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CHAPTER 4: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

ENERGY - the ability to do work


WORK -exertion of force through a distance
Autotrophs
-

They are organisms that can use the


energy in sunlight.
They are also known as the producers
since they are able to produce food.

Types of autotrophs
a. Photoautotrophs - use sun energy
b. Chemoautotrophs - use chemical energy
Heterotrophs
-

They are organisms that cannot make


their own food.
They are also called consumers because
they consume other organisms to get
energy.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)


-

The energy storage molecules used by


most organisms.
ATP has 3 major parts
* Ribose * Adenine * Phosphate groups

Oxidation
-

The loss of an electron from an atom or


ion.

Reduction
-

It is the addition of electrons to an atom or


ion.

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
-

Simply redox reactions


Chemical reactions in which one molecule
is oxidized and the other is reduced.

Photosynthesis
-

The process by which autotrophs convert


sunlight to a usable form energy.
The process that uses light to make
organic compounds from inorganic water
and carbon dioxide.

Two phases of Photosynthesis


a. Light-dependent Reactions (light
reactions)
o Convert light energy into chemical
energy
b. Light-independent Reactions (dark
reactions)
o Uses the ATP and NADPH from the
light-dependent reactions to build
glucose
Chloroplasts - where Photosynthesis takes
place.
Membranes of the thylakoid disks
-

Light-dependent reactions take place.

Stroma
-

Light-independent reactions take place


Thick fluid that forms the framework of a
chloroplast.

Thylakoid membranes
-

Contain the pigments that can absorb


certain wavelengths of sunlight.

Pigments - are molecules that can absorb light.


Photons - packet of light energy that move in
waves.
Chlorophyll
-

most common pigment in the


chloroplasts

Carotenoid
-

one group of pigments that include the


yellow, red and orange pigments.

The Electron Transport Chain


-

is a series of proteins in the thylakoid


membrane

Calvin Cycle
-

Solar energy

converts water and carbon dioxide into


chemical energy stored in simple sugars

The second phase of photosynthesis does


not require light
occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
uses the ATP and NADPH that was built
during the light-dependent reactions.

CHAPTER 4: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

3 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis


a. Carbon Dioxide
b. Temperature
c. Intensity of Light

Kreb Cycle
-

Cellular Respiration
-

Process by which mitochondria break


down food molecules to produce ATP in
plants and animals
Changes organic chemical energy
(glucose) into inorganic chemical energy
(ATP)
The process by which food molecules are
broken down to release energy for work
It appears to be the reverse of
photosynthesis; the reactants of one are
the products of the other.

Three stages of Cellular Respiration


a. Glycolysis
b. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
c. Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis
-

Breaks down glucose into two molecules


of pyruvic acid
This reaction uses enzymes and takes
place in the cytoplasm of the cell

Aerobic Respiration
-

Aerobic respiration involves the presence


of oxygen in breaking down of pyruvate to
carbon dioxide, water and energy
During aerobic respiration, ATP is
produced in two pathways known as the:
* Kreb Cycle * Electron Transport Chain

It is also called the citric acid cycle.


It is the series of oxidation reactions that
make up the second phase of aerobic
respiration

Electron Transport Chain


-

uses the electron carriers (NADH and


FADH2) to pass electrons down the protein
chain and slowly release energy that is
used to form ATP and water molecules
transfers the most energy

Anaerobic Respiration
-

The chemical reactions that release


energy from food molecules in the
absence of oxygen.

Fermentation
-

can follow glycolysis in order to continue


to produce energy

Two types of fermentation:


a. Lactic acid Fermentation
b. Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactic acid Fermentation
-

occurs in muscle cells during strenuous


exercise when a lot of energy is required
and oxygen is scarce

Alcoholic Fermentation

Yeast and some bacteria cells are capable


of alcoholic fermentation during which
glucose is broken down to release CO2
and ethyl alcohol