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STAFFORDSHIRE UNIVERSITY

MSc Water and Environmental


Management

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable


Wastewater Treatment Systems
for Developing Countries

Madookur V. Desha

April 2008

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

To my family...
My wife Geeta
Raksha, Gaurav and baby Isha
Jignesh and Yadvi
..... from whom I have had unflinching support

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Acknowledgements
I am thankful to all the family members, friends, colleagues and contact persons who
have helped me at various stages to make this project a reality.
In particular, I wish to thank:
Professor Glynn Skerratt - for his steady guidance throughout the project
Colleague Sanjay Chinasamy - for his relentless effort to organise plant visits and
secure required information
My niece, Shalinee Moheetah - for her support in the final shaping of this document.
My special thanks also go to:
Colleagues Rama Rao, Yovanie Poinen, Jean Michel Rayapen, Dominique
Mohamudally, Nelsen Sundanum and the secretary, Nicole Lecordier, at the St
Martin Sewage Treatment Plant
Yann Bazin of Club Med Albion and T Jacquet of Phytorestore Ltd
Robert Mariette of Medine SE
Jatil Sookram, Aneerood Hassea, Rishi Jhurry and A Radhay from WMA
Professors Moosa Alybocus and T Ramjeeawon of the University of Mauritius

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements................................................................................................... iii
List of Figures and Tables........................................................................................ vii
Abbreviations............................................................................................................ x
Abstract ................................................................................................................... xii
Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................................................. 1

1.1 Research .............................................................................................................. 1


1.2 Aims and Objectives ........................................................................................... 2
1.3 Structure of this study ......................................................................................... 3
Chapter 2: Developing Countries and Africa ............................................................. 7

2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 7


2.2 Global Water Crisis............................................................................................. 7
2.3 Millenium Development Goals ........................................................................... 8
2.4 Rapid urbanisation .............................................................................................. 9
2.5 Inappropriate conventional treatment systems.................................................. 10
2.6 Costly Western Technologies ........................................................................... 11
2.7 Water Governance............................................................................................. 13
2.8 Developing countries and water governance .................................................... 14
Chapter 3: Mauritius ............................................................................................... 16

3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 16


3.2 Water and Sanitation ......................................................................................... 18
3.3 Water Pollution ................................................................................................. 18
3.4 Waste water and the sewerage network ............................................................ 19
3.5 Wastewater Treatment plants............................................................................ 22
3.6 Legislation in Mauritius .................................................................................... 23
3.6.1 Need for reinforcement .............................................................................. 23
3.6.2 Status of environmental legislations .......................................................... 24
3.7 Water Governance............................................................................................. 27
Chapter 4: Wastewater treatment options for developing countries ........................ 29

4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 29


4.2 Recommended options ...................................................................................... 29
4.3 Options selected for review............................................................................... 31
4.4 Oxidation Ditches.............................................................................................. 32
4.5 Aerated Lagoons ............................................................................................... 33
4.6 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) ..................................................... 33
4.7 Waste Stabilisation Ponds ................................................................................. 35
4.7.1 Types and arrangements............................................................................. 35
4.7.2 Advantages of WSPs.................................................................................. 36
4.7.3 Disadvantages ............................................................................................ 37
4.8 Activated Sludge Process.................................................................................. 38
4.9 Constructed Wetlands ....................................................................................... 39
4.9.1 Advantages................................................................................................. 41
4.9.2 Limitations ................................................................................................. 42
4.9.3 Horizontal Flow (HF) Systems .................................................................. 42

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

4.9.4 Vertical Flow (VF) Systems....................................................................... 44


4.9.5 Planting ...................................................................................................... 45
4.10 Utilisation of above processes in Mauritius .................................................... 45
Chapter 5: Survey of Wastewater Treatment Plants ............................................... 46

5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 46


5.2 Plants surveyed ................................................................................................. 46
5.3 Methodology ..................................................................................................... 48
5.4 Emphasis on three plants................................................................................... 48
5.5 Visit to Medine SE WSPs ................................................................................. 49
5.5.1 Ponds Layout and Flow.............................................................................. 49
5.5.2 Operations & Maintenance (O&M) ........................................................... 52
5.5.3 Water Quality............................................................................................. 52
5.5.4 Ponds Design.............................................................................................. 53
5.6 Visits to Club Med Treatment Plant.................................................................. 53
5.6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 53
5.6.2 Alternative solution.................................................................................... 54
5.6.3 Process Flow .............................................................................................. 55
5.6.4 Descriptions and functions......................................................................... 58
5.6.5 Operations & Maintenance ........................................................................ 61
5.6.6 Environmental Impact assessment (E.I.A)................................................. 61
5.6.7 Phytorestore ............................................................................................... 62
5.7 Evaluation on 7 February 2008 ......................................................................... 62
5.7.1 Vertical Filters............................................................................................ 63
5.7.2 Horizontal Filters ....................................................................................... 66
5.7.3 Pond ........................................................................................................... 68
5.7.4 Laboratory Analysis results........................................................................ 68
5.8 St Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant ............................................................. 69
5.8.1 Treatment of Wastewater ........................................................................... 69
5.8.2 Treatment of Sludge................................................................................... 70
5.8.3 Biogas Utilisation and Power Consumption .............................................. 70
5.8.4 Influent and Effluent Characteristics ......................................................... 72
5.8.5 Plant performance ...................................................................................... 72
Chapter 6: Analysis and Discussions ...................................................................... 74

6.1 Summary of survey data ................................................................................... 74


6.2 General observations......................................................................................... 76
6.3 Power consumption........................................................................................... 78
6.4 Chemical consumption...................................................................................... 82
6.5 Sampling and laboratory analysis data.............................................................. 83
6.6 Club Med Hotel................................................................................................. 83
6.6.1 Laboratory Data ......................................................................................... 83
6.6.2 General comments...................................................................................... 85
6.7 Land Costs......................................................................................................... 86
6.8 Choice of Technologies..................................................................................... 86
6.8.1 Centralised WWTPs................................................................................... 87
6.8.2 Hotels WWTP ............................................................................................ 87

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.8.3 Industries and Other WWTPs .................................................................... 88


6.9 Appropriateness of Technologies...................................................................... 89
6.10 Technologies for forthcoming projects ........................................................... 92
Chapter 7: Conclusion ............................................................................................ 95
Appendix A ............................................................................................................. 99
Appendix B ........................................................................................................... 110
References and Bibliography................................................................................ 162

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

List of Figures and Tables


Figures
Fig 3.1 Map of Mauritius ......................................................................................... 17
Fig 3.2 Map of industrial zones and sewer networks............................................... 21
Fig 4.1 Typical WSP Layout:................................................................................... 36
Fig 4.2 Schematic representation of flow in the ASP............................................... 39
Fig 4.3 Surface Flow Wetlands ............................................................................... 41
Fig 4.4 Sub-surface Flow Wetlands ........................................................................ 41
Fig 4.5 Horizontal Filter........................................................................................... 43
Fig 4.6 Vertical Filter............................................................................................... 44
Fig 5.1 A series of Ponds at MEDINE SE ............................................................... 50
Fig 5.2 Location of CW system ............................................................................... 55
Fig 5.3 Plan View of CW system............................................................................. 56
Fig 5.4 Vertical Filter construction........................................................................... 58
Fig 5.5 Cross Section of CW system....................................................................... 60
Fig 5.6 Electricity Consumption by Various Units at St. Martin WWTP.................... 72
Fig. A.3.1 Typical UASB Design ........................................................................... 103
Fig A.5.3 Nitrogen conversion............................................................................... 108
Fig B.1.2 Process flow of St Martin WWTP ........................................................... 111
Fig B.14.1 Schematic of Thon des Mascareignes Effluent Treatment Plant .......... 151

Tables
Table 2.1 Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation ..................... 9
Table 2.2 Estimated periods needed to meet EU effluent standards at an investment
level of 1.5% of the GNP of various countries ............................................. 12
Table 3.1 Legislations and Regulations relevant to Wastewater and Pollution ........ 25
Table 5.1 List of WWT Plants surveyed .................................................................. 47
Table 5.2 Expected quality of raw effluent and treated effluent. .............................. 54
Table 6.1 Estimated number of WWTP in Mauritius................................................ 74
Table 6.2 Simplified Summary of Centralised WWTP surveyed .............................. 77
Table 6.3 Simplified Summary of hotels WWTP surveyed ...................................... 80
Table 6.4 Simplified Summary of Industries and other WWTP surveyed................. 81
Table 6.5 Summary of Sewage Treatment Analysis at Club Med Albion................. 84
Table 6.6: Comparative O&M costs for G Bay WWTP (Actual vs CW Process) ...... 90
Table B.1.1 Survey data for St Martin WWTP ....................................................... 113
Table B.1.2: Inlet and outlet flows at St Martin for Jan 08 ..................................... 114
Table B.1.3 Raw Sewage ..................................................................................... 115
Table B.1.4 Settled Sewage ................................................................................. 116
Table B.1.5 Secondary Treated Sewage .............................................................. 117
Table B.1.6 Tertiary Treated Sewage ................................................................... 118
Table B.2.2 Survey Data for G Bay WWTP........................................................... 120
Table B.3.2 Survey data for Montagne Jacquot WWTP ........................................ 123
Table B.4.2 Survey data for Club Med Resort Hotel WWTP ................................. 125
Table B.4.3 Results of Laboratory Analysis at Club Med....................................... 128

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.5.2 Survey data for St. Geran Hotel WWTP............................................. 130
Table B.6.2 Survey data for Touessrok Hotel WWTP ........................................... 132
Table B.7.2 Survey data for Ile aux Cerfs WWTP ................................................. 134
Table B.8.2 Survey data for Coco Beach Hotel WWTP......................................... 136
Table B.9.2 Survey data for Sagar Hotels Le Meridien WWTP ............................. 138
Table B.10.2 Survey data for Phoenix Breweries LTD WWTP .............................. 140
Table B.11.2 Survey data for Phoenix Camp Minerals LTD WWTP ...................... 142
Table B.12.2 Survey data for Food and Allied industries Ltd WWTP..................... 144
Table B.13.2 Survey data for Poulet Arc en Ciel WWTP ....................................... 146
Table B.14.2 Survey data for Thon des Mascareignes WWTP.............................. 152
Table B.15.2 Survey data for SOFAP LTD WWTP................................................ 154
Table B.16.2 Survey data for Medine S.E. WWTP ................................................ 156
Table B.17.2 Survey Data for DRBC WWTP......................................................... 158
Table B.18.2 Survey data for Airports of Mauritius WWTP.................................... 161
Photos
Photo 3.1 Aerial View of St Martin WWTP .............................................................. 28
Photo 5.1 Pond 1 (left) and Pond 2 (right)............................................................... 50
Photo 5.2 Pond 3 (front) and Pond 4 (rear) ............................................................. 50
Photo 5.3 Overflow ramp from pond 1 .................................................................... 51
Photo 5.4 Stones at entrance pond 2...................................................................... 51
Photo 5.6 Roots and humidity beneath top surface................................................. 64
Photo 5.7 Papyrus dense vegetation ...................................................................... 64
Photo 5.8 Bamboos of height 2 to 3 m .................................................................... 64
Photo 5.9 Uneven distribution from outlets.............................................................. 65
Photo 5.10 Water below unplanted area ................................................................. 65
Photo 5.11 Area with few plants.............................................................................. 66
Photo 5.12 Air through bamboo shoot..................................................................... 66
Photo 5.13 Underground layer humid ..................................................................... 67
Photo 5.14 Vegetation-wet areas of HF .................................................................. 67
Photo 5.15 Adjustment vane ................................................................................... 67
Photo 5.16 Effluent discharged to pond .................................................................. 67
Photo 5.17 Nenuphars covering larger areas of pond ............................................. 68
Photo 5.18 Aeration basin....................................................................................... 70
Photo 5.19 Final Settlement Tank........................................................................... 70
Photo 5.20 UV lamps maintenance......................................................................... 71
Photo 5.21 Digesters .............................................................................................. 71
Photo 5.22 Desulphurisation Tower ........................................................................ 71
Photo B.1.1 St Martin WWTP - Gas holder ........................................................... 110
Photo B.1.2 Storm pond........................................................................................ 112
Photo B.2.1 Aeration Basin................................................................................... 119
Photo B.3.1 Clarifier.............................................................................................. 122
Photo B.3.2 Filter Belt Press ................................................................................. 122
Photo B.5.1 Clarifier.............................................................................................. 129
Photo B.7.1 Approaching Ile aux Cerfs ................................................................. 133
Photo B.7.2 RBC unit at the rear of plant .............................................................. 133
Photo B.9.1 Aeration tank at Hotel Le Meridien WWTP ........................................ 137

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Photo B.10.1 UASB Reactor................................................................................. 139


Photo B.11.1 UASB Reactor................................................................................. 141
Photo B.12.1 DAF unit .......................................................................................... 143
Photo B.13.1 Drying bed....................................................................................... 145
Photo B.14.1 Clarifier at TDM ............................................................................... 150
Photo B.15.1 SOFAP Ltd WWTP.......................................................................... 153
Photo B.16.1 Pond 1 dried up ............................................................................... 155
Photo B.17.1 Surface aerator in the aeration pond ............................................... 157
Photo B.18.1 Anaerobic reactor at AML................................................................ 160

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Abbreviations
ADB

African Development Bank

AFD

Agence Francaise de Developpement

AL

Aerated Lagoon

AP

Anaerobic ponds

ASP

Activated Sludge Processes

BOD

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Cl2

Chlorine

COD

Chemical Oxygen Demand

CW

Constructed Wetlands

DO

Dissolved Oxygen

EDF

European Development Fund

EGEVAL

European Group for Evaluation EEIG

EIA

Environment Impact Assessment

EPA

Environmental Protection Act

EU

European Union

FP

Facultative Pond

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GNP

Gross National Product

GPA

Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine


Environment from Land-based Activities

GWP

Global Water Partnership

ha

Hectare

HDPE

High-density polyethylene

HF

Horizontal Filter

IPPC

Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control

IWRM

Integrated Water Resources Management

Kg

Kilogram

kWh

Kilowatt hour

LDPE

Low-density polyethylene

M&E

Machinery and Equipment

M.o.E

Ministry of Environment & National Development Unit

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MLSS

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid

MP

Maturation Pond

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Nitrogen

NH3

Ammonia

NO2

Nitrite

NO3

Nitrate

O&M

Operation & Maintenance

O2

Oxygen

OD

Oxidation Ditch

Phosphorous

pH

Potential of H+ iron

RAS

Returned activated sludge

Rs

Mauritian Rupees

RBC

Rotating Biological Contactor

SE

Sugar Estate

SIWI

Stockholm International Water Institute

SRT

Sludge Residence Time

SS

Suspended Solids

SSF

Sub Surface Flow

SVI

Sludge Volume Index

TKN

Total Kjedahl Nitrogen

TSS

Total Suspended Solids

UASB

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

UNDESA

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

UNDP

United Nations Development Program

UNECE

United Nations Economic Program for Europe

UNEP

United Nations Environment Program

UNICEF

United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund

USD

Union States Dollar

UV

Ultra-Violet

VF

Vertical Filter

WHO

World Health Organisation

WMA

Wastewater Management Authority

WSP

Waste Stabilisation Pond

WWT

Wastewater Treatment

WWTP

Wastewater Treatment Plant

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Abstract
Developing countries lag considerably in the provision of sanitation to the
population, as on average only 50% of their populations are connected to a
sanitation system. Massive investment will be required to achieve the
progress aimed by the Millennium Development Goals. The main aims of this
study are to identify technologies, among the low-cost and low-energy
wastewater treatment systems available, suitable to meet the needs of
developing countries. The extent to which such technologies are already
present among the wastewater treatment systems in use in Mauritius is
investigated, and the ways in which their utilisation might be promoted are
discussed.
A literature review of available low-cost and low-energy systems has been
carried out, to identify the feasibility of using such systems more extensively
within developing countries generally and within Mauritius in particular. The
serious lag in levels of sanitation in developing countries is attributed, in large
measure, to rapid urbanisation mainly, and current western wastewater
treatment systems appear costly and inappropriate for developing countries.
Characteristics of developing countries such as low income, lack of funds,
high energy costs and shortage of skilled personnel for operation and
maintenance are discussed in the context of the application of both high
technology wastewater treatment solutions and low-cost, low-energy
alternatives. Mauritius, which has sanitation coverage of 26%, is chosen as

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

an example of a developing country, and a closer view is taken about its


status of sanitation, wastewater treatment infrastructure and environmental
legislations.
This study investigates the nature of the wastewater treatment systems in use
in Mauritius, through a survey of eighteen wastewater treatment plants. Key
information collected during the visits to these plants includes the nature of
the process utilised, the use of resources such as electricity, chemicals and
manpower, and the characteristics of the influent and treated effluent.
Conventional WWTPs treating low volume of effluent have disproportionate
energy consumption per unit of effluent processed.
Two wastewater treatment plants among the installations surveyed use
natural systems that supply treated effluents in compliance with local
discharge specifications, according to the laboratory tests data collected.
Medine SE, a sugar estate with a factory, uses a set of Waste Stabilisation
Ponds and the newly built resort Club Med Hotel at Albion has set up a
Constructed Wetland.
At a time when sanitation demands will increase even further with the growth
forecast for Mauritius, prospects for further use of natural wastewater
treatment systems, especially Constructed Wetlands, should be considered
as a matter of urgency. The technology associated with natural waste water
treatment systems can provide a sustainable answer to the needs of
developing countries. Well planned projects using such technologies, in

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

compliance with the principles of good water governance, are likely to attract
funding from donor agencies.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Research
The author lives in Mauritius, a small island in the Indian Ocean and, in 2004,
started working at the state-of-the-art wastewater treatment plant of St Martin,
a USD 35 million infrastructure under construction through significant funding
by the European Union. Until this plant started operating three years ago, less
than 1% of the wastewater in Mauritius was treated, although some 20% of
the population was connected to the sewer system installed in various
regions of the island (WMA, 2008). The question that arises Is whether the
multiplication of such systems is the answer to the islands pressing needs for
extensive sanitation coverage and urgent wastewater treatment facilities.
The lack of sanitation coverage is not a problem that is specific to Mauritius,
but a common one in developing countries (Postnote, 2002) where, on
average, half the population do not have access to improved sanitation
facilities (UNDESA, 2006). What are the solutions to address the needs of
developing countries?
In carrying out this study, the author has attempted to find an answer to the
above questions.
Massive investment will be required to achieve the progress in sanitation
coverage improvements (in developing countries) being targeted by the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As a consequence, there is a need
for decentralised and low-cost wastewater treatment systems, as sustainable

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

alternatives to the conventional power-driven electro-mechanical systems


commonly used by industrialised countries that are unaffordable to
developing countries with limited resources. There is an urgency to rethink
current practices in the light of sustainability.
Numerous examples confirm that natural wastewater treatment systems offer
sustainable alternatives to the traditional electro-mechanical systems. Waste
stabilisation ponds and constructed wetlands are often recommended as
suitable low-cost alternatives for developing countries. When properly
designed and operated, they have the capacity to deliver treated effluents
that meet the required discharge specifications. Natural systems are efficient
for the removal of most pollutants, and they are reliable even in extreme
operating conditions (Mara, 2003). The key advantages of such systems are:
low-cost, low-energy requirements, odour free, simple operations and
minimum maintenance by low skilled personnel. However, they usually
require a large footprint, which is often available in developing countries. The
choice is a trade-off between electro-mechanical equipment and energy
consumption, against an investment in land which can be recuperated at a
later stage (Mara, 2003).

