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CHAPTER 4: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

ENERGY - the ability to do work

WORK -exertion of force through a distance

They are organisms that can use the

energy in sunlight.
They are also known as the producers
since they are able to produce food.

Types of autotrophs
a. Photoautotrophs - use sun energy
b. Chemoautotrophs - use chemical energy

They are organisms that cannot make

their own food.
They are also called consumers because
they consume other organisms to get

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)


The energy storage molecules used by

most organisms.
ATP has 3 major parts
* Ribose * Adenine * Phosphate groups


The loss of an electron from an atom or



It is the addition of electrons to an atom or


Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Simply redox reactions

Chemical reactions in which one molecule
is oxidized and the other is reduced.


The process by which autotrophs convert

sunlight to a usable form energy.
The process that uses light to make
organic compounds from inorganic water
and carbon dioxide.

Two phases of Photosynthesis

a. Light-dependent Reactions (light
o Convert light energy into chemical
b. Light-independent Reactions (dark
o Uses the ATP and NADPH from the
light-dependent reactions to build
Chloroplasts - where Photosynthesis takes
Membranes of the thylakoid disks

Light-dependent reactions take place.


Light-independent reactions take place

Thick fluid that forms the framework of a

Thylakoid membranes

Contain the pigments that can absorb

certain wavelengths of sunlight.

Pigments - are molecules that can absorb light.

Photons - packet of light energy that move in

most common pigment in the



one group of pigments that include the

yellow, red and orange pigments.

The Electron Transport Chain


is a series of proteins in the thylakoid


Calvin Cycle

Solar energy

converts water and carbon dioxide into

chemical energy stored in simple sugars

The second phase of photosynthesis does

not require light
occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
uses the ATP and NADPH that was built
during the light-dependent reactions.

CHAPTER 4: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

3 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis

a. Carbon Dioxide
b. Temperature
c. Intensity of Light

Kreb Cycle

Cellular Respiration

Process by which mitochondria break

down food molecules to produce ATP in
plants and animals
Changes organic chemical energy
(glucose) into inorganic chemical energy
The process by which food molecules are
broken down to release energy for work
It appears to be the reverse of
photosynthesis; the reactants of one are
the products of the other.

Three stages of Cellular Respiration

a. Glycolysis
b. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
c. Electron Transport Chain

Breaks down glucose into two molecules

of pyruvic acid
This reaction uses enzymes and takes
place in the cytoplasm of the cell

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration involves the presence

of oxygen in breaking down of pyruvate to
carbon dioxide, water and energy
During aerobic respiration, ATP is
produced in two pathways known as the:
* Kreb Cycle * Electron Transport Chain

It is also called the citric acid cycle.

It is the series of oxidation reactions that
make up the second phase of aerobic

Electron Transport Chain


uses the electron carriers (NADH and

FADH2) to pass electrons down the protein
chain and slowly release energy that is
used to form ATP and water molecules
transfers the most energy

Anaerobic Respiration

The chemical reactions that release

energy from food molecules in the
absence of oxygen.


can follow glycolysis in order to continue

to produce energy

Two types of fermentation:

a. Lactic acid Fermentation
b. Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactic acid Fermentation

occurs in muscle cells during strenuous

exercise when a lot of energy is required
and oxygen is scarce

Alcoholic Fermentation

Yeast and some bacteria cells are capable

of alcoholic fermentation during which
glucose is broken down to release CO2
and ethyl alcohol