Learning outcomes
soil models: Coulomb, MohrCoulomb, Tresca and Taylor.
Importance
assumptions to know the limitations of a selected model.
MODELS TO INTERPRET SHEAR STRENGTH
representation of the soil to
allow us to understand its
response to loading and other
external events.

A soil model should not be expected to capture all the intricacies of real soil behavior.

Each soil model may have a different set of assumptions and may only represent one or more aspects of soil behavior.

Popular soil models

Coulomb

MohrCoulomb

Tresca
Simple

Some other soil models

Taylor

Critical state

6 COULOMB’S SOIL MODEL

Soils, in particular granular soils, are endowed by nature with slip planes.

Each contact of one soil particle with another is a potential microslip plane.

Loadings can cause a number of
these micro slip planes to align in the
direction of least resistance.
COULOMB’S SOIL MODEL FOR UNCEMENTED,SOILS
Soil fails by impending frictional sliding on a plane
f
(
n
)
f
tan
cs
_{f}
=
> 0
(n ) _{f} tan p (n ) _{f} tan _{}_{}_{}_{c}_{s} p _{}
′ cs
′ p
is the dilation angle (a measure of the soil’s
ability to expand –> increase in volume)
COULOMB’S SOIL MODEL FOR CEMENTED SOILS
c
(
)
tan
f
cm
n
f
o
c cm is the cementation strength and o
is the apparent friction angle.
Neither c cm nor o is a fundamental
soil parameter.
Adding the cementation strength to
the apparent frictional strength is
not strictly correct since they are not
mobilized at the same shear strains.
ISSUES WITH AND USE OF THE COULOMB’S MODEL

ISSUES

Coulomb’s model applies strictly to two rigid bodies with a common potential sliding plane.

It is a limiting force model (force at impending frictional sliding )

It does not consider soil deformation.

It is independent of the loading history of the soil.

USE

It can be used for failures that occur along a slip plane, such as a joint or the interface of two soils or the interface between a structure and a soil.

Stratified soil deposits such as overconsolidated varved clays (regular layered soils that depict seasonal variations in deposition) and fissured clays are likely candidates for failure following Coulomb’s model, especially if the direction of shearing is parallel to the direction of the bedding plane.
KEY POINTS REGARDING COULOMB’S MODEL
tan
,
f
n
f
cs
p
c
tan
f
cm
n
f
o
ISSUES WITH AND USE OF THE MC MODEL

ISSUES

MC model applies strictly to two rigid bodies with a common potential sliding plane.

It is a limiting stress model.

It does not consider soil deformation. Soil deformation is important in real soils.

It is independent of the loading history of the soil. The strength of real soils is dependent on loading history.

The shear strength in compression and extension is the same. Real soils show different strengths in compression and extension. Usually, the extension strength is lower than the compressive strength.
KEY POINTS: MC FAILURE CRITERION

Coupling Mohr’s circle with Coulomb’s frictional law allows us to define shear failure based on the stress state of the soil.

Failure occurs, according to the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion, when the soil reaches the maximum principal effective stress obliquity.

The maximum shear stress is not the failure shear stress.

Information on the deformation or the initial stress state of the soil is not needed to interpret soil strength using the MC failure criterion.
TRESCA’S MODEL
Soil fails when the shear stress is onehalf the principal stress difference
s
u
(
1
)
f
(
3
)
f
(
1
)
f
(
3
)
f
2
2
stress, sometimes called confining
pressure, causes a decrease in initial void
ratio and a larger change in excess
porewater pressure when a soil is sheared under undrained condition.
ISSUES WITH AND USE OF THE TRESCA’S MODEL

ISSUES

USE

It is a yield criterion for solid bodies that has been adopted as a failure criterion for soils (a deformable body).

It is a limiting stress criterion.

It does not consider soil deformation. Soil deformation is important in real soils.

It is independent of the loading history of the soil. The strength of real soils is dependent on loading history.

Compression and expansion strength is the same. Real soils show different strengths in compression and in expansion

Short term (undrained condition) stability calculations and to interpret the undrained shear strength of finegrained soils.
KEY POINTS TRESCA’S FAILURE CRITERION

For a total stress analysis, which applies to finegrained soils, the shear strength parameter is the undrained shear strength, s _{u} .