1.2 Aims and Objectives


The following study proposes to find out:

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

1. What types of low-cost and low-energy wastewater treatment systems


are available? Are any of these technologies suitable for developing
countries that would treat effluent to meet the Mauritian discharge
specifications?
2. What types of wastewater treatment systems are currently in use in
Mauritius? Are there any low-cost/low-energy/natural systems installed
in Mauritius?
3. Are the low-energy/low-cost systems identified in para.1 applicable and
feasible for (more widespread) use in Mauritius, with its tropical
climate?
4. Are there advantages and benefits in using such systems compared to
the ones currently in use? Are there economic, social and
environmental implications and will such systems contribute towards
sustainability of the operations?
5. If the answer to the questions of the previous paragraph is yes, then
what can be done to promote such systems in developing countries in
general and in Mauritius in particular?

1.3 Structure of this study


The literature review covers three chapters (Chapters 2, 3 and 4).
In Chapter 2, the characteristics of developing countries, where the majority
of the world population that lack sanitation live, are defined. On average, only

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

50% of the population in these countries have access to sanitation services, a


fact largely attributed to the rapid growth in urbanisation. Millennium
Development Goals set by the international community include a target for
action to reduce this problem by 50% by 2015. However, conventional
wastewater treatment technologies seem to be inappropriate for developing
countries which cannot afford the costly western technologies, and low-cost
sustainable alternatives are required. The practice of good water governance
helps to achieve sustainable development and secure funding from
international agencies.
The focus of this study will be on Mauritius, which is a developing country.
Chapter 3 provides a brief introduction to Mauritius and highlights the
situation about sanitation levels (26% of the population are connected to the
main sewer presently) and the status of the sewerage network. Substantial
investments have been made recently by the government in the construction
of three centralised wastewater treatment plants and in sewerage projects to
achieve 50% sanitation coverage by 2012. Environmental legislations must
be reinforced and existing laws must be enforced. In addition, donor agencies
also recommend capacity building of the Wastewater Management Authority
to avoid delays and project overruns as part of good water governance.
In Chapter 4, the

wastewater treatment options recommended for

developing countries (by authors consulted) are narrowed down to Oxidation


Ditches (OD), Aerated Lagoons (AL), Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
(UASB), Waste Stabilisation Ponds (WSP) and Constructed Wetlands (CW).

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The theories behind these processes are briefly reviewed, with greater focus
on WSP and CW (which can be classified as natural systems), to appreciate
their possible relevance for developing countries and Mauritius in particular.
This chapter also reviews the Activated Sludge Process (ASP), a process
highly utilised in Mauritius. Some additional technical information about the
various processes has been classified in Appendix A for consultation by the
more informed reader.
Chapter 5 is the Methodology Chapter in which the procedure that has been
used to carry out a survey of 18 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in
Mauritius is described. The survey covered plants under three categories:
centralised plants (3), hotels (6) and industries and other activities (9). The
reader is referred to Appendix B for a brief description of each WWTP
surveyed. The waste stabilisation pond (WSP) of Medine SE and the
constructed wetland (CW) at the Club Med Hotel are described more
extensively, as they use natural processes which are of special interests in
the present search for low-cost low-energy sustainable options.
Chapter 6 is the Analysis and Discussion Chapter in which the summary of
the survey results are analysed. The individual data sheets for each WWTP
surveyed are available in Appendix B. Power and chemical consumptions are
relatively low for those WWTPs using natural processes (WSP and CW). The
data collected shows that the CW at the Club Med Hotel is treating the
effluent to the required discharge standards. The findings suggest that there
is potential for wider applications of such natural wastewater treatment

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

processes, especially CWs, in Mauritius, at a time when new projects will be


required to increase sanitation levels to 100% by 2025.
Chapter 7 discusses the extent to which the aims and objectives set in
Chapter 1 have been achieved, and makes suggestions for further research.

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 2: Developing Countries and Africa


2.1 Introduction
The purpose of this study is to investigate the low-cost low-energy and
sustainable wastewater treatment options that can be considered for
developing countries. According to the World Bank (2008), the term
developing countries conveniently refers to low-income (less than USD 905
per annum) and middleincome (USD 906-11,115 per annum) economies,
although classification by income does not necessarily reflect development
status. Developing countries are often characterised by low GDP, low
standard of living, low investment level, high debt rate, high unemployment
and low health care level (Ismail, n.d.). Given the limited scope, the focus is
on Africa (Table 1 shows sub-Saharan Africa trailing the list as a group with
the lowest sanitation coverage in the world) and more specifically Mauritius,
an upper middle income economy with an income of USD 3800 in 2000
(UNDP Mauritius and Seychelles, 2001).

2.2 Global Water Crisis


The lack of adequate sanitation for some 2.4 billion people and safe drinking
water for one billion people represents a global water crisis. Consequently,
every year some four million people die of waterborne diseases, inclusive of 2
million children dying of diarrhoea (Postnote, 2002). The great majority of
these 40% of the world population that lack basic sanitation facilities live in

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

developing countries, and this situation has led the United Nations to identify
water as a priority for international aid (Postnote, 2002). The decade 1981-90
was declared as the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation
Decade, and in the 1992 Earth Summit (at Rio de Janeiro), individual access
to clean water and sanitation was guaranteed among the goals set for
sustainable development (Postnote, 2002).

2.3 Millenium Development Goals


In 2000, 188 member states adopted the United Nations Millennium
Declaration, and set up 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to
eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development in the world, by
achieving 18 targets to be monitored through 48 indicators. As part of MDG 7
relating to environmental sustainability, one target is to halve, by 2015, the
proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and
basic sanitation (WHO & UNICEF, 2006). In developing countries, the
average coverage in 2004 is only 50%, and the regions with the lowest
coverage are sub-Saharan Africa (37%) and Southern Asia (38%) (ref. Table
1 below).

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Indicator 31

Percentage of population (Urban and Rural)


1990

2004

Total

Urban

Rural

Total

Urban

Rural

World

49

79

26

59

80

39

Developing Regions

33

35

68

17

50

73

Northern Africa

65

84

47

77

91

62

Sub-Saharan Africa

32

52

24

37

53

28

Latin America & Caribbean

68

81

36

77

86

49

Eastern Asia

24

64

45

69

28

Southern Asia

20

54

38

63

27

South-eastern Asia

49

70

40

67

81

56

Western Asia

81

97

55

84

96

59

Oceania

54

80

46

53

80

43

Commonwealth of Indep.States

82

92

63

83

92

67

100

100

99

99

100

98

Developed Regions

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 2.1 Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation


Source UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2006

2.4 Rapid urbanisation


Rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries has
resulted in a sharply increasing number of people living in urban fringe areas,
where it is difficult to provide an adequate supply of clean water and
sanitation (Postnote, 2002). In 2001, the urban population of the world was
about 2.85 billion, representing 47% of the world population of 6.05 billion. By
2025, the Population Council projects the number of urban dwellers to reach
4.5 billion, i.e. 58% of the estimated 7.8 billion world population (Appleton and
Chatterjee, 2001).
With reference to progress in sanitation coverage in Africa in the period 1990
2000, the Africa World Development Report (2006) notes that although

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

there was an increase in absolute terms, the change in percentage coverage


was negative due to higher growth rates in the population of the continent.
Appleton and Chatterjee (2001) highlight the fact that the majority of those not
served by sanitation services live in developing countries, and that there is a
correlation between the state of a countrys economy and the availability of
basic water and sanitation services. Nearly 50% of the African countries
reviewed by the authors had less than 50% coverage in terms of sanitation
services.

2.5 Inappropriate conventional treatment systems


The conventional wastewater treatment processes, commonly applied in
developed countries, require considerable resources in terms of energy,
chemicals, skilled manpower and finance, for their construction as well as for
their operation and maintenance. According to Khatri & Vairavamoorthy
(2007), sustainability was not a relevant issue when the current western
models were designed in the 19th century, with the main aim of improving
water services and public health. The conventional system has serious
inefficiencies, such as high quality drinking water for all domestic purposes,
large quantities of drinking water to transport human excreta, loss of useful
chemicals (Khatri & Vairavamoorthy, 2007). Very often, ambitious plans for
high investments in trunk sewers and equipment for waste disposal are not
implemented due to financial or institutional constraints, or fail to provide
adequate services once implemented. Consequently, the effort to solve the

10

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

basic sanitation problems cannot keep up with the growing population in the
developing world (Khatri & Vairavamoorthy, 2007). Such technologies are
thus not appropriate for developing countries and in particular for resourcescarce African countries such as Uganda, where treatment of wastewater
bears a low priority (Kyambadde, 2005). As a result, the treatment of
wastewater is not adequate or not carried out at all, and their discharge allow
the polluted effluent to contaminate sources of drinking water (Kyambadde,
2005). For Volkmann (2003), the transposition of western technologies to
developing countries, without consideration for the culture, land and climate
often results in unsustainable solutions. Inappropriate choices may have been
made by developing countries engineers who were educated in the western
countries (Volkman, 2003, p.4).

2.6 Costly Western Technologies


According to Gijzen (2001, p.2.),
Current mainstream technologies for wastewater treatment, such as
activated sludge and tertiary nutrient removal are too costly to provide a
satisfactory solution for the increasing wastewater problems in
developing regions.
Further, the water system in the western world is characterised by high
consumption of potable water, resulting in a high volume of diluted
wastewater that needs to be collected, transported and treated. The
investment in sewer and treatment infrastructure has been phenomenal in the

11

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

last century in the industrialised countries. Such systems are not affordable
by the developing countries which do not have the economic capacity due to
their low GNPs (Gijzen, 2001, p.2.). ... In industrialised countries, the current
system has been installed over a rather long period in a staged approach
(GPA/UNEP, p.8, n.d.). According to Mara (2003b),
Currently, the world spends around US$ 30 billion/year on water and
sanitation in developing countries, but the same amount again is needed
to meet the target of water and sanitation for all by 31 December 2025,
with most of this additional money going to sanitation.
An estimate of the time period required by some developing countries to
achieve such infrastructure is given in Table 2 by Gijzen (2001, p.3) citing
Grau (1994) and Gijzen (1997). They had assumed that 1.5% of the GNP
could be devoted yearly for sewer and treatment facilities, in line with the
World Bank assumptions that 3% of a country GNP can be realistically spent
on overall environmental protection.
___________________________________________________________________
Country

Population

GNP/capita

Cost to meet
Period needed
EU standards1) at 1.5% GNP
Million
US$/cap.
US$/cap.
In Years
_____________________________________________________________________
Bulgaria

8.5

2210

3755

113

Egypt

60

1030

4000

259

India

935

335

3750

746

Kenya

29.2

290

4500

1034

Mexico

92.1

2705

3750

92

Poland

38.3

1700

1230

48

Romania

23.2

1640

1422

58

______________________________________________________________________

Table 2.2 Estimated periods needed to meet EU effluent standards at an investment


level of 1.5% of the GNP of various countries
Source: Gijzen (2001, p.3) citing Grau (1994) and Gijzen (1997)

12

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The required time span is of the order of centuries, while the economic
lifespan of the infrastructures is of the order of 30 years for treatment facilities
and 60 years for sewers. It is not realistic to consider the above mentioned
wastewater treatment model for the developing countries (Gijzen, 2001, p.3.).
Rather, developers should base the selection of technology upon specific
site conditions and financial resources of individual communities (Volkmann,
2003). It is therefore not surprising that, according to the World Bank,
The greatest challenge in the water and sanitation sector over the next
two decades will be the implementation of low cost sewage treatment that
will at the same time permit selective reuse of treated effluents for
agricultural and industrial purposes (Volkman, 2003 cites Looker, 1998).

2.7 Water Governance


The subject of water governance is important, as it has been claimed that
water crisis can be attenuated by good management. According to United
Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs (UNDESA) / United
Nations Development Program (UNDP) / United Nations

Economic

Commission for Europe (UNECE) (p.370, 2003), societies are facing a


number of social, economic and political challenges to govern water more
effectively.
Governance refers essentially to the manner in which power and
authority are exercised and distributed in society, how decisions are
made and to what extent citizens can participate in decision-making
processesGovernance of water is perceived in its broadest sense as
comprising all social, political and economic organizations and
institutions, and their relationships, insofar as these are related to water
development and management UNDESA/UNDP/UNECE (p. 372, 2003).

13

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Water governance issues include equity in water efficiency, in water


distribution and allocation, clarification of roles of government, civil society
and private sector in the management of water resources, and the role of
women in water management and Integrated Water Resources management
(IWRM). The Global Water Partnership (GWP) has developed a framework
for moving towards IWRM. Concurrent development and strengthening of
three elements is needed: an enabling environment, appropriate institutional
roles and practical management instruments (UNDESA/UNDP/UNECE,
p.377. 2003, cites GWP, 2001). Many developing countries are now climbing
the "management ladder" in attempts to develop an integrated approach
(SIWI, 2001, p.27). African countries are displaying positive change through
progressive values and principles of good governance, according to the EC
Commission (EUROPA, 2006), which states that good and effective
governance is a central prerequisite for sustainable development.

2.8 Developing countries and water governance


The following characteristics of developing countries in relation to water
governance are pointed out by UNDESA/UNDP/UNECE (2003, p.381). Many
developing countries have not developed an appropriate regulatory system
due to lack of capacity and experience. International funding agencies have
exerted pressure on developing countries for higher involvement of private
sector, especially through concessions contracts for major European

14

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

countries. Very often the private sector does not have the skills to operate
and maintain wastewater systems, and they link up with foreign firms in the
taking over of the management of public utilities. In trying to reduce debt and
deficits,

many

developing

countries

have

sacrificed

investments

in

infrastructure during the recent decades, resulting in serious constraints for


water agencies.
SIWI (2001) recommends that the EC Water and Development Policy should
support improved governance structure to secure best possible use of water,
in their cooperation with developing countries.

15

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 3: Mauritius
3.1 Introduction
Mauritius is a small volcanic pear-shape island (see Fig. 3.1) of 2000 km2,
located at longitude 580 east and latitude 200 south, in the south western part
of the Indian Ocean, about 800 kms off the east coast of Madagascar. With a
population of nearly 1.2 million, it has a population density of nearly 600 per
km2, one of the highest in the world (Institute of Environmental studies, 2006).
From a mono culture sugar based economy 40 years ago, the country is now
largely dependent on tourism (910,000 visitors and growth of 15% in number
of tourists in 2007) which complements textile industries for exports, sugar
manufacturing, financial services and a burgeoning Information Technology
industry (M.o.E, 2005, p.27). It achieved a Gross National Income of USD
4,090 per capita in 2003, and is thus classified as an upper middle income
developing country (M.o.E, 2005, p.21). Mauritius is generally classified as
part of Africa and more specifically as a sub-Saharan African country.

