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4.

0 WELD FIT-UP INSPECTION:


4.1 The surface to be welded shall be smooth and free from deep notches, irregularities, scale,
Rust, oil, grease and other foreign materials.
4.2 Piping, tubing and headers to be joined shall be aligned within allowable tolerances on
Diameters, wall thicknesses and out-of-roundness as below:
Maximum permissible mis-alignment at bore
Bore (mm)
Max. Misalignment (mm)
For GTAW
For SMAW
Upto 100
1.0
1.0
Over 100 to 300
1.6
1.6
Over 300
1.6
2.4
4.3 While fit up, components to be welded shall not show any appreciable off-set or
misalignment when viewed from positions apart.
4.4 The root opening of components to be joined shall be adequate to provide acceptable
Penetration.
4.5 On fillet welds, the parts to be joined shall be brought as close to contact as practical,
although in most instances a small opening between the parts is desirable.
4.6 Root gaps shall be maintained at 1.6 mm - 2.4mm (refer relevant document).
NOTE : Wherever pre heating is done, ensure the root gap before welding
4.7 Weld area should be protected from drafts and wind, to maintain inert gas shield.

6.3 Undercuts not to exceed 0.8 mm or 10% of wall thickness whichever is less.
6.4 Where inside surface is readily accessible, the same shall be inspected for excess
Penetration and root concavity.
The permissible limits are given below:
Root concavity: max of 2.5 mm or 20% of thickness at weld, whichever is lesser,
provided adequate reinforcement is present.
Excess penetration: up to and including 3.2 mm.

Maximum Permissible Reinforcements ( ASME Sec I PW 35)


Thickness of base metal in mm Reinforcement in mm
Upto 3.0
2.5
Over 3 to 5
3.0
Over 5 to 13
4.0
Over 13 to 25
5.0
Over 25 to 50
6.0
Over 50 Max of
6.0 or 1/8 of weld
PRE - ASSEMBLY AND WELDING OF CEILING GIRDERS
B) PRE-ASSEMBLY FIT UP & ALIGNMENT:

Do pre-assembly fit up and alignment of girder pieces following shop match marks. Use L
clamps and wedges ( Tack welds are not permitted on the weld joints ) for web alignment to
keep the joint free during welding of flange joints to facilitate weld shrinkage.
Check, measure and record the following for the pre-assembly before welding (Sketch-2A/
Sketch 2B) (Also to measure & record after welding & PWHT)
- Sweep by piano wire on bottom flange (max 3mm at joints & 10mm for assy)
- Camber by water level on bottom flange (max 3mm at joint & 10mm for assy)
- Length between girder pin bolt hole centers (overall max 15 mm)
- Diagonal difference (max 15 mm)
- Root gap (Flange=4 to 6mm; Web=6 to 8mm)
- Web verticality by plumb (To monitor distortion before & after welding)
- Distance between punch marks at weld joints (To monitor weld shrinkage)
NOTE:
1 . Flange root gap will be absorbed during welding as weld shrinkage.
2 . Tolerances given above are indicative.
3 . To accommodate weld shrinkage ,ensure
- Web root gap 3-4 mm more than flange root gap
- Length before welding = Drg length + root gap of flange joints
4 . Ensure temporary locking & welding of the pre-assembly before start of
girder welding (Sketch-3) with provision for longitudinal movement during
welding to avoid accumulation of thermal stresses & facilitates controlled weld
shrinkage.