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This article presents the design and simulation of a fourth order multilayer Dual Behavior Resonator (DBR) microwave filter. As a first step, a single layer filter design is made, based on open-circuited different-length stubs DBR structures. A two layer filter is obtained by modifying the initial design, allowing cross-couplings between non-adjacent resonators. The multilayer configuration reduces the circuit size, and has the potential to improve the filter’s electrical response. A comparison between the single layer and the multilayer designs is provided.

This article presents the design and simulation of a fourth order multilayer Dual Behavior Resonator (DBR) microwave filter. As a first step, a single layer filter design is made, based on open-circuited different-length stubs DBR structures. A two layer filter is obtained by modifying the initial design, allowing cross-couplings between non-adjacent resonators. The multilayer configuration reduces the circuit size, and has the potential to improve the filter’s electrical response. A comparison between the single layer and the multilayer designs is provided.

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Carlos Andrs Viteri Mera1, Juan Carlos Bohrquez Reyes2

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department

Universidad de los Andes

Bogot, Colombia

1

caviteri@egresados.uniandes.edu.co; 2jubohorq@uniandes.edu.co

fourth order multilayer Dual Behavior Resonator (DBR)

microwave filter. As a first step, a single layer filter design is

made, based on open-circuited different-length stubs DBR

structures. A two layer filter is obtained by modifying the initial

design, allowing cross-couplings between non-adjacent

resonators. The multilayer configuration reduces the circuit size,

and has the potential to improve the filters electrical response. A

comparison between the single layer and the multilayer designs is

provided.

Keywords- filter synthesis; microstrip technology; microwave

bandpass filter; open-ended stubs.

I.

INTRODUCTION

receiving increasing attention from researchers in recent years,

due to its applications in planar microwave filters [1][11]. In

this paper, we present a multilayer DBR microwave filter

design process, based in the work described in [12]. Our goal is

to use open-circuited different-length microstrip stubs to

construct a single layer filter, and use this design in a later stage

to implement a multilayer filter.

Multilayer planar structures have significant advantages

over the single layer ones. For example, they allow a

considerable reduction in components size, which is one of the

main characteristics the market is demanding in microwave

devices. In addition, multilayer technology permits new forms

of electromagnetic coupling within microwave circuits, helping

to improve their performance.

Despite the fact that multilayer technology has several

advantages, it requires a demanding design and implementation

process. In this paper, a single layer filter is used as the first

step to obtain a multilayer filter. Thus, the complexity of a

direct multilayer filter synthesis is reduced.

This document is organized as follows. In Section II, the

fundamentals of the DBR technology, its microstrip

implementation and the fourth order filter synthesis procedure

are presented. Section III describes the design of a single layer

DBR microwave filter, along with its simulation and

implementation results. Section IV shows the DBR multilayer

filter design, the simulation results, and the comparison

between the single layer and multilayer prototypes. Finally,

conclusions and future work directions are given.

II.

STRUCTURES

Fig. 1 shows the basic DBR structure, which is created

using two resonant elements, with impedances Z1 and Z 2 , in

shunt configuration. This arrangement has a total impedance

Z=

Z1 Z 2 .

Z1 + Z 2

(1)

zeros at the frequencies where Z1 = 0 and Z 2 = 0 . Moreover,

it has one resonant frequency where the total impedance tends

towards infinite in Z1 + Z 2 = 0 . This configuration is suitable

for building bandpass filters, considering that transmission

zeros can be placed in the sidebands of the resonant frequency,

in order to achieve high rejection [1][3].

B. Use of open-circuited different-length stubs in a DBR

The configuration shown in Fig.1 can be implemented in

microstrip technology using stubs with different lengths,

impedances and terminations.

Open-circuited microstrip stubs in shunt configuration are

used in this work, which individually are bandstop resonant

structures when they have a r 4 length. The input impedance

of this kind of stubs is

Z stub =

jZ line

tan r

2

(2)

wavelength of the input signal, and r is the wavelength at the

desired resonant frequency (which makes Z stub = 0 ) [13].

According to (2), the impedances Z1 and Z 2 of the DBR

structure can be implemented using this open-circuited

microstrip stubs.

Length: r1 / 4

Impedance: Z C1

Z1 Z 2

50 Access

access lines. r1 and r 2 are the wavelengths at the

frequencies where transmission zeros are configured. Z C1 and

Z C 2 are the characteristic impedances of each stub, which are

controlled varying the line width.

C. Fourth order DBR filter synthesis

We used the filter synthesis procedure defined in [2] to

design a fourth order DBR filter, taking into account the

configuration shown in Fig. 1. Four identical DBRs are coupled

together using admittance inverters, which are designed based

on two parameters: the fractional bandwidth w and the

susceptance slope parameter b . Fig.3 shows the filter model.

The admittance inverters are implemented in the form of

one quarter wavelength microstrip sections, which connect the

DBRs. The impedances of these sections are calculated using

Z i ,i +1

Z

= 0 ,

J i ,i +1

(3)

50 Access

Length: r 2 / 4

Impedance: Z C 2

Port 1

Port 2

Z0

J 0,1

J1, 2

J 2,3

J 3, 4

J 4,5

Z0

and the higher transmission zero is at frequency f 2 (with

associated wavelengths r1 and r 2 respectively), the stubs

which constitute the DBR must have l1 = r1 4 and

l2 = r 2 4 lengths.