16

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

G Bay WWTP

Montagne
Jacquot WWTP
Club Med
Albion

Flic en Flac

Fig 3.1 Map of Mauritius


Source WMA, 2005

17

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

3.2 Water and Sanitation


Mauritius has a subtropical climate, with a rainy season from November to
April, and February and March being the wettest months. It receives an
annual average precipitation varying from 1300 mm on the east coast, to 900
mm on the west coast and 4000 mm on the central plateau (Institute of
Environmental studies, 2006). Some 40% of the potable water is drawn from
the aquifers, and
According to the National Physical Development Plan (volume I P 134),
pollution of the aquifers by poor sanitation (sewage, waste water and
refuse disposal) and by poor agricultural practices is becoming apparent
and there is an urgent need for proper sanitation systems especially in
the Plaines Wilhems towns which are above the Curepipe aquifer
(Institute of Environmental studies, 2006).

According to UNDP Mauritius & Seychelles (2001), 98.5% of the population


had access to piped water, 87% of the population had a flush toilet system
and 86.5% of the population were houseowners. More than 80% of the
population was still not connected (in 2001) to the sewerage system, and
soakage pits can cause pollution of nearby surface or ground water and
lagoons. Discharge of insufficiently treated waste waters can affect corals and
marine life in the lagoon, which are also major tourist attractions.

3.3 Water Pollution


The main sources of pollution for surface and ground water, and the lagoons,
are industrial and domestic wastewater and agriculture and urban run-off,

18

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

especially as there is a high rate of fertiliser applications in Mauritius. The


most polluting industrial sectors are animal food processing, sugar and textile
factories. (M.o.E, 2005, p. 64).
Although 87% of the population had a western type of sanitation system in
the form of flush toilets in 2001, only about 22% were connected to the sewer
system with minimal treatment prior to disposal through sea outfalls. The
gross majority of the population used on-site septic tanks system, which can
be a serious source of contamination of the underground water if they are not
maintained and de-sludged properly.

3.4 Waste water and the sewerage network


About 42% of the population live in the urban corridor extending from
Curepipe in the central plateau to Port Louis (Anon, 2000, Annex V), the
capital and harbour of the island, and the remaining population are spread all
around the rural areas of the island. There are four sewer networks, two of
which are in the Port Louis municipal area. The older network dates from
1880, and the more recent one was built in the 1920s, and then extended in
the 1960s (Institute of Environmental studies, 2006). The third one was laid in
the 1960s in the Plaines Wilhems area, and covers parts of Curepipe, Quatre
Bornes, Phoenix, Beau Bassin and RoseHill, which are towns of the central
plateau (see Fig. 3.1). The last one was built to serve the industrial zone of
Coromandel, which was set up in the late 1970s. Fig 3.2 shows the main

19

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

industrial zones and their connections to the sewer networks. The capacity of
the sewerage network lags behind demand, and the existing main sewerage
systems, designed as separated foul sewer systems, frequently operate as
combined sewer systems and suffer from frequent blockages and a severe
lack of maintenance (African Development Bank, 2000). Further, a high rate
of infiltration of rain water can be inferred from the records of the St Martin
WWTP, as it is frequently observed that a relatively stable inlet flow increases
sharply (say from 1800 m3 hr-1 to about 3000 m3 hr-1) within a couple of hours
of heavy rains in the central plateau.

About 230,000 people are connected to the sewer network leading to the St
Martin sewage treatment plant, (see Fig. 3.2) which came into operation in
2005. The Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project, currently being implemented,
provides for additional connections of 30,000 homes in the P Wilhems area to
this network over the next five years (WMA, 2008).

There was no sewer in the rural regions, until a few years ago when the
highly touristic area in the north west of the island was linked to the Grand
Bay treatment plant, which came into operation in 2006 (WMA, 2008).

20

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Fig 3.2 Map of industrial zones and sewer networks


Source: Institute of Environmental studies, 2006

21

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

3.5 Wastewater Treatment plants


In its Country Strategy Paper of 2000, the African Development Bank (ADB)
assessed the situation follows:
The treatment works in Port Louis discharge essentially untreated
sewage through short marine outfalls into the lagoon or just beyond the
fringing reef. The pollution of the lagoons and groundwater resources by
human excreta, industrial effluent and agricultural chemical run-off
causes environmental damages and health problems.
However, during the last three years, three centralised wastewater treatment
plants started operations, illustrating the governments heavy investment to
improve sanitation in the country. The rudimentary treatment plant of St
Martin was revamped at a cost of about USD 35 million into an activated
sludge plant. It now has a design capacity of 69,000 m3 d-1 and provides
tertiary treatment using ultraviolet (UV) disinfection for the effluent which is reused for irrigation purposes. The Grand Bay treatment plant (costing about
USD 12 million), with a design capacity of 3,000 m3 d-1, also uses an
activated sludge process, and provides tertiary treatment using chlorine for
disinfection of the effluent. The Montagne Jacquot WWTP, built at a cost of
MRs 645 m. (WMA, 2007), i.e. about USD 21.5 million was commissioned
last year and provides primary treatment to the industrial zones of
Coromandel and La Tour Koenig (see Fig 3.2), and to part of the Port Louis
effluent sent by pumping stations. At the recent donors meeting in February
2008, the Minister of Finance declared:

22

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

one fifth of the capital budget is allocated to investment in the


wastewater and sanitation sectors and to environmental protection, and
that total contracts expected to be awarded during the fiscal year would
total some Rs 4.7 billion (approx. USD 160 million) (Le Matinal, 15 Feb
2008).
Funding is being sought from the Agence Francaise de Developpement
(AFD) for the forthcoming West Coast Sewerage Project, which will include a
treatment plant in the fast developing touristic Flic-en-Flac (shown in Fig. 3.1)
area. New major wastewater projects are also being planned in the Riche
Terre region, as a result of tremendous acceleration of projected FDI in this
region (Le Matinal, 15 Feb 2008).

3.6 Legislation in Mauritius


3.6.1 Need for reinforcement
The need to review and reinforce our environmental legislation is generally
agreed. This is acknowledged by the Ministry of Environment (2005, p.66)
which states that further development areas include the consolidation of
institutional and legal frameworks, more detailed standards for pollutants in
addition to more enforcement of environmental effluent discharge regulations.
In the draft National Environmental Policy 2006 (M.o.E, 2006, p. 36), it is
proposed that government will reinforce institutional and legislative
framework to create a strong and effective policy enforcement system.
Similar conclusions were reached by GPA/UNEP (2001, p. 17) in a regional
meeting of delegates from six African countries (Kenya, Madagascar,

23

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Mauritius, Mozambique, United Republic of Tanzania, and Seychelles)


pertaining to municipal wastewater management. Legal and institutional
systems at national and local government levels in the regional countries
generally tend to be weak or inadequate. As a donor agency, ADB (2000) had
diagnosed that
there is a need to prepare a comprehensive set of regulations to protect
the environment from wastewater pollution, and that in major industrial
plants, owing to lack of effluent control and monitoring, little or no pretreatment of commercial waste is occurring .

3.6.2 Status of environmental legislations


The Ministry of Environment website (2008) provides a list of legislation
relating to environmental matters in Mauritius, of which the key legislation is
the Environmental Protection Act of 2002. The legislation and regulations
relevant to water and pollution are listed below (Table 3.1).

24

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The Environment Protection Act 2002

Environmental Guidelines
Guidelines for Coastal Water Quality
Guidelines for Inland Surface Water Quality
Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality
Environmental Standards
Drinking Water Standards
Standards for Hazardous Wastes Regulations
Standards for effluent discharge Regulations
Standards for effluent discharge (Amendment) Regulations 2004
This standard falls under

Effluent Discharge Permit Regulations


Effluent Discharge Permit (Amendment) Regulations

Standards for effluent discharge into the Ocean Regulations


This standard falls under

Effluent Discharge Permit Regulations


Effluent Discharge Permit (Amendment) Regulations

Standards of effluent for use in Irrigation Regulations


This standard falls under

Effluent Discharge Permit Regulations


Effluent Discharge Permit (Amendment) Regulations

Effluent Limitations for the Sugar Industry Regulations


This standard falls under

Effluent Discharge Permit Regulations


Effluent Discharge Permit (Amendment) Regulations

Table 3.1 Legislations and Regulations relevant to Wastewater and Pollution

25

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The above legislation and regulations are relatively limited compared to the
battery of environmental laws available in Europe, such as the IPPC
(Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) in UK (Envirowise, 2008) and
the European Water Framework Directive (WISE, 2008). However, it is
possible through stricter enforcement to achieve higher compliance with
environmental standards. The WMA Pollution Control Unit capacity must be
built up as it is essential to reinforce control on industries discharging effluent
(Anon, n.d.). The existence of sufficient rules and regulations means little, if
they cannot be effectively enforced (UNDESA/UNDP/UNECE, 2003).
Future plans include (i) new regulations for waste minimisation (composting,
recycling, reuse, etc.) as the level of waste minimisation and recycling is very
low and (ii) the setting up of an autonomous pollution control agency, for
control and monitoring at the level of local authorities though decentralisation
(M.o.E, 2005, p. 154).
Hotels must be equipped with a treatment plant when they have more than 75
rooms (Institute of Environmental studies, 2006). Smaller ones use cesspits,
with the danger of pollution of the lagoon from percolating effluent (Institute of
Environmental studies, 2006). With modern technology and the development
of small treatment plants, there is no reason for setting a minimum limit in
terms of number of rooms, as hotels should be able to ensure the
minimization and treatment of the pollution they create.

26

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

3.7 Water Governance


In the field of water governance, ADB (2000), which has also intervened in
the sewerage sub-sector, assesses that Mauritius fares positively although
there are areas that need improvement. It is jointly agreed by the EU and
Mauritius that (i) the country is adequately equipped to plan, manage,
monitor and execute public expenditure, (ii) there is a framework to fight
corruption (iii) there is a high level of coordination among donors and (iv) the
policy framework for the wastewater sector is clear and firm (EU-Mauritius,
2006). The 9th EDF (European Development Fund) over the period 2001-07
support amounted to Euro 33m, out of which 85% was allocated to the
environmental sector, mainly to fund the Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project
and the St Martin treatment plant (See photo 3.1), which are key components
of the 1994 National Sewerage Plan.
In an evaluation carried out by European Group for Evaluation (EEIG)(2006),
it is recommended that for the sustainability of the projects, the capacity of the
WMA must be strengthened and wastewater tariffs be increased, so as to
recover costs (O&M), depreciation and interests over the period 2005-10 with
an aim to reach financial autonomy. Delays in project implementation had led
to 40% costs overrun with respect to the original budget, and to delays in
increasing revenues. EGEVAL (2006) pointed out, in relation to the delays by
the Irrigation Authority to implement the reuse of the treated effluent, that the
St Martin project had born additional costs of 30% due to the inclusion of

27

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

tertiary treatment. The government should therefore ensure that the effluent is
efficiently reused for irrigation purposes to realise the benefits which should
be expected as a result of the extra costs incurred.

Photo 3.1 Aerial View of St Martin WWTP

28

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 4: Wastewater treatment options for


developing countries
4.1 Introduction
There appears to be a consensus among the authors cited in Chapter 1 that
the wastewater treatment systems used in the western world are not
necessarily appropriate for developing countries. The aim of this study is to
identify possible wastewater treatment alternatives, of a low-cost and lowenergy nature, that can be suitably implemented in developing countries. In
this chapter, a few of the recommended options identified in the literature
search will be considered.

4.2 Recommended options


For Khatri & Vairavamoorthy (2007),
natural systems are found to be more cost-effective and require low
building, labour and maintenance costs.. and they require less energy
than conventional systems.
A natural WWT system is a process where the biological degradation of
organic compounds does not require significant inputs of energy or chemicals
(GPA/UNEP, n.d.). It does depend on external energy sources for the key
treatment steps, although it may use pumps and pipes for conveyance of
sewage (GPA/UNEP, n. d. cites Reed et al., 1995).

29

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The effluent quality depends mainly on temperature, area available and


pre-treatment. Any desired quality can be achieved, but a trade-off
between effluent quality and required land area exists. The costs for
natural systems depend mainly of land prices and costs for construction
(GPA/UNEP, n.d.).
Constructed wetlands are recommended as one of the natural systems which
are generally efficient for removing post pollutants and very reliable in
extreme conditions.
For Volkmann (2003), it is mainly the low-income urban population who are
affected by the lack of sanitation in developing countries. She recommends
the separation of domestic and industrial waste, separate decentralised
treatment and reuse of the treated effluent. For a particular region,
appropriate technologies can be chosen among sustainable wastewater
treatment systems such as lagoons and wetlands, UASB (anaerobic
digesters), hybrid reactor and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) technologies
(Volkmann, 2003). For Kootatep et al. (2004), activated sludge or physicochemical dewatering processes commonly used in industrialised countries are
not appropriate for developing countries due to high construction and
operational costs and lack of skills.
A natural treatment system, convenient for treatment or dewatering of
septage, is the vertical-flow constructed wetlands (Kootatep et al., 2004).

The following processes are included among the options recommended by


Mara (2003, p.71) for the treatment of domestic wastewaters in developing
countries: Waste Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs), Constructed Wetlands (CW),

30

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors, Aerated Lagoons (AL)


and Oxidation Ditches (OD).
Not all of these technologies are necessarily sustainable or always
sensible. They are often advocated as being good (sometimes even the
best) solution (Mara, 2003).

The model generally used in industrialized countries a single centralized


plant is not advocated for developing countries. It implies costly sewer
networks and pumping stations for the transportation of wastewaters over
long distances. Rather, small decentralized systems close to the wastewater
sources, coupled with water re-use are considered to be more appropriate
(Mara, 2003).

4.3 Options selected for review


Following the literature review summarised above, the theory underlying the
technologies listed below will be reviewed for a better understanding of their
functioning and for appreciating their possible relevance for developing
countries and for Mauritius in particular.

Oxidation ditches

Aerated lagoons

UASB

WSP

CW

31

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

We will in addition, in this study, review the Activated Sludge Process (ASP),
as a number of alternatives selected are offshoots of this process. Further, a
large number of plants surveyed in Mauritius use this process, as will be
described in the next chapter and Appendix B. The key features of ASP are
the sophisticated process with many mechanical and electrical process,
which also needs careful operator control (Parr et al., n.d.) and high sludge
production. It provides an effective WWT system but is costly both in terms of
construction and operation/maintenance, as activated sludge secondary
treatment typically accounts for 30 to 60% of total plant energy consumption
(PG&E, 2003).
Some technical information about the technologies has been classified in
Appendix A, for reference by the more informed reader.

4.4 Oxidation Ditches


Oxidation ditches (OD) require a preliminary treatment, and is a modification
of the conventional activated sludge process (Mara, 2003, p.225).
This process, initially developed for small communities of 200 to 15,000
people, is not popular in developing countries, as waste stabilisation ponds
are usually preferred. It can be considered when there is a shortage of land,
provided a reliable source of electric supply is available (Mara, 2003, pp. 225227).

32

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

4.5 Aerated Lagoons


This process is equivalent to an activated sludge one without the sludge
return. In warm climates, they are designed with short retention times, and
floating aerators are used to ensure complete mixing of the non-returned
activated sludge. It is used to treat an effluent after pre-treatment or from an
anaerobic pond
Post treatment of the effluent is recommended as a function of the intended
use or discharge. For re-use in agriculture or aquaculture, discharge into a
series of maturation ponds is necessary to achieve the required
microbiological quality. Deeper ponds (about 2 m) and regular desludging are
recommended to improve the SS quality. In case the final effluent will be
discharged to surface waters, then post treatment in a sedimentation pond is
preferred. Care must be taken to ensure enough hydraulic retention time to
allow for settlement of the solids, sludge storage and odour control.

4.6 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)


Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors are used for the primary
treatment of concentrated effluent of industrial and agro-industrial plants as
well as for domestic effluent, after screening and grit removal. It is a high rate
anaerobic wastewater treatment unit which is efficient for the removal of COD
(Mara, 2003, p. 200).

33

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Following a comparative study of UASB and anaerobic ponds treating the


same influent under comparable environmental conditions in Columbia, Pena
et al.(2000) state that the removal efficiencies for COD (66%) and TSS (69%)
are similar. UASB performed better for the removal of BOD (78%) at a
temperature of 25 0C, compared to the level achieved by AP (59%). However,
UASB is less able to cope with high fluctuations in the strength of
wastewaters due to the short hydraulic retention time (Pena et al., 2000).
Regarding costs comparisons on a per M3 basis, they conclude that AP is
16% cheaper for construction and 38% cheaper for operation and
maintenance (O&M).
In a study entitled Applications of UASB Technology in Mauritius, Dean and
Horan (1995) commented as follows.
The UASB process, although not able to meet stringent effluent quality
standards (particularly nutrient and biological removal) are technically
and conceptually simple. Such simple treatment may be appropriate as
the first step in a staggered treatment policy or as an interim option
before connection to trunk sewerage.
They conclude that UASB has limited applicability in Mauritius, due to the
negative impacts of nutrients, toxicants and pathogens none of these are
substantially removed by a UASB reactor (Dean and Horan, 1995) - as
wastewaters are discharged into the lagoon.

34

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

4.7 Waste Stabilisation Ponds


WSPs are large shallow ponds, contained in earth embankments, using
natural processes involving algae and bacteria. As they do not use electromechanical equipment, they require relatively long retention times, measured
in terms of days. They are considered as most suitable for developing
countries, especially when high temperatures prevail, and land is easily
available. According to Mara (2003, p. 85.), they are so advantageous that a
very good case has to be made for not using them.

