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p

p

#  (n ) ftan p  (n ) ftan cs p 

′ cs
′ p
 is the dilation angle (a measure of the soil’s
ability to expand –> increase in volume)
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# COULOMB’S SOIL MODEL FOR CEMENTED SOILS

  c  
(
)
tan
f
cm
n
f
o
c cm is the cementation strength and  o
is the apparent friction angle.
Neither c cm nor  o is a fundamental
soil parameter.
the apparent frictional strength is
not strictly correct since they are not
mobilized at the same shear strains.
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  
tan
  
,
f
n
f
cs
p
 c 
 tan 
f
cm
n
f
o

# stress obliquity

• MC failure criterion defines failure when the maximum principal effective stress ratio,

1

f

3

# ,

f

called the maximum effective stress obliquity, is achieved and not when the maximum shear stress

# )/2] max

is achieved.

• The failure shear stress is then less than the maximum shear stress.

sin  



1

f

 

3

f

OB

2

(



1

)

f

 

(

3

)

f

OA



1

f

 

3

f

(

  

1

)

(

3

)

f

2

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cs

1

3

1

3

cs

p

1

3

1

3

p

p

1

3

p

p

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# =

Unsaturated, cemented, cohesive
soils
 o
C
Normal effective
  
stress,  n
1
3
sin 
o
2
C
cot
   
+
o
1
3
1
C 
tan
  
1
sin
  
1
sin
2
o
1
o
3
o
Shear stress
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# ISSUES WITH AND USE OF THE MC MODEL

• ###  ISSUES

• MC model applies strictly to two rigid bodies with a common potential sliding plane.

• It is a limiting stress model.

• It does not consider soil deformation. Soil deformation is important in real soils.

• The shear strength in compression and extension is the same. Real soils show different strengths in compression and extension. Usually, the extension strength is lower than the compressive strength.

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Equilibrium:

Simplification:

z

f

z

Critical state:

Peak:

• # 25 ISSUES WITH AND USE OF THE TAYLOR’S MODEL

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## DIFFERENCES AMONG THE THREE POPULAR FAILURE CRITERIA

 Name Failure criteria Soil treated as Best used for Test data interpretation* Coulomb Failure occurs by Rigid, frictional Layered or fissured Direct shear impending, frictional material overconsolidated soils or a sliding on a slip plane. soil where a prefailure plane exists Mohr– Failure occurs by Rigid, frictional Long term (drained Triaxial Coulomb impending, frictional material condition) strength of sliding on the plane of overconsolidated fine- maximum principal effective stress obliquity. grained and dense coarse- grained soils Tresca Failure occurs when one- Homogeneous solid Short term (undrained Triaxial half the maximum condition) strength of fine- principal stress grained soils difference is achieved. * will discuss later
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## SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR THE THREE POPULAR FAILURE CRITERIA


  
cs
cs
n
)f tan
(
Name
 p  (n)f tan(cs p )  (n)f tan p
Coulomb
Critical state
Peak
 Mohr–Coulomb Tresca

#  co  ct  ccm

Inclination of the failure plane to the plane
on which the major principal effective stress
 
cs
45
o

cs
acts.
2
(
s
u cs
)
 
2
1
3
cs
1
sin
)
(
1
3
1
45 
sin 
cs
      
  
3
3
1
1
cs
(

)
3
cs
1
sin

cs
tan
2
 
45
 
 
cs
 
(

)
1
cs
1
sin

cs
2

           
p
p
1
3
1
3
sin 
 

p
p
p
p
p
(
)
sin
2
 tan
o
3
1


2 
)
2
C cot
+
Cemented soils: sin 
3
1
1
3
C  co  ct  ccm

p
o
p
2
+
=45
the major principal effective stress acts.
Inclination of the failure plane to the plane on which
   
 
o
 
s
u p
p
2
(
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# RANGES OF FRICTION ANGLES AND DILATION ANGLES FOR SOILS

Ranges of Friction Angles for Soils (degrees)

Soil type

#  r

Gravel

3035

3550

Mixtures of gravel and sand with fine-grained

soils

2833

3040

Sand

2737*

3250

Silt or silty sand

2432

2735

Clays

1530

2030

515

*Higher values (32°37°) in the range are for sands with significant amount of feldspar (Bolton, 1986). Lower values (27°32°) in the range are for quartz sands.

Typical Ranges of Dilation Angles for Soils

Soil type

# p

(degrees)

Dense sand

1015º

Loose sand

<10º

Normally consolidated clay

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30

Dense sand

Loose silty sand

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

p

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