The analytic expressions for the stubs characteristic

impedances are derived from (1) and (2) and the condition

Z1 + Z 2 = 0 . The following expressions are adapted from [1],

[2] and [7]:

with

J 0,1 =

J j , j +1 =

J 4,5 =

GA b w

g 0 g1 w1

(4)

wb

(5)

w1 g j g j +1

GB b w

g 4 g 5 w1

design), G A and G B are the normalized

conductances of the circuit (with a value of

terminations are adapted loads), the g i s are

Z C1 = Z C 2

ZC2 = Z0

(6)

(50 in our

terminating

1 when the

the lowpass

cutoff frequency of the low-pass prototype (a value of 1 was

used) [14]. The length of the inverters is one quarter

wavelength at the desired central frequency (i.e. 0 4 ).

The DBR structures must have one quarter wavelength at

the desired stop frequencies (one larger and one smaller than

the central frequency), which must be configured near the

passband.

tan 2

tan 2

l1

0

l

2

0

(7)

(R S )

(8)

with

R=

l2

l

1 + tan 2 2 2

0

0

tan 2

l1

l1

2

1 + tan 2

S=

0

0

tan 2

(9)

l2

0

l

1

0

(10)

dimensions of the fourth order microstrip DBR filter. Fig. 4

shows the configuration of such device. The line widths in the

impedances that should be calculated in the real design.

III.

As a first step towards the implementation of a multilayer

DBR filter, a single layer prototype is designed based on the

procedure described in Section II. TABLE I. shows the input

parameters that were used in order to synthesize the microstrip

dimensions of a fourth order DBR filter (based on (3) (10)).

Length: r1 / 4

Impedance: Z C1

Low frequency

resonators

50 Access

50 Access

Inverter 0,1

Inverter 1,2

Inverter 4,5

Inverter 3,4

Inverter 2,3

Length: r 2 / 4

Impedance: Z C 2

High frequency

resonators

INPUT PARAMETERS FOR THE DBR SINGLE LAYER FILTER

Center frequency

f0

Fractional bandwidth

1 GHz

-20

f1

0.7 GHz

f2

1.3 GHz

Characteristic impedance

Z0

50

and h = 1.575 mm ). The low and high resonant frequencies and

the susceptance slope parameter for the DBRs were selected in

such a way that the resulting impedances could be easily

implemented.

After applying equations (3)(10), the microstrip prototype

dimensions were calculated for the selected substrate. The

resulting circuit was simulated using Ansoft HFSS, and the

microstrip line dimensions were corrected in order to better

approximate the desired performance. The resulting dimensions

of the synthesis process are shown in TABLE II.

B. Results

The resulting single layer filter design was implemented in

the FR4 substrate using the obtained prototype dimensions.

Fig. 5 shows simulation and measurement results for the S

parameters of the filter.

The measured central frequency was 990 MHz, and the

fractional bandwidth was 20.3%, with insertion losses of 2.65

dB. Technological defaults were the main cause of the

differences between the input parameters of the design and the

measured results.

IV.

15%

A. Principle

The use of the multilayer technology for this filter has two

important advantages: the circuits size reduction and the

possibility of create electromagnetic couplings between non

adjacent resonators (DBRs). Fig. 6 illustrates the concept of

this electromagnetic coupling applied to the fourth order filter

[12].

TABLE I.

f0

-40

-60

Measured S

-80

-100

21

Measured S11

Simulated S21

f1

f2

1.4

1.2

1

Frequency [GHz]

0.8

0.6

0.4

Simulated S11

1.8

1.6

DBR filter model in single layer microstrip technology.

J1,3

Z0

J 0,1

J1, 2

J 2,3

J 3, 4

J 4,5

Z0

J 2, 4

Figure 6. Coupling between non-adjacent resonators [12].

TABLE II.

LAYER FILTER

Impedance

()

Width

(mm)

Length

(mm)

42.9

3.7

58.1

92.6

0.8

33

40.8

40.3

38.5

4.35

40.3

52.6

2.65

41.25

Section

The filter developed in Section IV was modified into a two

layer structure, based in the work presented in [12]. Fig. 7

shows the resulting configuration.

DBRs 1 and 4 are placed in the first layer (gray in Fig. 7).

DBRs 2 and 3, and admittance inverters (1,2), (2,3), and (3,4)

are in the upper layer (black in Fig.7). A ground plane is at the

bottom of this circuit.

The microstrip sections are folded in order to reduce the

circuit size and allow the electromagnetic coupling between

DBRs. In this case, the high frequency stubs of DBRs 2 and 3

are positioned parallel with respect to the low frequency stubs

of DBRs 1 and 4 (this is highlighted with the dotted boxes in

Fig. 7). This coupling occurs between resonators in different

layers (i.e. separated by a dielectric layer). In this way,

configuration of Fig. 6 is obtained for the multilayer filter. The

couplings are controlled with the distance between the parallel

microstrip structures and its length.