4.7.1 Types and arrangements


There are three main types of ponds: anaerobic, facultative and maturation,
which have key characteristics as described in Appendix A. The main function
of anaerobic and facultative ponds is the removal of BOD, while that of
maturation ponds is the removal of faecal bacteria. Facultative and
maturation ponds are known as photosynthetic ponds, as they derive the
oxygen required for BOD oxidation from micro-algae. In turn, the algae obtain
the CO2 they require from the pond bacteria as a by product of their
metabolism (Mara, 2003, p. 86).
WSPs are usually arranged in series, as shown in Fig. 4.1 (Mara, 2003). An
anaerobic pond is followed by a facultative pond, and one or more maturation
ponds depending upon the quality of the effluent desired. It has been
observed that the effluent from a series of pond is better than that from a

35

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

single pond (Mara, 2003, p. 203). Further, according to Marais (2003)


theorem, maximum efficiency in a series of ponds is achieved when the
retention time in each pond is the same.

Raw wastewater

M1

Mn

Final effluent

Note: A, anaerobic pond; F, facultative pond; M1 - Mn, maturation ponds


Fig 4.1 Typical WSP Layout:
Adapted from Mara (2003, p.87)

4.7.2 Advantages of WSPs


The advantages of WSPs in terms of simplicity, low cost, efficiency and
robustness make them very appropriate for developing countries. The
construction of WSPs is simple, and the operation and maintenance involves
basic tasks which do not require electrical consumption and highly skilled
staff. These characteristics can justify the low cost aspects, both in terms of
capital and O&M costs. Land costs and the opportunity costs of capital are
key variables in this evaluation. According to Mara (2003, p. 90), Tsagarakis
et al (2003) identified WSP as the cheapest treatment option in Greece up to
a land cost of US$ 300,000 /ha.

36

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

WSPs are efficient as they can be designed to achieve over 90% removal of
BOD, SS and ammonia. They can achieve faecal bacteria removal of 4 log
units (99.99%), while conventional plants, such as ASPs, achieve only 2 log
units (99%) and require additional tertiary treatment (Mara, 2003, p.91). Their
robustness is derived from the long retention times, which provide resilience
to both organic and hydraulic shocks. They can be used for a variety of
industrial wastewaters and for effluents with high levels of heavy metals
(Mara, 2003, p.92).

4.7.3 Disadvantages
The perceived disadvantages of WSPs relate to the possible odour problems,
the extra costs that could result from higher land requirements and the
effluent quality. Mara (2003, p.93) is of opinion that no odour problem will be
encountered if the WSP is well designed, well maintained and not
overloaded. Concerning the extra land requirements, WSPs are cost effective
in most cases, especially for developing countries where land costs are more
moderate. Higher BOD and SS loads in WSP effluent are mainly due to
algae, and are more tolerable. As an example, the EU standards require
WSP effluent BOD of < 25 mg filtered BOD per litre and < 150mg SS per litre
(Mara, 2003, pp.93-94).

37

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

4.8 Activated Sludge Process


The Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of sewage is based on
the suspended growth of micro-organisms in a liquid culture, and is the most
widely used process in the UK. ASP, or its modified versions, is most often
used for large installations (Tchobanoglous and Burton, 1991).
This is a biological process which uses microorganisms to breakdown
components of the sewage, and is commonly used for secondary treatment
(Williams, 1996).The sludge is usually aerated by surface aerators or air
supplied through diffusers located at the bottom of the aeration basins. The
purpose of the aeration is to supply oxygen for the aerobic activity and to
keep the bacteria in suspension (Williams, 1996). Organic matter is converted
to end products (such as CO2, NO3, SO4 and PO4) through oxidation or to
new microorganisms through biosynthesis.
According to Gray (1999), the ASP depends on five inter-related components,
described herewith and depicted schematically in Fig. 4.2. (i) The reactor also known as the aeration basin or activated sludge tank, should ensure that
the sludge is adequately mixed and aerated. (ii) The activated sludge - a
flocculent suspension of the microbial biomass, also known as the mixed
liquor (MLSS), should normally have a concentration of about 2000 to 5000
mg l-1. (iii) Aeration/mixing system it is usually carried out by diffused air, to
ensure both aeration and mixing of the activated sludge with the influent. (iv)
Sedimentation tank it allows the settlement of the sludge displaced from the

38

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

aeration tank, and the separation of the biomass from the treated effluent. (v)
Returned activated sludge (RAS) part of the settled sludge in the
sedimentation tank is returned to the activated sludge tank to maintain the
microbial population at the optimum concentration.

Activated Sludge Tank


V = Volume, X = MLSS

Influent,
(Qi, Xi)

Final Sedimentation

Qi + Qras

Effluent,
(Qe, Xe)

Mixed
Liquor

Waste Activated Sludge,


(Qwas, Xs)

Return Activated Sludge, (Qras, Xs)

Fig 4.2 Schematic representation of flow in the ASP


(Source: Williams, 1996)

Waste activated sludge refers to the part of the sludge which is removed from
the system, and its ratio to the total activated sludge available will determine
the sludge residence time (SRT), which is usually of the order of 3 to 4 days
(Williams, 1996). A continuous food source, in the form of the wastewater
influent, and a supply of dissolved oxygen (about 0.5 to 2 mg l-1) in the
aeration basin are other key requirements for the ASP (Staffordshire
University, WW Module, Act. 4, 2006).

4.9 Constructed Wetlands


Constructed Wetlands (CW) and Reed Beds are man-made systems which
are designed to simulate the treatment of polluted water as it occurs in natural

39

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

wetlands. Water is purified through BOD removal, oxidation of ammonia, and


reduction of phosphorus and nitrate. Complex processes such as bacterial
oxidation, filtration, sedimentation and chemical precipitation take place
(Cooper et al., 1996, p. 2). In Europe, they are typically used to provide
secondary treatment for the domestic sewage of village populations, whereas
in USA and Canada, they are much larger and are usually meant for tertiary
treatment of effluents from towns and cities (Cooper et al., 1996, p. 1). They
can be suitable for developing countries, especially in the tropical regions, as
one of the most important factors affecting treatment is temperature...
biological treatment processes tend to speed up in warm weather and slow
down in cold weather (Northern Arizona University, n.d.).
The two main types of constructed wetlands are: surface flow wetlands (also
called free-water surface wetlands) (see Fig 4.3) and subsurface flow (SSF)
wetlands. (see Fig 4.4) According to Northern Arizona University (n.d.),
Both designs can be used to treat wastewater from individual and
community sources, but surface flow wetlands are usually more
economical for treating large volumes of wastewater. Treatment in the
subsurface flow system is more efficient than in the surface flow wetland
because the media provides a greater number of small surfaces, pores
and crevices where treatment can occur.
SSF wetlands utilises smaller areas of land to achieve similar levels of
pollution. In this study, we will focus on subsurface flow CWs.

40

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Fig 4.3 Surface Flow Wetlands


Source: Northern Arizona University, n.d. On-Site Wastewater Demonstration Project

Fig 4.4 Sub-surface Flow Wetlands


Source: Northern Arizona University, n.d. On-Site Wastewater Demonstration Project

4.9.1 Advantages
The advantages of such systems result mainly from their low construction
and operating costs. They are suitable for low flows which could emanate
from remote houses, hotels and camping sites. They are perceived as
natural processes, and therefore green (Cooper et al., 1996, p. 3). They fit
into the landscape to improve the aesthetics of open spaces, and can be the
habitat of plants and wildlife. They can provide recreational and educational
opportunities, and are generally well appreciated by the general public as

41

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

well as regulatory agencies. They can adapt to fluctuations in effluent flows


and concentrations, as well as to multiple and mixed contaminants
(Halverson, 2004). They can be also used as tertiary treatment for package
plants.

4.9.2 Limitations
The attributed limitations include larger land requirements, the relatively
lower consistence in performance (e.g. lower performance in winter) and the
requirement for a base flow (i.e. no complete drying should take place). The
possible presence of mosquitoes and pests, the long term maintenance
requirements as well as the sensitivity to toxic chemicals are limitations that
must be considered. Proper monitoring is required to maintain the ecological
health of the system (Halverson, 2004). The performance may vary
according to climatic conditions and may take time to reach its optimum level
until the plants are adequately grown (Northern Arizona University, n.d.).

4.9.3 Horizontal Flow (HF) Systems


A typical HF reed bed system is shown in Fig 4.5 below. Sewage is fed
through the indicated inlet, and flows horizontally through the bed until it
reaches the indicated outlet. The bed has an impervious liner to prevent
seepage, and a slope of about 0.5 to 1%.

42

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Fig 4.5 Horizontal Filter


Source Cooper et al. (1996), p. 6

The water will come into contact with aerobic, anaerobic, and anoxic zones,
through hydraulic pathways opened by the rhizomes. Oxygen passed on from
the leaves trough the stem, create aerobic zones around the roots and
rhizomes of the wetland plants. Areas further away develop into anaerobic
and anoxic zones. Processes similar to those occurring in conventional
treatment plants also take place here. Organic matter is oxidised by
heterotrophic bacteria, ammonium nitrogen is oxidised to nitrate and nitrite by
autotrophic nitrifiers, and nitrate is broken down to nitrogen (through nitrite) by
heterotrophic bacteria (Cooper et al., 1996, p. 5). A key handicap of HF
systems is the limited amount of oxygen that can be passed on by the reeds
to their roots to sustain the nitrification level required by the sewage load.
Above the ground, dead leaves and stems trap the sewage suspended solids
which are composted.

43

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

4.9.4 Vertical Flow (VF) Systems


In a vertical-flow reed bed system, there are several layers of media through
which the intermittently fed sewage flows vertically through. Fig 4.6 (Cooper
et al., 1996, p. 8) illustrates a typical VF reed bed system, where the top layer
is fine sand, resting upon three different layers of coarser gravel. The reeds
are grown on the top sand layer of the LDPE lined pond, which has a good
drainage system (e.g. perforated pipes) in the bottom layer. Oxygen transfer
to the roots is improved as air fills in the void left by intermittent dosing, before
being trapped and carried down by the next dose of liquid (Cooper et al.,
1996, p. 9).

Fig 4.6 Vertical Filter


Source Cooper et al. (1996, p. 8)

Cooper et al. (1996) compares the VF system to a rustic form of biological


filter, while the HF reed beds are compared to an anaerobic pond. The role of

44

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

the plants is similar to HF systems, as they improve hydraulic conductivity


and help in oxygen transfer.
Kootatep et al.,(n.d.) share the conclusions about a study of CW.
The 7-year experimental results of the cattail-planted CW units treating
septage suggest that the optimum operating conditions include Sludge
Loading Rate of 250 kg TS/m2.yr or constant volume loading of 8 m3 / week,
once-a-week application and percolate impounding periods of 6 days with
plant harvesting of twice a year.

4.9.5 Planting
The most popular plant in Europe is the Phragmites australis, which is also
quite widespread worldwide. To avoid planting during winter and in the shade
of trees, and avoid weeds which will compete with the plants for the available
resources.
Overall, Kaseva, (2001) is of opinion that:
Constructed wetlands seem to be appropriate since in tropical countries
there is a year round suitable climatic condition for rapid biological growth,
which influences the treatment processes.

4.10 Utilisation of above processes in Mauritius


We will find out about the utilisation of these processes in the WWT plants
which have been surveyed in Mauritius, in the next chapter.

45

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 5: Survey of Wastewater Treatment


Plants
5.1 Introduction
To achieve the aim of the project, a survey of at least a dozen wastewater
treatment (WWT) plants was initially planned in order to delineate the profile
of wastewater treatment plants in Mauritius. This study would indicate
whether treatment plants using low-cost low-energy or natural processes are
being actually used and in the affirmative how they are performing. A survey
form was designed to collect basic information about the plants, laboratory
data about the characteristics of the influent and effluent, and the use of
resources such as energy, chemicals and manpower.

5.2 Plants surveyed


By the end of the study, a total of 18 plants were surveyed (see Table 5.1).
Ideally, a purely random sampling would have allowed the qualification of the
results of this study as representative of the treatment plants on the island.
However, the choice of the plants was based on accessibility and on the
possibility of obtaining authorisations for visits and information collection
through my professional network. The St Martin wastewater treatment plant,
where the author is currently working, was naturally selected as part of the
study. The plants surveyed can be regrouped under three categories:

46

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

(a) Centralised plants which treat sewage from the national sewerage
network. They belong to the government and are managed directly or
indirectly by the WMA
(b) Hotels
(c) Plants of industries (mainly food processing) and miscellaneous other
activities such as sugar processing and the airport
Treatment Plant
Centralised Plants
1 St Martin
2 Grand Bay
3 Montagne Jacquot
Hotels
4 Club Med
5 St Geran
6 Touessrok
7 Ile Aux Cerfs
8 Coco Beach
9 Sagar Hotels Le Meridien
Industries
10 Phoenix Breweries Ltd
11 Phoenix Camp Minerals
12 Food and Allied Industries
13 Poulet Arc en Ciel
14 Thon Des Mascareignes
15 Sofap Ltd

Effluent Type

Process / Technology

Domestic / Industrial from sewers

Activated Sludge

Domestic / Industrial from sewers


Domestic / Industrial from sewers

Activated Sludge
Primary Trmt & Sludge processing

Hotel
Hotel
Hotel
Islet with recreational activities
Hotel
Hotel

Constructed Wetland
Activated Sludge
Activated Sludge
Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC)
Activated Sludge
Activated Sludge

Beer Factory
Soft drinks factory
Chicken processing
Chicken processing
Tuna Processing
Paint Factory

UASB
UASB
Physico Chemical
Activated Sludge
UASB followed by Activated Sludge
Physico Chemical

Sugar factory
Sugar factory
Airport area and aircraft discharge

Waste Stabilisation Pond


Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC)
Anaerobic / Aerobic process

Miscellaneous

16 Medine SE
17 Deep River Beau Champ Ltd
18 Airports of Mauritius Ltd

Table 5.1 List of WWT Plants surveyed

47

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Brief descriptions of each of the above plants and the respective survey sheet
have been filed in Appendix B.

5.3 Methodology
The choice of the WWT plants that have been visited and surveyed has been
explained above. For each plant, basic information about the plant and about
the use of resources was requested from a responsible person, usually
working in the O&M field. This methodology was chosen because it provides
the author with first-hand knowledge of the different plants in operation in
Mauritius in an interactive way, and it ensures minimal distortion in the
information collected during face to face interviews. It is true however that this
method is time consuming and requires careful planning for the appointments
and visits.
Data about the results of laboratory analysis were relatively difficult to obtain,
as in most cases the tests are carried out about once a month. Further, the
tests are carried out on grab samples mostly, and it is therefore very difficult
to draw conclusions on the basis of the results obtained from such data.

5.4 Emphasis on three plants


It will be noted that much more information was gathered and is reproduced
below, for three of the WWT plants surveyed, namely Medine SE, Club Med
and St Martin WWTP. For the first two plants, the main reasons were due to
(i) the obvious interests for maximum investigation of the potential of natural

48

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

treatment processes (ii) the good responsiveness of the interlocutor during


the visit/survey, and (iii) the processes used at the WWT plants of Medine SE
(i.e. WSP) and Club Med (i.e. CW) are not utilised in any of the other plants
surveyed. As regards the St Martin wwt plant (i) the proximity of the author (ii)
the satisfactory performance of the plant in meeting the treated effluent
standards set (iii) the special features of electricity production from biogas
and effluent re-use and (iv) the availability of reliable data favoured this
choice.

5.5 Visit to Medine SE WSPs


The information that follows was made available by Robert Mariette1. Visits
took place on Dec 7, the last day of the 2007 sugar cane harvest (photos of
ponds with water) and on Feb 27 (photos of ponds 1 and 2 dried up). A
summary of key data for these ponds is available in Table B.16.2 of Appendix
B.
5.5.1 Ponds Layout and Flow
A set of ponds is used in Medine SE, a sugar estate located in the western
part of the island, for the processing of the effluent from its sugar factory,
cooling tower and boilers, before its re-use for irrigation purposes. The lay-out
and dimensions of the ponds are as shown in Fig 5.1.

Chief Chemist of Medine SE

49

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Inlet

56m by 52m, 2.5m deep

Pond 2

Pond 1

Pond 3

56m by 52m, 2.5m deep

98m by 44m, 0.8m deep

98m by 60m, 2.5m deep

Pond 4

Pumped for irrigation

Fig 5.1 A series of Ponds at MEDINE SE

The ponds are located on a sloping land with ponds 1 & 2 being at the same
level, but about 1m higher than pond 3, itself being about 1 m above pond 4
(see photos 5.1 and 5.2).

Photo 5.1 Pond 1 (left) and Pond 2 (right)

Photo 5.2 Pond 3 (front) and Pond 4 (rear)

The water utilised for processing of the sugar cane in the factory, and for
various other purposes (garage, workshop, boiler, etc.) passes first through a

50

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

settling pond, where about 300 tons of sludge are removed every week and
sent to the fields. The water then flows successively through all the four
ponds (1 to 4) under gravity, before being pumped away for irrigation
purposes.
Water overflows from pond 1 to pond 2, and a rudimentary grease trap is
formed by loosely held soles of slippers that are held up by a metallic barrier
(Photo 5.3). At the entrance of pond 2, water splashes over the large stones
(Photo 5.4) and gets aerated.