Tresca failure criterion is used to interpret the undrained shear strength of fine grained soils

The undrained shear strength depends on the initial void ratio or initial water content or initial confining pressure. It is not a fundamental soil shear strength parameter.

Information on the deformation of the soil is not needed to interpret soil strength using Tresca failure criterion.
The shear strength comes from sliding friction and the interlocking of soil particles
from shearing and the interlocking of soil
particles.

Unlike Coulomb failure criterion, Taylor failure criterion does not require the assumption of any physical mechanism of failure, such as a plane of sliding.

It can be applied at every stage of loading for soils that are homogeneous and deform under plane strain conditions similar to simple shear.
TAYLOR’S FAILURE CRITERION: FORMULATION
The shear strength comes from sliding friction and the interlocking of soil particles
d d d
f
z
z
z
d
d
d
d
z
0.
ISSUES
presented in Chapter 11.
the soil particles during shearing.
soils.
DIFFERENCES AMONG THE THREE POPULAR FAILURE CRITERIA




Test data interpretation*








overconsolidated soils or a




















maximum principal effective stress obliquity.

grained and dense coarse grained soils












condition) strength of fine











SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS FOR THE THREE POPULAR FAILURE CRITERIA
cs
cs
n
)f tan
(
Name
p (n)f tan(cs p ) (n)f tan p
Coulomb
Critical state
Peak
unsaturated, cemented soils: f C (n )f tano _{}
C
co ct ccm
Inclination of the failure plane to the plane
on which the major principal effective stress
cs
45
o
cs
acts.
2
(
s
u cs
)
2
1
3
cs
1
sin
)
(
1
3
1
45
sin
cs
3
3
1
1
cs
(
)
3
cs
1
sin
cs
tan
2
45
cs
(
)
1
cs
1
sin
cs
2
p
p
1
3
1
3
sin
p
p
p
p
p
(
)
sin
2
tan
o
3
1
2
)
2
C cot
+
Cemented soils: sin
3
1
1
3
C co ct ccm
p
o
p
2
+
=45
the major principal effective stress acts.
Inclination of the failure plane to the plane on which
o
s
u p
p
2
(
RANGES OF FRICTION ANGLES AND DILATION ANGLES FOR SOILS
Ranges of Friction Angles for Soils (degrees)



_{p}

cs

_{r}





Mixtures of gravel and sand with finegrained



















*Higher values (32°–37°) in the range are for sands with significant amount of feldspar (Bolton, 1986). Lower values (27°–32°) in the range are for quartz sands.

Typical Ranges of Dilation Angles for Soils



p





Normally consolidated clay


TYPICAL VALUES OF S _{U} FOR SATURATED FINEGRAINED SOILS

Description

s _{u}

(kPa(

s _{u} (psf)

Very soft

< 10

<200


Soft

1025

200  500


Medium stiff

25 – 50

500  1000


Stiff

50 – 100

1000  2000


Very stiff

100 – 200

2000  4000


Extremely stiff

> 200

> 4000




Quiz 1
Which failure criterion (model) is best suited to analyze
the potential failure of the soil mass shown?
1.
MohrCoulomb

3. Tresca

4. None of the above
Stiff overconsolidated clay
Quiz 2
The critical state friction angle of a soil is 30 degrees.
If the normal effective stress imposed by a building is
100 kPa, the shear stress (kPa) to cause failure is most
nearly
Quiz 3
The critical state friction angle of a soil is 30 degrees.
The ratio of the major principal effective stress to the
minor principal effective stress to cause failure is most
nearly
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAILURE CRITERIA
AEFB.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAILURE CRITERIA
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAILURE CRITERIA
KEY POINTS

Soil states above the peak shear strength boundary are impossible.

Soil states within the peak shear strength boundary and the failure line (critical state) are associated with brittle, discontinuous soil responses and risky design.

Soil states below the failure line lead to ductile responses and are safe.

You should not rely on ′
in
geotechnical design, because the amount of dilation one measures in laboratory or field tests may not be mobilized by the soil under construction loads. You should use ′ _{c}_{s} unless experience dictates otherwise.
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