Work Plan.23-29. 43 Discharge Preparations. 37. 53 arrival/departure paperwork. 58 discharge arms. 37. 54 duct keels. 57 dry-docking. 36. 69 flammable range. 6 control range overlap. 58 cofferdam. 40. 13. 14. 27. 48 Fire pump. 12. 24. 53 Cargo Surveyor. 33 ampere loading. 9. 40 boil-off. 30 equatorial region. 50 fatigue stress. 14 cooldown tank. 32. 33 Alarm Test Register. 50. 15. 53 Ballast valves. 4 1 . 6. 16. 16. 56 cargo out-turn. 10 Double-Walled N2-Jacketed Gas. 11 Daily Cargo Log. 53 E/R maintenance.

24. 13-15. 18. 36. 12. 19. 27 guide vane. 39. 29. 54. 56 life expectancy. 41 Manifolds. 38 methane (CH4). 15. 29. 15 heating coils. 48 Moorings. 12 IGC Code. 35 invasive maintenance.12-18. 53 insulation spaces. 23 main engine turning gear. 9. 30 Fuel Gas Supply Piping. 36. 41 Manifold Valve override facility. 39 hot vapour. 17 heat energy. 23. 15. 41 moisture ingress. 13.35. 5. 26. 3-9. 35 motor ammeter. 48 gas heater. 34 Heel Ageing. 31 noxious gases. 12 Fuel Oil Equivalent. 13 Hot ESD test. 37.33. 55-58 nitrogen oxides. 49 Moss-Rosenberg hold spaces. 30. 3-6. 48 gassing-up. 23 Gas Dangerous Zones.46. 26. 6 Manifold bobbins. 48 manoeuvring valves. 6 out-turn. 29. 11. 49 Free-Flow. 11. 13 IG plant. 45 non-uniform contraction. 24 Kawasaki turbine ships. 33.30. 5. 37. 13. 32 freeboard. 48 Loading Master. 16 gauging systems. 15. 33. 54 Hot-Line. 17. 38 make-up regulating valves. 26. 10. 53-57 Initial Cargo Custody Transfer. 12 ISPS security checklist. 6 Non-Pumpable Suction Height. 12 line drainings. 12 Inerting/Drying 1. 50. 23. 27 Forced Boil-Off. 23. 48 Oil Pollution Trolley. 37. 18. 11 flow preference. 39 humidity. 23 lay-up. 17 normal boil-off value. 26. 36. 31 gycol heating system. 30 31. 6. 42 freezable gases. 39 inner-hull. 41 hydrocarbon gas hazard. 37. 11. 31 gaskets. 38. 54 international ship/shore hose connection 37. 49 operational Dead-band. 33 . 41 LNG spraying. 11. 13 Gas Detection. 28 inert gas. 36. 49 impulse lines. 36. 58 offshore manifold. 39 manifold valves. 24 IMO pump. 46. 12. 24. 45 motor winding resistance. 18. 36. 46 liquid header. 24. 50 HFO. 56-58 inerted condition. 35 nitrogen (N2). 38. 53 . 53 insulation. 13 Frosting. 37. 37 gas hood. 45 Main Engine Bridge Ctl Sys. 23 master steam stop valve. 29 Low Discharge Pressure. 24. 10. 23. 13 gross heating value. 6 motion sensors. 13 LD and HD Compressors. 48 manifold bypass valves. 30. 39 Initial Gauging. 6 N2 pockets. 56 midships crossover. 6. 18 load bearing insulation. 37. 7-12. 53 low suction head. 47. 13 N2 generators.LNG Operational Practice flow loop. 24-30.49 intrinsically safe (IS). FWE. 48 loading arms. 36. 41 fuel gas control valve. 49. 6 hydraulic shock. 56 Load Port. 34. 31 High/High Levels.

46 unscheduled maintenance. 24. 4. 57 vapour locked. 25 spray nozzles. 12. 14 vapour return. 13 purge pressure. 5 security valve G. 57 savealls. 37. 12 primary insulation space. 48 tank shell. 13. 32. 42 Risk Assessment. 49 SMT. 5 prop shaft. 30. 17 pumpable cargo. 29 quantity on board. 23 starting current. 37.41. 14. 49 scupper pipes. 49 Stal-Laval turbine vessels. 33. 34. 11. 27 radio contact. 19. 36. 29. 11. 34 temperature sensors. 46 purging. 14. 48 Plant phone. 4 secondary space supply valves. 17. 8. 35 transmission cables. 24. 3. 15.46 spray header.26. 33 whaleback spaces. 56 piston effect. 35 Pilot hoists. 35. 49 permit to work. 48 QRCs. 56. 49 presentation flanges. 6. 42. 26. 18 spray-shield. 35. 37 striking plates. 33. 17. 17.29. 54 vapour header. 34 planned maintenance (PM). 9 PPE. 37. 10. 53 Voyage Abstract. 56 void space. 46 return gas blower (RGB). 53 suction strums. 34 secondary barrier. 31 vent mast.30. 13. 42 ramp-up. 19. 40 vent duct.42 Spray Rails. 47. 18 tank-loading valves. 31. 30. 30. 6. 37. 12 . 12 taped joints. 34 Personal O2 meters. 15. 34. 28 Work Planning Committee. 35 samples. 30. 13 steam dump. 24 SMS. 18 Toolbox Talk (TBT). 39 overside water sprays. 6 secondary membrane. 53 Whessoe Column. 54 secondary insulation spaces. 37. 49 piping insulation. 11. 58 sacrificial anodes. 23 propane. 17 thermal shock. 18. 17. 56 vapour generation. 54 Purge Drying. 11. 33. 41 pump tower. 9 safety trolley. 39 portable instruments. 37. 37. 30. 43.Glossary and Index override facility. 29. 36 turbulence. 34 stability conditions. 34. 3. 6 surge. 31 ship/shore safety checklist. 50 pump protection. 35 transition range. 17 Time/Temperature graph. 48 Pressurisation. 34 stripping/spray pump. 18 primary space supply valves. 57 Plain carbon steels. 14. 49 spool piece. 11. 57 valve seals. 36 pre-port meeting. 54 thermal gradients. 34 sulphur. 34 safety margin.42 re-circulation.