Photo 5.3 Overflow ramp from pond 1

Photo 5.4 Stones at entrance pond 2

Pond 3 has an elongated shape (98m by 44m, see Fig. 5.1), and is the
shallowest one (0.8m deep). Water from pond 2 goes through an area with
hyacinth plants before entering pond 3. Finally, water flows by gravity to pond
4 where a pumping station is used to send the treated effluent to the fields.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.5.2 Operations & Maintenance (O&M)


Daily monitoring of all the ponds are carried out for pH and for the visibility
through the water using a clarity wedge with a graduated scale. Information
concerning any deviation from the established norms is immediately fed back
to the factory for corrective actions.
Ponds 1 & 2 are dried up every year after the harvest (June to December),
and cleaning and removal of the sludge are carried yearly for pond 1, every
two to three years for pond 2, and every five to ten years for ponds 3 & 4. All
the sludge is sent for direct application to the sugar cane fields.

5.5.3 Water Quality


Data is available only for pH, COD and TSS for tests which are carried out
regularly. The treated effluent is in conformity with the irrigation standards
(EPA 2002, Regulations under sections 39 and 96) for these parameters. An
average reduction of 67% in COD and 83% in TSS is observed from the data
collected during the period August to December 2007.

The purpose of these ponds, set up about ten years ago, is to treat the sugar
plant effluent so as to meet the irrigations standards, to allow the reuse of the
treated effluent for the overhead irrigation of the sugar cane fields. Previously,
the water was being used for surface irrigation of the fields and there was
less regulatory monitoring for the enforcement of looser standards.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.5.4 Ponds Design


No information is available about the intended function of each of these
ponds at the time of design. Referring to the theories about WSPs in section
4.7 above, it is highly probable that ponds 1 and 2 were meant to be a pair of
anaerobic ponds in series, and that ponds 3 and 4 were meant to be a set of
facultative and maturation ponds. If more elaborate analysis of the water at
each stage is performed, the theoretical role of each pond could be identified
with more precision. No chemical and power resources are being used for this
natural treatment pond system (see Table B.16.2), and the manpower
requirements are minimal.

5.6 Visits to Club Med Treatment Plant


5.6.1 Introduction
An extended aeration activated sludge system, of a capacity of 400 m3 per
day, had been planned for the wastewater treatment system of this resort
hotel which started operating in August 2007 at Albion, on the west coast of
the island. In line with the sustainable development policy of Club Med,
alternative solutions were studied to reduce the environmental impact of this
system, although it had already been approved by the Ministry of
Environment according to the EIA submitted. A total flow of 400 m3 d-1 is
expected from all the resort sewerage, inclusive of the staff accommodation,
the forty neighbouring villas and the mini club.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

According to Mr Yann Bazin, Maintenance officer of La Plantation Club Med,


this is the first project of this kind that Club Med has set up in any of its
thousand hotels worldwide. Mr Thierry Jacquet, Director of Phytorestore, the
company responsible for the setting up of the WWT plant at Club Med Hotel,
is also of opinion that very few hotels in the world have installed a CW as a
treatment system on their premises. In Mauritius, this is the first time that a
hotel utilizes a constructed wetland as a wastewater treatment plant.

5.6.2 Alternative solution


A constructed wetland of 4,100 m2 was proposed as a wastewater treatment
system for the estimated cumulative flow of 400 m3 d-1 (i.e. about 10 m2 of
wetland per m3 of effluent to be treated). The forecasted parameters of the
raw effluent (based on characteristics of hotel effluents) and the expected
quality of the treated effluent (according to the designed features of the CW)
in conformance to the Mauritian legislation are given in Table 5.2. A key
feature of the proposed solution is the re-use of the treated effluent for the
irrigation of about 45 ha of green landscape area.
Parameters

Units

Concentration

COD
Total KJEDAHL N
Phosphorus
TSS
pH

Mg /l
Mg N/l
Mg P/1
Mg /l

Raw effluent
750
50/60
10
100 250
6.5 7.5

Total Coliform

MPN/100 ml

10 10

Table 5.2 Expected quality of raw effluent and treated effluent.


Source: Club Med Report (2007)

54

Treated effluent
60
20
5
5
6.5 7.5
10 100

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.6.3 Process Flow


The location of the CW on the hotel premises is indicated in the site plan of
Fig. 5.2, and a plan view is shown in Fig 5.3. The resort hotel is operational
since August 2007, but the construction of the villas has not started yet.

Fig 5.2 Location of CW system


Source: Club Med Report (2007)

55

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND LAY-OUT CLUB MED

ALBION
POND

VERTICAL
FILTER 1

HORIZONT
AL FILTER

HORIZONTAL
FILTER 1

VERTICAL
FILTER 2

Fig 5.3 Plan View of CW system


Source: Club Med Report (2007)

56

AERATION
BASIN

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Sewage from five different locations of the hotel is channelled via a buried
network to the pre-treatment section. Wastewaters from the kitchen area pass
first through a nearby underground grease trap, and the grease removal unit
is emptied once a week by a waste carrier.
Two lifting pumps at the pre-treatment area raise the sewage to the screening
unit (2 cm spacing) located on the first floor of a building housing two blowers.
The screened sewage is stored in a 80 m3 buffer tank, aerated by the
blowers, and emptied automatically (through a level-sensor activation) about
4 to 11 times daily into the vertical filters.
The flow is sent alternately to one of the two separate vertical filters every 3
days through a manually controlled gate van. Each of the two vertical filters
feeds directly to one of the two horizontal filters, which are also not
interconnected.
The treated effluent from the two horizontal filters flows into a 1200 m2 pond
from which water is re-used for the irrigation of the hotel landscape.
Approximately 1/3 of the pond is emptied every 2 days to prevent the
formation of algae.

57

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.6.4 Descriptions and functions


(a)

Vertical Filters

The two vertical filters are 800 mm deep, cover an area of about 1200 m2
each, and are physically separated by a brick wall. As shown in Fig. 5.4, the
bottom is lined with a polymer-membrane to ensure there is no leakage to
the ground, and it is sloped at 0.5%. All over the bottom of these filters, there
is a layer of 200 mm of fine aggregates (20/35), upon which is spread
another layer of 200 mm of coarser aggregates (8/12). Several ventilation
vertical pipes (diam. 100 mm) protrude about 700 mm above the filters top
layer, and their curved openings (see photo P.x) are orientated towards the
wind to improve the aeration inside the filters. They are planted with 5
different varieties of local plant species, which have grown to a height of
about 1200 mm 1500mm within four months. It is expected that one of the
species will naturally dominate the rest, and it will be the plant that will finally
be cultivated all over the filters.

Fig 5.4 Vertical Filter construction


Source: Club Med Report (2007)

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The main functions of the VFs are:


(i)

Filtration, as the water goes through the two layers of aggregates,


removes the major part of the TSS

(ii)

COD is degraded by the bacteria developed at the roots of the plants,


due to aerobic conditions supported by natural aeration and the
rotation of the filters

(iii)

Disinfection is reduced to 1 Log by the VFs

(iv)

Nitrification and sedimentation of phosphorous, helped by the


presence of iron in the aggregates.
(b) Horizontal filters

The two horizontal filters are also 800 mm deep, occupy an area of 800 m2
each and are fed by a vertical filter each. A layer of 800 mm of coarse
aggregates (8/12) is spread over the initial and final one-thirds of these filters,
and the middle area is covered by a similar 800 mm layer of fine aggregates
(20/35) however. The polymer membrane at the bottom, and planting with
different species are similar to the situation described for the VF above. Fig
5.5 shows a cross section of the relative positions and water flow by gravity
from the VF, through the HF to the pond.
The main functions of the HFs are:
(i)

Removal of nitrogen through de-nitrification due to the sequential


aeration

59

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

(ii)

Degradation of the residual COD and disinfection up to 4 Log, by the


bacteria in the root system.

Fig 5.5 Cross Section of CW system


Source: Club Med Report, 2007

(c)

Pond

A 1200 m2 pond, lined with polymer-membrane at the bottom and fitted with
a planted anti-drowning area all around, receives the treated effluent from
the HFs and has a storage capacity of 1800 m3.
The main functions of the pond are:
(i)

Further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by sedimentation

(ii)

Improves the disinfection process, partly by the UV rays from sunlight

(iii)

Oxygenation of the water through plants such as nenuphars. The fish,


toads and libellules help to limit the propagation of mosquitoes.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.6.5 Operations & Maintenance


According to Mr Yann Bazin, there is a minimal need for energy and manpower to maintain and operate the system. The 4 gate valves that must be
occasionally operated manually to control the water flows, are usually in the
open position. The plants are reaped once a year about 25% will be cut to
the ground level every month over a four months period. The sludge
accumulated in the system is removed every 5 to 10 years, and the
aggregates will need to be replaced in about 12 15 years.

5.6.6 Environmental Impact assessment (E.I.A)


The following improvements are noted, as compared to the activated sludge
system:
(i)

Energy. No energy required, as system operates under gravity.

Overall, power is required only for the lifting pumps and the aeration of the
buffer basin.
(ii)

Noise. No noise producing devices are used.

(iii)

Odour. No odour is encountered due to the aerobic conditions.

(iv)

Ground pollution. The polymer membrane prevents pollution of the

natural environment.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

(v)

Sludge and wastes. The sludge which complies with fertilisation

standards, is removed every 10 to 15 years, and can be used as fertilizers


for the hotel itself or elsewhere
(vi)

Biodiversity. Local plants have been used to purify the water,

(vii)

Landscape. The system looks like a garden, without any concrete

buildings.
5.6.7 Phytorestore
The CW system was designed by a French company, Phytorestore (website
www.phytorestore.com), headed by Mr Thierry Jacquet. This company
specialises in the application of a range of sustainable technologies that
make use of plants as the main resource to treat pollution. Currently, the
company is managing several projects in China in the field of wastewater
treatment.

5.7 Evaluation on 7 February 2008


A physical evaluation of the evolution and performance of the wetland was
carried out on 7 February 2008, by Thierry Jacquet, Director of Phytorestore
and Yann Basin, Maintenance Manager of the hotel (see Photo 5.5).

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Photo 5.5 Inspection by T Jacquet and Y Basin on 7 Feb 08

The temperature is warm during the summer season, and reaches about 3334 0C during the day in this coastal region. Although it is the cyclonic and
rainy season, no cyclonic winds have been felt yet, and rains have been 50%
below normal during the past few months (Meteorological Services, 2008).
Current flow is about 200 - 250 m3 per day, that is about 50-60% of design
capacity, due to a hotel occupancy rate of 70% and the fact that the
bungalows of the neighbouring Integrated Resort Scheme village have not
been constructed yet.

5.7.1 Vertical Filters


1.

Just below the surface of the filter, the substrate is humid, well aerated
and there is no offensive smell of H2S, indicating a good functioning of
the filter (see photo 5.6 showing a hole about 0.3 m deep). The roots
can be seen to be spreading out, as they will reach a depth of 0.6 to

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

0.7m. The black humus layer has not covered the full surface area of
the filter yet. It will progress with time and as the capacity utilisation
increases from the present 50%. The thickness of this layer is expected
to reach about 0.15 m in 10 years time.

Photo 5.6 Roots and humidity beneath top surface

2. The Papyrus plants adapt themselves better to the climate and


environment, as they have grown into very dense vegetation (Photo
5.7). The Bamboos have grown quite high, reaching some 2 to 3 m
high (Photo 5.8). It is expected that ultimately they will predominate as
the natural vegetation among the five varieties of local plants.

Photo 5.7 Papyrus dense vegetation

Photo 5.8 Bamboos of height 2 to 3 m

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

3. A large proportion (about 70%) of the surface area of the VF is not well
covered with plants, especially in the region further away from the point
where the influent is fed into the distribution pipe. This is attributed to
an uneven distribution of the influent over the surface area, according
to T Jacquet., and he recommends Y Basin to reduce the size of the
pipes branching out in the beginning (Photo 5.9), so that the influent is
carried to a longer distance where the outlets will have a larger
diameter. Photo 5.10 shows such an unplanted area, where however
water is present about 0.2 m below the surface, due the good drainage
below the surface.

Photo 5.9 Uneven distribution from outlets

65

Photo 5.10 Water below unplanted area

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.7.2 Horizontal Filters


1. Several areas are covered with few or no plants (Photo 5.11), and
adjustments are needed to improve the overall processing efficiency,
which is presently of the order of 30 40% of the design capacity. The
main drawback is the shortage of influent, running currently at about
50% of the design level. The aeration of the lower layers is well
assured through the hollow bamboo shoots installed initially (Photo
5.12). It was also verified that the lower layers are humid, as seen in
photo 5.13, where a hole about 0.25 m deep has been dug. Some
plants (Photo 5.14) are in a wet area.

Photo 5.11 Area with few plants

Photo 5.12 Air through bamboo shoot

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Photo 5.13 Underground layer humid

Photo 5.14 Vegetation-wet areas of HF

2. Due to insufficient influent, four vanes installed at the end of each filter
(example in Photo 5.15) have to be adjusted daily to regulate the flow.
The system has been designed so that the vanes remain permanently
opened once the designed volume of influent is received and the
functioning has been optimised. It is expected that after one year, all
the vanes will just be left opened permanently.

Photo 5.15 Adjustment vane

Photo 5.16 Effluent discharged to pond

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.7.3 Pond
The quality of the effluent flowing into the pond (Photo 5.16) has been
meeting the design standards (see next section relating to laboratory tests
results) .The nenuphars have noticeably grown in surface area and quantity,
due to the warm weather (photo 5.17), and are expected to ultimately cover
the whole pond area. They provide the natural aeration which is required by
the growing algal population, obviating the need to resort to the installation of
a surface aerator.

Photo 5.17 Nenuphars covering larger areas of pond

5.7.4 Laboratory Analysis results


Influent and effluent samples at different stages of the treatment plant were
available on seven occasions (between October 2007 and March 2008) for
the laboratory analysis of a set of parameters (as indicated in Table B.4.2 in
Appendix B).
The treated effluent, which is being used for irrigating over 20 ha green
landscaped space, meets the Mauritian guidelines for irrigation water quality

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

for all parameters analysed. A tabulation of the results of the analysis and
related comments on the performance of the CW has been classified in
Appendix B (para. B.4).

5.8 St Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant


The WWTP at St. Martin, operational since 2005, treats wastewater received
under gravity from the Plaines Wilhems area through the trunk main sewer
network, and supplies the treated water for irrigation purposes. It has a
design capacity of 69,000 M3 per day and an average of 40,000 M3 is being
treated daily.
5.8.1 Treatment of Wastewater
The primary treatment comprises of a set of coarse and fine screens for the
removal of screenings, detritor units for the grit removal and primary settling
tanks for the removal of primary sludge. The secondary treatment comprises
of a biological aeration system (see Photo 5.18) based on an activated sludge
process for the removal of BOD and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous),
final settling tanks (see Photo 5.19), Return Activated Sludge pumping
system and Surplus Activated Sludge pumping systems. The tertiary
treatment system comprises of balancing tanks for flow equalization, Rapid
Gravity Filters for filtration followed by UV (Ultra Violet) (see Photo 5.20)
disinfection system.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

5.8.2 Treatment of Sludge


The primary sludge from the Primary Settling Tanks is thickened in the Picket
Fence Thickeners, and the secondary sludge from the Final Settling Tanks is
thickened in the Belt Filters using polyelectrolyte chemical. The thickened
primary and secondary sludge are mixed in the buffer tanks and pumped to
the anaerobic digesters (see Photo 5.21). The digested sludge is dewatered
in the centrifuge machines using polyelectrolyte chemical, and the sludge
cake is disposed at the Mare Chicose landfill.

5.8.3 Biogas Utilisation and Power Consumption


The biogas generated during digestion process is treated in a scrubbing
tower for the removal of hydrogen sulphide (see Fig 5.22) and fed to a biogas
generator for the generation of electrical energy to meet partly (25 to 30%) of
the electricity demand of the plant. Heat recovered from the biogas generator
is used for heating of sludge contents of the anaerobic digesters. It should be
noted that over 50% of the power consumption in this plant is attributed to the
aeration process (Fig 5.6).

Photo 5.18 Aeration basin

Photo 5.19 Final Settlement Tank

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Photo 5.20 UV lamps maintenance

Photo 5.21 Digesters

Photo 5.22 Desulphurisation Tower

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Digestion

Dewatering
5%

13%

Thickening
8%

Primary

Aeration

3%

54%
Tertiary
17%

Fig 5.6 Electricity Consumption by Various Units at St. Martin WWTP

5.8.4 Influent and Effluent Characteristics


A summary of the key performance indicators for the month of January 2008
is given in the survey form of Table B.1.1 in Appendix B. The % reduction
achieved by the plant is of the order of 97% for BOD and 98% for SS.