The substrate used in this case was changed to FR4 with

corrected the microstrip physical lengths and widths, according

to the values in TABLE III.

coupling between resonators (length and distance between

stubs) was performed using parametric simulation. Corrections

were introduced to the impedances of admittance inverters and

resonators, due to the new couplings in the multilayer design.

The single layer circuit has an area of 91.1 202.45 mm2,

while the multilayer configuration has 103.2 113 mm2.

The simulation shows that multilayer filter performance can

be improved if the cross-coupling between non-adjacent

resonators is characterized and proper values for its coefficient

are chosen.

-20

C. Results

Fig. 8 shows the simulation comparison between multilayer

and single layer filters. The central frequency of the multilayer

configuration was 983 MHz with fractional bandwidth of

22.07% and insertion losses of 2.3 dB.

f0

-40

-60

Single layer S21

-80

-100

Multilayer S11

f1

0.4

0.6

Multilayer S21

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Frequency [GHz]

1.6

1.8

Figure 8. Electrical responses of the single layer and the multilayer filters.

TABLE III.

LAYER FILTER

V.

performed in a rather simple way. Simulations showed the

flexibility of the design, taking into account that physical

dimensions reflect directly in the electrical response of the

filter.

Multilayer configuration was achieved by correcting the

single layer filter physical dimensions according to the new

substrate. A size reduction of nearly 40% was achieved with

respect to the single layer filter.

Electromagnetic coupling between non-adjacent resonators

was achieved in the multilayer filter. A characterization of this

coupling must be done in the future in order to improve the

sideband rejection and the achievable fractional bandwidth of

the multilayer filter.

Section

(upper layer)

High frequency resonators

(upper layer)

Low frequency resonators

(first layer)

High frequency resonators

(first layer)

Admitance inverters 0,1 and 4,5

(first layer)

Admitance inverters 1,2 and 3,4

(upper layer)

Admitance inverter 2,3

(upper layer)

Impedance

()

Width

(mm)

Length

(mm)

40.4

2.4

58.2

97.4

0.55

33.1

40.4

1.2

51

97.4

0.3

27.4

40.7

0.8

35.7

38.4

1.5

41.6

57.5

0.45

42.6

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

behavior resonators, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 51, pp.

734743, Mar. 2003.

C. Quendo, E. Rius y C. Person, Narrow bandpass filters using dual

behavieor resonators based on stepped-impedance stubs and differentlength stubs, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 52, pp. 1034

1044, Mar. 2004.

E. Rius, et al., Design of microstrip dual behavior resonator filters: A

practical guide, Microwave Journal, vol. 49, pp. 7283, Dec. 2006.

Yann Clavet, High rejection multilayer C-Band DBR planar filter, in

IEEE MTT-S Int. Dig., vol. 1, pp. 521-524, 2005.

A. Manchec, C. Quendo, J. F. Favennec, E. Rius, and C. Person,

Synthesis of capacitive-coupled dual-behavior resonator (CCDBR)

filters, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.., vol. 54, pp. 23462355,

Jun. 2006.

C. Quendo, A. Manchec, Y. Clavet, E. Rius, J. F. Favennec, and C.

Person, General synthesis of N-Band resonator based on N-Order dual

behavior resonator, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 17, pp.

337339, May 2007.

Juan Carlos Bohrquez, Contribution a la conception de filtres

reconfigurables sur la base de technologies planaires et SIW, Ph.D.

dissertation, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications de

Bretagne, Brest, France, 2007.

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

Vaisman, A.; Bohrquez, J.C.; Nova, O.; Massy, I.; Pena, N.M.; ,

"Algorithm for synthesis of 3dB-bandwidth Tchebyscheff bandpass

DBR filters," Communications, 2009. LATINCOM '09. IEEE LatinAmerican Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-3, 10-11 Sept. 2009.

Manchec, A.; Clavet, Y.; Quendo, C.; Rius, E.; Favennec, J.F.; Person,

C.; , "Cross-Coupled Microstrip Dual Behavior Resonator (DBR)

Filter," Microwave Conference, 2006. 36th European , vol., no., pp.556559, 10-15 Sept. 2006.

Issa, H.; Duchamp, J.-M.; Ferrari, P.; , "Miniaturized DBR filter:

Formulation and performances improvement," Microwave Symposium

Digest, 2008 IEEE MTT-S International , vol., no., pp.671-674, 15-20

June 2008.

Chang-Zhou Hua; Chen Miao; Wen Wu; , "A novel dual-band bandpass

filter based on DBR," Microwave Conference, 2009. APMC 2009. Asia

Pacific , vol., no., pp.1383-1386, 7-10 Dec. 2009.

Yann Clavet, Dfinition de solutions de filtrage planaires et

multicouches pour les nouvelles gnrations de satellites de

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Brest, France, 2006.

David Pozar, Microwave Engineering. Second Edition. John Wiley &

Sons, 2008, pp. 6573.

G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters,

Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures. Dedham, MA:

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