5.8.5 Plant performance


A visual performance of the key indicators on a day to day basis is given in
Table B.1.2 of the Appendix, for both the influent and the final effluent. All the
data in this table are based on the analysis of daily composite samples
collected by the automatic samplers at the inlet and outlet. The graphs for the
inlet give a fair profile of the incoming effluent generated by over 230,000
domestic users as well as the industries in the P Wilhems area. It should be

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

noted that January 1 and 2 are public holidays, and that little industrial
activities take place in the first 8 to 10 days in Mauritius as factories observe
their annual shutdown. Heavy rains occurred on the 9, 10, 30 and 31, as
reflected in the inlet flows reported in Table B.1.3 (Appendix). The quality of
the effluent is well within the set criteria indicated in red, except for
phosphates on four occasions during early January.

A comprehensive set of data is supplied in Tables B.1.3 to B.1.6 (Appendix


B), from which it is possible to track the evolution of the key determinants
from inlet through the primary, secondary and tertiary stages of the plant.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 6: Analysis and Discussions


6.1 Summary of survey data
The total number of WWTPs and the volume of effluent treated daily (M3 d-1)
in Mauritius are shown in Table 6.1 (Radhay2, 2008).
Selected data from the individual survey sheets (classified in Appendix B)
have been summarised in Table 6.2 (Centralised WWTP), Table 6.3
(Industries and other WWTP) and Table 6.4 (Hotels WWTP) as shown below.
The choice of the 18 plants surveyed was not random, but was made on the
basis of accessibility (see section 5.2). There is no textile plant among the
industries group, although textile processing (which often has highly polluting
dyeing units) is an important industrial activity in Mauritius. The volume of
wastewater treated by the WWTPs surveyed amount to about 81,500 m3 d-1.
With the inclusion of the three public centralised plants in the study, it can be
assumed that the plants surveyed process about 57% of the total volume of
effluent (estimated at 143,000 m3 d-1, ref. Table 6.1) treated on the island.
Number

Approx. M3 d-1

Public (includes the 3 centralised plants)

100,000

Coastal Hotels

46

13,000

Industries discharging to the Environment

10

5,000

Industries discharging to Sewer

50

20,000

Sugar Factories

5,000

123

143,000

WWTP Category

TOTAL

Table 6.1 Estimated number of WWTP in Mauritius


2

Manager, Pollution Control Unit, Wastewater Management Unit

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The nine public WWTPs in Table 6.1 comprise the three centralised plants
surveyed, the centralised plant of Baie du Tombeau (20,000 m3 d-1) and five
regional small plants under the responsibility of the WMA. About 50% of the
effluent treated (52,000 m3 d-1) by this category of WWTP undergo only
primary treatment, by the Montagne Jacquot and Baie du Tombeau WWTPs.
In Mauritius, the volume of drinking water supplied daily by the Central Water
Authority (CWA) amounts to about 500,000 m3 d-1, of which some 50% are
unaccounted for (CWA, 2004). If we assume that the volume of water being
really consumed amounts to 350,000 m3 d-1, and that domestic black and
grey water and industrial effluent represent about 90% of this amount
ending up as wastewater, then the potential wastewater volume to be treated
would amount to some 315,000 m3 d-1. From Table 6.1, the daily amount of
effluent treated exclusive of sugar factories (treating approximately 5,000 m3
d-1 of water from irrigation sources) amounts to some 138,000 m3 d-1. It can
be argued that a maximum of 44% (138,000/315,000) of the potential of
wastewaters is undergoing some form of treatment. In practice, this
proportion is much less, because (i) substantial infiltration inflates the volume
of treated water, estimated at 138,000 m3 d-1 and (ii) the estimated volume of
available water for treatment (315,000 m3 d-1) does not include borehole
water that are tapped directly by certain consumers, mainly industries. Hence
the proportion of effluent potentially available for treatment remains very high.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.2 General observations


Most of the plants are relatively new or recently renovated. The
commissioning of the three centralised plants has taken place during the last
three years, illustrating the governments efforts in the sanitation sector, often
driven by donor agencies. For most of the industries and hotels, the actual
flows are either close to or at the designed capacity. Could this mean that
project designers have not provided much spare capacity?

For the

centralised plants, the actual flows in the survey data represent about 55% of
the designed capacity and are expected to increase rapidly over the next five
years as additional connections will be progressively made to the sewerage
system. In this case, donor agencies have requested the government to
invest in capacity building of the WMA, in order to accelerate project
implementation, improve coordination and eliminate delays for optimum use
of the infrastructure being set up (see section 3.7 above).
A diversified range of processes is being used in the WWTPs surveyed,
among which there is a predominance of ASP (7 cases out of 18). In the hotel
category where there are 46 WWTPs, ASP is used in 28 cases (61%), RBC is
used in 17 cases (37%) and CW is used in one case, by Club Med Hotel
(Radhay3, 2008).

Manager, Pollution Control Unit, Wastewater Management Unit

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Parameter

Description

Unit

1 Name of Company / Plant


3 Date of plant commissioning
4 Process / Technology

St Martin

G Bay

Montagne Jacquot

Jan-05

Jan-06

Feb-07

Activated sludge Process

Activated Sludge Process

Primary & Sludge Treatment

5 Design Capacity

M3/day

69,000

3,500

48,000

6 Average Flow

M3/day

33,423

1,500

31,918

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

21,000 to 75,000

n/a

28,000 to 37,000

Domestic / Industrial
wastewater from Plaines
Wilems

Domestic / Industrial
wastewater from G Bay and
northern region

Domestic / Industrial
wastewater from Coromandel
& PLouis area

Kwh / day

13,647

1068

1679

10 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

94

32

1017

11 Manpower

no / day

35

17

34

408.3

712.0

52.6

(Wtd Average)
245

2.8

21.5

31.9

(Wtd Average)
17.1

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Power Consumption (est.)

(Total)
66,841

(Total)
16,394
(Total)
1143

12 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated
c

Kg Chemicals / 1000 M3 water


treated

Table 6.2 Simplified Summary of Centralised WWTP surveyed

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.3 Power consumption


Power consumption data are generally estimates, based on the power of
equipment installed, except for the centralised plants where the total power
consumed is known. For the other plants, there is no dedicated power meter
registering the power consumption of the WWTP only. In the above tables,
the power consumption per 1000 m3 (Kwh per 1000 m3) of effluent treated
has been computed as a performance indicator for comparison purposes.
The weighted average is 1350 Kwh per 1000 m3 for the hotels WWTP, 322
Kwh per 1000 m3 for the industries and other WWTP, and 245 Kwh per 1000
m3 for the centralised WWTP. It is observed that economies of scale, in terms
of volume of effluent processed, determine to a large extent these ratios. The
hotels WWTPs have the lowest average daily flows (100 to 470 m3 d-1) and
the highest weighted average ratios, with peak values of 2560 Kwh per 1000
m3 for Le Touessrok Hotel (average flow of 225 m3 d-1) and 1760 Kwh per
1000 m3 for the Ile aux Cerfs WWTP (average flow of 100 m3 d-1).
The highest ratio for any WWTP among the three categories is 7200 Kwh per
1000 m3 and is attributable to SOFAP Ltd, which treats the lowest volume of
effluent, amounting to 30 m3 d-1. In the industries and other WWTP group,
TDM (ratio of 3007 Kwh per 1000 m3) and AML (ratio of 2250 Kwh per 1000
m3) have relatively high ratios, and are characterised by high pollution loads
and substantial flows (refer to individual survey sheets B.18.2 and B.14.2
respectively).

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

In the centralised WWTPs category, G Bay WWTP, which has the lowest flow
(1500 m3 d-1) has the highest ratio (712 Kwh per 1000 m3). The ratio for St
Martin WWTP (410 Kwh per 1000 m3), a tertiary treatment plant, exceeds that
of Montagne Jacquot (52.6 Kwh per 1000 m3) which has primary treatment
only and thus consumes less power per unit volume of sewage treated,
although both plants have roughly similar flows.
On the basis of the data computed in Tables 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4, it can be
argued that WWTPs with low flows are characterised by inefficient power
consumption, measured in terms of Kwh per unit of effluent treated.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Parameter

Description

Unit
Club Med

1 Name of Company / Plant


3 Date of plant commissioning
4 Process / Technology

St Geran Hotel

Le Touessrok
Hotel

Ile aux Cerfs


2003

Jul-07

2004

2003

Constructed
Wetland

Activated sludge
Process

Activated sludge
Process

RBC

Coco Beach
Hotel

Sagar Hotels Le
Meridien

2004

2005

Activated sludge Activated sludge


Process
Process

5 Design Capacity

M3/day

400

470

250

120

470

300

6 Average Flow

M3/day

250

450

225

100

470

300

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0-300

0-470

0-250

0-120

0-470

0-300

Hotel effluent

Hotel effluent

Hotel effluent

Recreational facilities
effluent

Hotel effluent

Hotel effluent

Kwh / day

36

521

576

176

594

520

10 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Nil

1.4

4.8

47

11 Manpower

no / day

0.5

0.3

144

1158

2560

1760

1264

1733

(Wtd Average)
1350

Nil

3.1

21.3

470

4.3

13.3

(Wtd Average)
33

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Power Consumption (est.)

(Total)

2010

(Total)

1795

(Total)

2459

(Total)

59.2

12 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated
c

Kg Chemicals / 1000 M3 water


treated

Table 6.3 Simplified Summary of hotels WWTP surveyed

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Unit
Phoenix
Breweries Ltd

M3/day

Phoenix Camp
Minerals

FAIL

Description
Thon Des
Mascareignes

Poulet Arc en Ciel

SOFAP LTD

Medine S E

DRBC Ltd

Airports of Mauritius
Ltd

Jan-04

2004

Jun-05

2004

Jul-05

2002

Jun-05

2003

Feb-07

UASB

UASB

Physico-chemical

Activated sludge
Process

UASB followed by
ASP

Physico chemical

Waste Stablisation
Ponds

Rotating Biological
Contactors

Anaerobic / Aerobic
processes

2300

600

600

190

456

40

13,200

1200

1500

M3/day

837

480

335

150

407

30

9,240

1100

480

M3/day

0 - 1050

0 - 600

350 -450

0 - 190

0 - 456

0 - 30

6,600 - 10,200

0 - 1200

300-1500

Brewery
wastewaters

Soft drinks factory


wastewaters

Poultry factory
wastewater

Waste water of
Poultry factory

Tuna Canning
factory wastewater

Paint factory
wastewater

Sugar factory
wastewater

Sugar factory
wastewater

Airport & aircraft


effluent

Kwh / day

300

264

234

184

1224

216

Nil

702

Kg / day

120

74

5.7

47

180

Nil

24

no / day

0.5

0.5

0.5

358

550

699

1227

3007

7200

638

2250

(Wtd Average)
322

143

154

17

313

442

33

22

13

(Wtd Average)
35

Table 6.4 Simplified Summary of Industries and other WWTP surveyed

81

(Total)

13,059

1080

(Total)

4204

(Total)

458

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The WWTP with natural processes have the lowest ratios (nil for Medine SE
and 144 Kwh per 1000 m3 for Club Med) and this can be expected given that
there are few or no mechanical equipment installed. This finding is in line with
GPA/UNEP (n.d.) statement that the use of natural systems has attractive
benefits, because of the relatively low construction costs and operation costs
and the potential generation of utilisable resources.
Natural processes represent therefore an opportunity which can be utilised by
WWTPs with low flows (which are generally energy inefficient), provided all
other conditions are favourable.

6.4 Chemical consumption


For the comparison of the utilisation of chemicals (mainly polyelectrolyte,
chlorine and sodium hydroxide), a performance indicator has been computed
in the form of Kg of chemicals per 1000 m3 of effluent treated. The average is
33 Kg of chemicals per 1000 m3 for the hotels, 35 Kg of chemicals per 1000
m3 for the industries group, and 17 Kg of chemicals per 1000 m3 for the
centralised plants. It is interesting to note that the two natural WWTPs (WSP
of Medine SE and CW of Club Med Hotel) do not practically utilise any
chemical in their processes.
The values of the two computed performance indicators for each WWTP are
shown in red at the bottom of Tables 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.5 Sampling and laboratory analysis data


The data regarding laboratory analysis supplied in the survey sheets in
Appendix B have been obtained in most cases from grab samples, except for
the St Martin WWTP where composite samples are collected daily from
installed inlet and outlet automatic samplers. Hence it is difficult to extrapolate
on the relative performance of these plants on the basis of these data. On the
whole such information was not readily available.
It appears that often the laboratory analysis is carried out principally to satisfy
the regulatory requirement rather than for process monitoring and
management on an ongoing basis.
For future reference, it is important that composited samples be collected
more frequently (preferably daily, but at least weekly) and analysed over a
relatively long period, say 12 months, to allow a fair evaluation of the
performance and adequacy of the process for the respective type of effluent
being treated.

6.6 Club Med Hotel


6.6.1 Laboratory Data
A summary of the results of the laboratory analysis of grab water samples on
seven occasions during a 6-month period (Oct 07 to March 08) with related
comments is available in section B.4 of Appendix B. Selected data is
summarised in Table 6.5 below for a brief overview of the data collected.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

PARAMETER

CONDUCTIVITY

TSS

COD

BOD

FAECAL
COLIFORMS

Unit

s/cm

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

MPN/100ml

100-250

750

TYPICAL HOTEL EFFLUENTS


VALUE

10

- 10

INLET AVERAGE

796

191

784

352

5.4x106

OUTLET HF AVERAGE

713

14.3

39.6

9.7

145.0

93

95

97

100

48.6

52.3

18.7

13

75

94

95

100

45

90

30

1000

% REMOVAL at HF
IRRIGATION POND AVERAGE

561

% REMOVAL at Pond
IRRIGATION GUIDELINES*

NA
IRRIGATION GUIDELINES

1500

NOT ANALYSED
GUIDELINES FOR IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY, GENERAL
NOTICE N0 617 of 1999 FOR MAURITUS

Table 6.5 Summary of Sewage Treatment Analysis at Club Med Albion

It can be observed that (i) the overall characteristics of the incoming water to
the CW is generally compliant with the design criteria which had been
assumed and (ii) the water quality in the pond meets the required irrigation
standards for the parameters measured. On the basis of the samples
analysed, the percentage reduction noted after the HF amount to 93% for
TSS, 95% for COD, 97% for BOD and almost 100 % for faecal coliforms. At
the ponds level, the percentage reduction is of the order of 75% for TSS, 94%
for COD, 95% for BOD and 99.9% for faecal coliforms.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.6.2 General comments


During the several visits effected to this CW at the Club Med Hotel during the
period Sept 07 to March 08, it was observed that the plants were well
maintained, that they blended aesthetically with the overall landscape, and
that there was no unpleasant smell. Mr T Jacquet had volunteered to share
certain costs information related to the construction and general set up of this
CW for the purpose of this study, but such information has not been obtained
at the time this report is being written.
Taking into consideration that the CW is functioning satisfactorily in a 5-star
hotel as observed during this study, and the fact that this technology is
recommended for developing countries especially with tropical climates, it can
be concluded that there is a potential for further utilisation of such processes
in Mauritius. Mr T Jacquet indicated that following the successful
implementation of the Club Med project, his company has been solicited for
the utilisation of CW in two more projects in Mauritius one in the hotel sector
and another in the agricultural sector.
It is to be noted that a company (Noveprim Ltd) breeding monkeys at a farm
at Beau Champ, in the southern region of the island, has been using a
constructed wetland system (capacity of 100 m3 d-1) for the treatment of its
wastewater since 2002. Authorisation to visit this CW to gather more
information about the operation of this WWTP has not been obtained.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.7 Land Costs


Wastewater treatment plants with natural processes, especially WSPs, are
feasible up to a land cost of USD 300,000 per hectare, according to Mara
(2003). As land is usually available at relatively cheap prices in developing
countries, such systems should be financially feasible. In Mauritius, land costs
are estimated to vary between USD 875,000 per ha for residential land
(Rs10,000 per toise) and USD 8.7m per ha (Rs 100,000 per toise) for prime
land in the town centre and along the beach, according to a survey of
LExpress of 19 March 2008.
Land costs are thus much higher than the upper limits mentioned by Mara
(2003), and this could explain the scarcity of such natural systems in
Mauritius. Nevertheless, Club Med has implemented a CW in a coastal resort
hotel located on very highly priced land. Other factors, such as the sharply
increasing energy prices, which have now undergone a nearly six-fold
increase since the year 2000 (when the average crude oil price was about
USD 20 per barrel), may also be playing a more important role in the decision
making process.

6.8 Choice of Technologies


In this section, an attempt is made to explain the reasons which motivated the
choice of the technologies utilised in the respective WWTP surveyed, using
inputs from persons contacted during the survey.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

6.8.1 Centralised WWTPs


The centralised WWTP of St Martin has been funded largely by the EU, and
the ASP was recommended by the consultants Montgomery Watson Hamza
(MWH).

They provided for UV tertiary treatment in view of the projected

water reuse, electricity production from biogas and substantial sludge


processing. Similarly the Grand Bay WWTP was funded by the EU and the
choice of the process is attributable to the consultant, with the blessings of
the donor institutions. The Montagne Jacquot WWTP was funded by the
Japanese, and the Japanese consultants opted for a primary treatment with
chlorine disinfection for the effluent, and sludge processing, thickening and
dewatering prior to landfill disposal. Unfortunately they did not see the need
to provide for secondary treatment, so that the effluent could be reused. It
seems that the main objectives for the above three projects were the
implementation of an effective system, to achieve desired effluent quality,
through infrastructure funded by international institutions and land supplied by
the government - sustainability and long term cost minimisation were not high
on the agenda.
6.8.2 Hotels WWTP
The St Geran Hotel was constructed in 1974, and the German consultants
had designed an ASP for the WWTP. Le Touessrok Hotel and Coco Beach
Hotel (physically located next to St Geran Hotel), built more than fifteen years
ago, also formed part of the same group that owned St Geran Hotel (i.e. Sun
Resorts Ltd) at the time of their construction. The choice of ASP for the

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

WWTP of these two hotels was influenced by the performance of the WWTP
of St Geran Hotel. As mentioned earlier, the processes used for the hotels
WWTP are mainly ASP or RBC, except for the recent Club Med Hotel, which
clearly wanted to reduce the environmental impact of its WWTP and favoured
sustainability. The choice of RBC for the WWTP located on Ile Aux Cerfs, an
islet which is also managed by Sun Resorts Ltd, was influenced by the need
for a smaller footprint, given the limited space on the islet providing
recreational activities.
6.8.3 Industries and Other WWTPs
Phoenix Breweries Ltd (PBL) is located in the urban region of Phoenix, and
the limited land space as well as the nature of the effluent has certainly
influenced the use of UASB, which has a small footprint and which is
recommended for industrial and agro-industrial plants (ref. Section 4.6
above).

The sister company, Phoenix Camps Minerals Ltd (a soft drinks

factory), is located one kilometre away and is equipped with the same
process, probably on the basis of convenience and standardisation. The tuna
manufacturing company, Thon Des Mascareignes (TDM) has similar
constraints as PBL, in terms of space available (it is located in the capital Port
Louis) and of the nature of effluent which has a high COD. Hence the choice
of UASB followed by ASP, as explained in section B.14.1 in Appendix B.
No explanation is available regarding the different processes utilised by two
chicken processing factories, Food and Allied Industries (physico-chemical
process) and Poulet Arc-en-Ciel (ASP). Similarly, two different processes are

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

utilised by sugar factories Medine SE (WSP) and DRBC (RBC). The fact that
DRBC also needs to process the power station effluent could explain the
choice of RBC process. It was noted in section 5.5.3 above that the WSP at
Medine SE is treating the effluent to the required level for re-use for irrigation
purposes.
At Airports of Mauritius Ltd (AML), the WWTP previously used (i) was
overloaded (ii) could not withstand the organic shock when the aircraft wastes
were released and (iii) had to be relocated in view of the airport extension
works. An ASP plant with adequate capacity to remove the nutrients
biologically was proposed as a replacement at a more convenient location
(Africon, 2007).

6.9 Appropriateness of Technologies


For the St Martin WWTP, the process is clearly producing treated effluents
well within the desired standards, as exemplified by daily data for the month
of Jan 08 (see Fig B.1.2 and Tables B.1.3 to B.1.6 in Appendix B) compiled
from over 70 parameters analysed from composite samples collected every
day of the year. In the absence of such information for other plants, it is
difficult to assess the effectiveness of the respective technologies chosen.

As a case study, an attempt is made in Table 6.6 below, to estimate the


benefits that could be obtained if the G Bay WWTP was equipped with a CW

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

G BAY WWTP

Actual

CW Process Assumptions

Resources
used

Estimated Costs
per year (Rs)

Estimate of
Resources

Manpower

17

4,250,000

1,250,000

3,000,000

Electricity

1068 Kwh/ day

1,949,100

216

394,200

1,554,900

Chemicals

32 Kg / day

419,750

Nil

419,750

Spares, oil,
consumables, etc.

3,600,000

Spares, oil,
consumables, etc.

900,000

2,700,000

2,544,200

7,674,650

Maintenance
TOTAL (Rs)
Assumptions:
1. Manpower

10,218,850

Estimated Costs Annual savings


per year (Rs)
(Rs)

(a) Annual average costs of a member of an O&M team assumed at Rs 250,000.


(b) CW manpower is equivalent to Club Med personnel (0.5) pro-rated by the respective design capacity
i.e. 0.5 x 3500/400 rounded up to 5

2. Electricity

(a) Average rate of Rs 5 per Kwh in April 2008 for industrial customers
-1
(b) CW Power consumed at the rate of 144 Kwh/ 1000 M3 d (ref Table 6.3, ratio for Club Med)
i.e. 1500 x 144 /1000

3. Chemicals

(a) Average rate of Rs 1150 per day for the mix of chemicals used by G Bay WWTP, re Table B.2.2
(b) CW chemical requirements is nil

4. Maintenance

(a) Annual expenses amount to 2 % of M&E value, assumed at 50% of G Bay WWTP costs of USD 12 m.
(b) CW maintenance expenses is assumed at a nominal 25 % of the estimates of actual G Bay WWTP expenses

Table 6.6: Comparative O&M costs for G Bay WWTP (Actual vs CW Process)

process. The assumptions used for this simplified scenario are explained in
the footnotes of Table 6.6. The land area requirements, on the basis of 10 m2
per m3 of installed capacity (see Section 5.6.2 above regarding Club Med
CW) would amount to 35,000 m2 for this WWTP of a designed capacity of
3500 m3 d-1. As the land area available4 is about 46,000 m2 (although only

Source WMA

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

some 20% is being used by the present installations) the set up of a CW may
be feasible.
The estimated benefits, assuming no extra costs for land, would amount to
some Rs 7.7m yearly, nearly 75% of the operational costs. Such a potential
benefit, although estimated from a simplified model, clearly calls for a serious
consideration of CW during the feasibility of new projects, especially for
WWTPs of moderate capacities such as that of G Bay WWTP.
Using the estimated expenses from Table 6.6, the unit cost per m3 of treated
effluent is Rs 18.70 (about USD 0.62) for the present set up of G Bay WWTP
compared to Rs 4.60 (about USD 0.15) under the projected CW scenario.

GPA/UNEP (n.d.) describes the characteristics of domestic wastes in


developing countries in Table 3.1, the achievable effluent qualities by natural
systems in Table 3.8 and a comparison of the capabilities of mechanised
systems (ASP, RBC) versus natural systems in table 3.7 of their study. It can
be extrapolated that in most cases, the technology in use in the WWTPs
surveyed in Mauritius has the capability of treating the influent received to the
desired discharge standard. It would not be erroneous to conclude that
overall, the quality of the treated effluent and the performance of the various
WWTP surveyed, may be determined more by the skills of the O&M team
rather than by the technology used. Less sophisticated systems, such as the
natural treatment processes already encountered (WSP and CW) could have
been effectively utilised in a number of cases (land availability permitting),

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

with potential benefits as described in the case study of G Bay WWTP under
a CW process.

Additional benefits would include lower dependency on

skilled personnel (commanding rising costs resulting from strong demand


from other buoyant sectors of the economy) and simpler plant operations.

6.10 Technologies for forthcoming projects


Sustainability has not been a core issue for most of the cases surveyed. It
will become an increasingly central issue, as the world becomes more
environmentally conscious, consumers demand greener products and
governments respond through stricter legislations and law enforcement.
At a time when growth is set to accelerate again the IMF estimates GNP
growth for Mauritius at 7% in 2008 according to the Minister of Finance
(WeekEnd, 30 March 2008) there will be a high demand for sanitation and
energy resources. The WMA aims to increase the present 26% level of
sanitation coverage to about 50% by 2012-13, and to a 100% level by 2025
(WMA, 2008). The first objective seems realistic with the infrastructural works
already initiated. However, the second objective will demand extraordinary
resources if it is to be achieved in a 12-year period. The necessity for such
implementation goes undisputed as the pollution risks must be urgently
minimised to maintain a conducive environment for the development of the
tourism industry, which itself will place greater stress on the environmental
resources of Mauritius.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

It is necessary to consider other options, as low-cost and low-energy


alternatives as possible, for forthcoming wastewater treatment projects,
especially as the crude oil prices reach USD 118 per barrel at the time of
writing of this report. It is assumed that, through greater awareness at all
levels of the need to achieve sustainability, it will be easier to promote water
reuse, stricter pollution control and law enforcement and the polluter pays
principle. It is hoped that this study will contribute towards greater awareness,
so that natural processes and especially constructed wetlands form part of
the range of alternatives that will be considered in a scenario of increasing
decentralised treatment systems for Mauritius and for developing countries in
general.
For sustainable operation of the infrastructure the annual recurrent cost
are often even more important than the capital costs, since the latter are
often funded from abroad (GPA/UNEP, n.d.).
This is not to suggest that the highly mechanised WWTP of St Martin should
have been replaced by 700,000 m2 of constructed wetlands (on the basis of
10 m2 of wetland provided for each m3 of sewage at the Club Med CW).
Rather, several agglomerations of a population ranging from a few hundred to
a few thousand people in off-centred locations, may be provided wastewater
treatment facilities through such technologies, at possibly lower construction
and operating costs and in a shorter time frame. In fact, the rural areas will be
the main target after the 50% sanitation level is reached in 2012 / 2013. The
situation will be different from the earlier phases, as the new target

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

habitations are spread all around the country compared to the high density of
habitations in the urban regions. Dean and Horan (1995) had recommended
UASB treatment for areas in Mauritius where dense populations settlements
with a high-rate of water usage necessitate a move away from on-site
wastewater treatment, as small-scale non-centralised wastewater treatment
is needed.
Well designed projects need to take into consideration all the economic,
social and environmental aspects. In line with good governance principles,
decision-making should involve participation of all stakeholders, especially
the consumers and providers of services (Appleton and Chatterjee, 2001,
p.26. cites The Bellagio Principles). Well planned projects, in conformance
with the principles of water governance, are more likely to attract funding from
donor agencies eager to help developing countries meet the MDGs in the
field of water and sanitation.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Chapter 7: Conclusion
Inferences from this study
The authors consulted in the literature review, such as Appleton and
Chatterjee (2001), Gijzen (2003), Khatri and Vairavamoorthy (2007),
Kyambadde (2005), Volkmann (2003) and GPA/UNEP (n.d.), recommend a
number of low-cost and low-energy wastewater treatment (WWTP) systems
as suitable alternatives to high-technology solutions for developing countries.
Appropriate technologies for any particular region can be chosen among
options such as oxidation ditches, aerated lagoons, upflow anaerobic sludge
blanket, waste stabilisation ponds and constructed wetlands.
A variety of processes, such as activated sludge system, rotating biological
contactor, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, waste stabilisation ponds,
constructed wetlands and physico-chemical treatment is used by the WWTP
in Mauritius, as revealed by the findings of the survey undertaken during this
study. Three of the processes recommended as appropriate alternatives to
high-technology solutions for developing countries by the authors in the
preceding paragraph, namely upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, waste
stabilisation ponds and constructed wetlands, are among those being used in
Mauritius, and they are delivering treated effluents in compliance with the
local standards on the basis of the data collected during the plant surveys.
The WSP of Medine SE and the CW of Club Med Hotel are WWTPs using
natural processes that have been indentified during the survey in Mauritius.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

They can be considered as low-cost and low-energy plants on the basis of


the resources that they use, as they utilise no chemical and either minimal
energy in the case of constructed wetlands (CW) or no energy at all in the
case of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Both these processes are
recommended (in the literature review mentioned above) for regions where
the ambient temperature is high, this often being the case for developing
countries and in particular for Mauritius, a country with a tropical climate.
Activated sludge plants are effective, but costly to build and to operate.
Considerable resources are required in terms of chemicals and skilled
manpower to operate the sophisticated equipment that consumes significant
energy. Conventional WWTPs treating low volume of effluent are highly
inefficient in terms of energy consumption per unit of effluent processed. In
the survey of the 18 WWTPs carried out in Mauritius, the activated sludge
process is used by 7 plants, and more importantly, by two of the three
centralised WWTPs. There exists a potential for more utilisation of natural
systems such as constructed wetlands (CW) and also waste stabilisation
ponds (WSP), which offer the key advantages of consuming little or no power,
and the possibility of sustainable operations and maintenance. It is true
however, that the larger footprints of the natural systems, and the more
complex

operational

issues

encountered

in

dealing

with

multiple

decentralised units as compared to the management of a centralised WWPT,


are disadvantages to be considered. At a time when developing countries in
general have tremendous investment to make in new systems to achieve the

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

MDG goals for sanitation - e.g. Mauritius aims to increase the present
sanitation level of 26% to 50% by the year 2012/13 and to 100% by 2025 low-cost and low-energy alternatives will provide definite relief. Care should
be taken to evaluate the economic, social and environmental implications to
choose the appropriate technology for a particular region.
It is essential to create awareness among decision makers, at central and
local government levels, and also with investors, about the advantages and
benefits offered by a low-cost low-energy and sustainable WWTP, especially
for decentralised systems. Well planned projects, in compliance with the
principles of water governance, are more likely to benefit from the funding of
international donors, if sustainability issues have been addressed. Developing
countries in general, and Mauritius in particular, should consider the low-cost
low-energy and sustainable WWTP options, wherever feasible, in their efforts
to extend sanitation services to the needy.
Suggestions for further research
The following suggestions are made for future research, in the light of the
experience obtained during his study.
A more thorough analysis of the WWTP analytical data, surveyed in this
study, should be carried out using properly collected composite samples, on a
weekly basis over a period of about 12 months. A random selection of
WWTPs can be supplemented by additional plants to ensure that all the WWT
technologies and the different types of polluting activities in Mauritius are

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

represented. This will allow a proper evaluation of the performances and


appropriateness of the current variety of technologies that are in use.
Extending this survey to regional African countries would provide valuable
data and extrapolation of the findings about regional developing countries.
More in depth studies should be carried out in Mauritius to identify specific
locations, preferably in the rural areas, where a CW could be implemented for
a larger population, say of some 10,000 p.e. A pilot project of this scale,
properly executed, could provide the necessary confidence for further larger
scale projects.
It is necessary to create and monitor awareness, at all levels, about
sustainability issues, so that planning for future projects in developing
countries takes into consideration the necessity to achieve sustainability and
the availability of technologies for this purpose. To what extent are effluent
reuse and pollution reduction key determinants, today, in the planning and
execution of environmental projects in developing countries?

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Appendix A
Supplementary technical information for WWT options of
Chapter 3
A.1 Oxidation ditches
They have the following characteristics and variations:

It has longer retention times, of the order of 0.5 to 1.5 days for
hydraulic, and 20 to 30 days for solids, due to 95% recycling of the
activated sludge

It involves minimal sludge handling without odour, as the small amount


of wasted sludge, which is highly mineralised, can be dewatered on
drying beds

The reactor is usually in the form of a long continuous channel, with an


oval shape at the extremities and a depth of 2 to 3 meters.

Aerators / mixers provide the oxygen requirement of about 1.5 gm of


O2 per gm of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) received, and keep
the ditch contents in movement (about 0.3 to 0.4 m/s) to maintain the
activated sludge in suspension.

The ditch effluent is discharged in a sedimentation tank which (i)


achieves above 95% removal of BOD and Suspended Solids (SS) in
the settled effluent and (ii) provides for sludge return.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The concentration of SS in the ditch is maintained at about 3500 to


5000 mg l-1, by wasting small amounts of excess sludge daily to the
drying beds. This level can be monitored by maintaining the Sludge
Volume Index (SVI) around 200.

They are constructed with vertical walls of reinforced concrete for large
flows.

A.2 Aerated lagoons


The key characteristics are:

BOD removal above 90% are achieved with short retention times of 2
to 6 days

SS of the effluent remains relatively high, at about 200 400 mg l-1

Reduction of faecal bacteria is only of the order of 90%, and further


treatment is necessary.

Retention times exceeding 2 days are recommended to produce a


flocculent sludge of about 200 to 400 mg l-1, compared to a
concentration of 2000 to 6000 mg /l in conventional systems and
oxidation ditches.

The aerators must supply enough power to mix the sludge in the
lagoon, as well as the necessary oxygen for bio oxidation.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Nitrification, which is the autotrophic conversion by bacteria of


ammonia to nitrite, and then to nitrate, can take place in the aerated
lagoons in warm climates.

Its construction is similar to those of the WSPs, with the following changes:
(i) Depths are greater (3 to 5 m)
(ii) The slopes of the embankments are steeper
(iii) Liners must be robust to withstand the turbulence from the aerators.

Aerated lagoons v/s anaerobic ponds


Aerated lagoons often function as anaerobic ponds in developing countries,
when the installed aerators are deliberately switched off over long periods to
save on high electricity costs (Mara, 2003, pp. 222). In case nitrification is not
required to satisfy NH3-N criteria for the effluent, it can be easily determined
at the feasibility stage that anaerobic ponds will be more efficient, especially if
electricity costs are high (Mara, 2003, pp. 222). As a post treatment after an
anaerobic pond, an aerated lagoon, which has a greater depth (approximately
3 to 4 m), uses less space compared to a facultative pond (about 1.5 to 2 m
deep). However, it uses more costly electrical power, which could have been
invested in land acquisition (Mara, 2003, pp. 222).

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

A.3 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)


It has the following key features:

a short hydraulic retention time (about 6 to 12 hours)

influent must be fed to the base of the reactor as evenly as possible


through a rectangular or circular device

it rises as an upward flow through a sludge blanket at a rate of less


than 1 m hr-1

a phase separator lies between an upper settling zone and a lower


digestion zone made up of concentrated sludge (see Fig. A.3.1 - Mara,
2003, p. 201, cites Van Haandel and Lettinga)

Sludge particles settle on the outward inclined surfaces of the phase


separator, and later slides down to the lower sludge layer

Deflectors beneath the phase separator divert the biogas produced


away from the settling zone to facilitate sedimentation. The biogas
collected through the phase separators is used for electricity
generation or simply flared.

The reactor is usually constructed as rectangular reinforced concrete


structures, with a length to breadth ratio of about 4 to 1. A reactor of
about 1000 m3 can treat some 4,000 m3 of influent per day, at a

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

retention time of 6 hours. Larger flows can be treated by adding extra


units in parallel, sharing the long walls.

Fig. A.3.1 Typical UASB Design


Sourse Van Haandel and Lettinga (1994)

The treated effluent is collected in another basin, and floating solids are
removed by a scum guard system. UASB produce relatively large amounts of
sludge about 0.2 kg per kg of BOD removed compared to an Anaerobic
Pond (AP), but less than in activated sludge units (Mara, 2003, p. 203). In
warm climates, the sludge can be easily dewatered on drying beds (about .01
to .015 m2 per person).

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Waste Stabilisation Ponds


Additional technical information about the three main types of ponds of WSPs
is given below.
Anaerobic Ponds (AP)
Anaerobic ponds, about 2 to 5 m deep, are usually the first in a series of
ponds. They can withstand a high organic loading (> 3000 kgs / ha day, for a
depth of 3 m) and behave like open septic tanks. Their main function is BOD
removal, and up to 60% removal is possible at 20 0C with a retention time of
one day. The sedimentation of settleable solids and subsequent anaerobic
digestion in the sludge layer contributes to BOD removal and methane
production. Some compounds from industrial effluents are toxic to algae, and
get precipitated as metal sulphides, while some organic toxicants are
degraded to non-toxic forms (Mara, 2003, p.105). AP also serve to hold
floating materials that would likely block light in facultative ponds.

There is a gradual built up of sludge, estimated at 0.04 m3 per person per


year in warm climates, which needs to be removed every 1 to 3 years. A
potential source of odour is H2S, formed by the reduction of sulphate. In
practice, odour problem does not arise if loading is within design and sulphate
concentration is less than 500 mg/l (Mara, 2003, p.106).

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

The role of AP as pre-treatment is best described by Mara (2003, p. 135):


Anaerobic pre-treatment is so advantageous that the first consideration in
the design of a series of ponds should always include the possibility of
anaerobic pre-treatment.
Facultative Ponds
Primary facultative pond treats raw wastewater, whereas secondary
facultative pond treats settled wastewater. Both types, usually of depth 1 to
1.8 m, are meant for the removal of BOD, with relatively low surface loading
BOD about 100-400 kg ha day-1 - to allow a healthy algal population. The
pond bacteria derive oxygen for BOD removal through algal photosynthesis,
which relies on the sunlight received over the surface area of the pond (Mara,
2003, p.114). The colour of the pond is usually dark green, due to the large
number of micro-algae, the concentration of which varies as a function of
loading and temperature. A purple colouration is noted in overloaded ponds
due to the toxic effect on algae. The effluent quality can depict variations in
quality due to the diurnal variation in dissolved oxygen. The Dissolved
Oxygen (DO) level increases gradually during the day, to reach a maximum in
the early afternoon, before dropping to a minimum at night, when there is no
photosynthesis and oxygen is consumed by algae and bacteria (Mara, 2003,
p.114). Composite samples should be used for laboratory analysis, for a
better monitoring of the quality evolution of the effluent.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Sludge is formed in primary facultative ponds from the settleable solids of the
raw wastewater, and desludging is needed after about 10 years. In warmer
regions, digestion is more complete and sludge accumulation is lower. For
secondary facultative ponds, desludging should not be required during the
design lifetime. The performance of overloaded ponds can be significantly
improved by gentle mixing by using wind-powered mixers or aerators, or even
low-power electric mixers (Mara, 2003, p.132).
Maturation Ponds
The main function of the maturation pond is to reduce the pathogens that are
present in the effluent of the facultative ponds, to a level that allows the reuse
of the effluent for agriculture. There is also some gradual reduction of BOD,
SS and N and P nutrients. Cumulative reduction in a series of ponds can be
very drastic, as exemplified by a series of five WSPs in north-east Brazil
researched by Silva (1982). E Coli was reduced from 5 x 107 in the raw
wastewater to 30 counts per 100 ml in the effluent of the third maturation
pond. Maturation ponds are shallower, usually about 1 m deep, with higher
light penetration that increases the faecal and viral removal (Mara, 2003,
p.136). Lining of the ponds is recommended, as unlined ponds of less than
1m depth can have macrophytes and mosquito breeding.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Constructed Wetlands
1. Processes
A number of complex processes occur in the treatment of wastewater in the
CW reed bed systems, according to Cooper et al. (1996, pp. 11-24).
a. Organic matter. Aerobic bacteria are responsible for the degradation of
organic matter, using dissolved oxygen. A group of micro-organisms oxidises
organics to release ammonia, and another group oxidises ammoniacal
nitrogen to release NO2 and NO3.
However, anaerobic degradation also takes place and can be predominant in
overloaded systems. Organic matter is initially converted to new cells, organic
acids and alcohols. Methane forming bacteria then pursue the oxidation to
produce methane and carbon dioxide.
b. Suspended Solids. SS that have not been trapped during pretreatment will be removed by filtration and sedimentation, which are
enhanced by the presence of macrophytes.
c. Nitrogen. Organics containing nitrogen are converted to ammoniacal
nitrogen in the aerobic and anoxic zones of the reed bed (Fig. A.5.3).
Nitrification is the process through which nitrifying bacteria convert
ammoniacal nitrogen to nitrite and then to NO3 in aerobic zones, using
oxygen from the atmosphere, and through the plant roots. Denitrifying

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

bacteria convert nitrates to N2 gas in anoxic zones through the process of


denitrification.
Matrix absorption
Volatilisation

Biomass uptake

NH 4Anaerobic zones

Aerobic zones
Ammonification

Organic N

N2, N 2O

Nitrification

N2, Nx2O gas

Biomass
uptake

NO2-

Denitrification

NO3-

Biomass uptake

Fig A.5.3 Nitrogen conversion


Adapted from Cooper (1996)

d. Phosphorous.

Through

biological

oxidation,

phosphorous

from

wastewater is converted to orthophosphates, which react with aluminium,


calcium and iron and are precipitated in the bed matrix.
e. Metals. Removal processes include (i) adsorption and cation exchange
(ii) precipitation of metal oxides in aerobic zones and sulphates in anaerobic
zones (iii) direct uptake by wetland plants and (iv) filtration by the plants,
especially of metal hydroxides precipitates.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

f. Pathogens. Pathogens are removed mainly by sedimentation, filtration


and adsorption by biomass.
2. Design Features
The simplified recommendations of Cooper et al. (1996) for CW in the UK
are as follows.
HF systems: (i) A surface area of 5 m2 per person equivalent (p.e) is
required for secondary treatment of sewage, and 0.5 to 1 m2 p.e. for tertiary
treatment. (ii) The inlet should have a depth of 0.6m, and the outlet deeper
as a function of the selected slope, usually between 0.5 to 1%, (iii) gravel
sizes are usually 3-6 mm, 5-10mm and 6-12 mm. (iv) The bed is sealed with
a plastic liner or HDPE/ LDPE membrane.

VF systems: (i) A surface area of 1 m2 per p.e. is needed for BOD removal
only, and 2 m2 per p.e. for BOD removal and nitrification. (ii) A depth of 0.5 to
0.8 m is recommended with no specific requirement for a slope. (iii) The four
layers of media comprise a top layer of 8 cm sharp sand and bottom layer of
15 cm of 30-60mm round washed gravel.

109

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Appendix B
Information collected on wastewater treatment plants
surveyed
Introduction
During this study, 18 wastewater treatment plants were visited and
information was sought from various resource persons mainly involved in the
O&M activities, using a designed survey form. Based on the information
received, a brief description of each plant has been compiled and the
respective survey form filled, as presented in this section.

A number of

photos as well as supplementary information collected for a few plants (St


Martin, Club Med Hotel, Medine SE and Thon Des Mascareignes), are also
included as it can prove a useful reference for future researchers.

Photo B.1.1 St Martin WWTP - Gas holder

110

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.1.1 St Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant


The treatment plant at St. Martin (see Photos B.1.1 and B.1.2), operational
since 2005, treats wastewater received under gravity from the Plaines
Wilhems area through the trunk main sewer network, and supplies the treated
water for irrigation purposes. It has a design capacity of 69,000 M3 per day
and is treating an average of 40,000 M3 of wastewater daily.

Treatment Process
The plant uses an activated sludge process and a UV system for disinfection.
The key stages of the tertiary treatment process of this plant are as shown in
Fig B.1.2 below.

Fig B.1.2 Process flow of St Martin WWTP


Source WMA, 2007 Tender documents for St Martin WWTP

111

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Influent and Effluent Characteristics


A summary of the key performance indicators for the month of January 2008
is given in the survey form of Table B.1.1 below. The percentage reduction
achieved by the plant is of the order of 97% for BOD and 98% for SS.
A comprehensive set of data is supplied in Tables B.1.2 to B.1.6, from which
it is possible to track the evolution of the key determinants from inlet through
the primary, secondary and tertiary stages of the plant.

Photo B.1.2 Storm pond

112

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.1.1 Survey data for St Martin WWTP


Parameter

Description
WMA - St Martin WWTP

Unit

1 Name of Company

St Martin

2 Location

Mar-05

3 Date of plant commissioning

Activated Sludge, Tertiary Treatment

4 Process / Technology

69,000

5 Design Capacity

M3/day

6 Average Flow

M3/day

33,423

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

21,000 to 75,000
Domestic / Industrial wastewater from
Plaine Wilhems area

8 Nature of plant influent

9 Water characteristics

Influent

Final Effluent

7.5

7.6
3.7

a pH
b BOD5

mg / L

194

c COD

mg / L

505

37

d TSS

mg / L

260

2.1

e Total - N

mg / L

31.1

8.5

f TKN - N

mg / L

29.3

4.1

g NH4- N

mg / L

10.0

0.3

h NO2 - N

mg / L

0.3

0.1

i NO3 - N

mg / L

2.2

4.3

j Conductivity

uS/cm

k Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

845
6

8 x 10 to 24 x 10

729
6

228

Kwh / day

13,647

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

94

12 Manpower

no / day

35

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

410

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

2.1

Kg Chemicals /
c
1000 M3 water treated

2.8

14 Comments

Average Results for the month of Jan 2008


Treated effluent reused for irrigation.

113

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.1.2: Inlet and outlet flows at St Martin for Jan 08


TREATED OUTLET

1400

140

1200

120

COD, mg/l

COD, mg/l

INLET

1000
800
600
400
200

Design value

Actual

1/29/2008

6.0
4.0

1/1/2008

Design value

500
400
300
200
0
1/15/2008
Date

Actual

1/15/2008
Date

Actual

TSS, mg/l

TSS, mg/l

8.0

0.0
1/15/2008
Date

100

1/29/2008

1/29/2008

Design value

16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
1/1/2008

Design value

1/15/2008
Date

Actual

1/29/2008

Design value

Ammonia N, mg/l

25

Ammonia N, mg/l

Design value

2.0

600

20
15
10
5
0

5
4
3
2
1
0

1/15/2008
Date

Actual

1/29/2008

1/1/2008

Design value

1/15/2008
Date

Actual

12

10

Total P, mg/l

Total P, mg/l

1/29/2008

10.0

700

8
6
4

1/29/2008

Design value

5
4
3
2
1

0
1/1/2008

1/15/2008
Date

12.0

Actual

1/1/2008

40

1/1/2008

BOD, mg/l

BOD, mg/l

1/29/2008

500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

1/1/2008

60

0
1/15/2008
Date

Actual

1/1/2008

80

20

0
1/1/2008

100

1/15/2008
Date
Actual

1/1/2008

1/29/2008

1/15/2008
Date
Actual

Design value

114

1/29/2008

Design value

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

St. Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant


Monthly Analysis Report - Jan 2008
(Table B.1.3 to Table B.1.6)

C O D , m g /l

B O D , m g /l

T S S, m g /l

T K N - N , m g /l

N H 4-N , m g/l

N O 2-N , m g/l

N O 3-N , m g/l

S u lp hate, m g /l

C hlo rid e, m g /l

C on d uct., u S /cm

208

277

37.0

21.0

23 520

7.3

435

124

192

34.7

33.5

16.0

0.00

1.2

6.8

36

27

1552

02-Jan-08

31 175

7.3

290

64

132

29.7

27.7

13.1

0.39

1.6

4.2

59

27

1345

03-Jan-08

25 505

7.4

263

79

164

33.4

30.6

16.5

0.39

2.4

5.6

72

40

1572

04-Jan-08

24 280

7.5

529

128

246

37.1

34.6

15.3

0.33

2.1

7.8

63

35

528

05-Jan-08

22 865

7.4

110

32

36

22.3

19.0

13.3

0.79

2.5

3.6

62

32

417

06-Jan-08

22 165

7.4

304

107

162

31.2

27.7

14.9

0.41

3.1

6.6

142

40

599

07-Jan-08

27 335

7.3

1152

354

518

53.5

50.2

15.8

0.00

3.3

11.4

131

70

804

08-Jan-08

35 850

7.3

857

325

641

50.4

47.3

10.0

0.34

2.8

10.5

121

30

532

09-Jan-08

66 600

7.2

503

260

410

31.9

29.4

4.4

0.23

2.3

6.1

89

32

1680

10-Jan-08

53 600

7.3

969

372

535

41.9

38.6

2.0

0.25

3.1

9.7

147

40

585

11-Jan-08

41 650

7.8

1032

469

608

44.4

40.4

4.0

0.27

3.8

11.2

212

42

841

12-Jan-08

36 070

7.5

150

57

38

17.1

14.9

6.9

0.09

2.1

3.1

144

40

696

13-Jan-08

29 380

7.4

263

157

188

25.3

21.9

8.1

0.21

3.2

4.9

154

87

696

14-Jan-08

29 045

7.4

230

109

162

22.5

19.6

5.7

0.00

2.9

4.7

201

62

905

15-Jan-08

31 600

7.9

513

229

262

31.9

29.9

8.7

0.00

2.0

6.2

211

35

937

16-Jan-08

30 010

7.5

367

146

140

26.0

23.6

7.1

0.13

2.3

5.6

200

107

1059

17-Jan-08

29 920

7.6

526

297

328

36.5

32.3

10.8

0.21

4.0

6.2

184

72

911

18-Jan-08

29 210

7.3

843

344

490

47.1

42.7

1.0

0.28

4.1

9.5

196

55

821

19-Jan-08

28 110

7.2

489

213

310

23.3

20.2

16.6

0.18

2.9

7.3

165

72

1021

20-Jan-08

23 685

7.3

443

169

218

36.7

32.9

14.7

0.37

3.5

6.5

131

90

674

21-Jan-08

24 575

7.5

166

70

54

21.3

19.0

10.2

0.08

2.2

4.2

126

95

770

22-Jan-08

35 470

7.3

355

206

148

22.9

19.0

6.9

0.27

3.6

4.3

140

40

515

23-Jan-08

29 540

7.3

734

291

356

30.2

26.0

7.6

0.22

4.0

6.9

172

157

974

24-Jan-08

33 495

7.4

592

227

196

24.2

23.6

8.6

0.15

0.4

5.2

175

85

912

25-Jan-08

30 125

8.9

864

277

176

27.7

27.1

8.0

0.35

0.3

6.9

180

117

1179

26-Jan-08

28 970

8.0

805

339

332

45.1

43.3

19.0

0.19

1.6

10.3

106

45

824

27-Jan-08

24 295

7.4

355

139

240

46.8

44.4

15.4

0.15

2.3

7.0

113

47

602

28-Jan-08

26 090

7.2

754

170

360

45.2

43.3

15.1

0.19

1.7

10.6

135

62

754

29-Jan-08

27 895

7.6

294

89

184

22.7

19.6

7.3

0.13

2.9

4.4

156

22

668

30-Jan-08

65 150

7.2

119

47

30

14.9

12.1

3.0

0.06

2.8

1.0

77

30

465

31-Jan-08

68 920

7.0

359

125

210

17.9

15.3

3.5

0.34

2.2

3.0

48

27

347

Average

33 423

7.5

505

194

260

32.1

29.3

10.0

0.23

2.6

6.5

134

57

845

Design

T otal - N , m g /l

pH

492

01-Jan-08

D ate

F lo w , m 3/d

P h osp h orou s, m g/l

Table B.1.3 Raw Sewage

115

5.9

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

T S S , m g /l

T o ta l - N , m g /l

T K N - N , m g /l

N H 4 -N , m g /l

N O 2 -N , m g /l

C o n d u c t., u S /c m

B O D , m g /l

C h lo rid e , m g /l

C O D , m g /l

S u lp h a te , m g /l

pH

01-Jan-08

7.1

181

72

40

33.1

32.3

20.5

0.00

0.8

4.3

47

32

1502

02-Jan-08

7.3

169

47

76

28.3

27.7

15.0

0.0

0.6

4.0

69

22

1584

03-Jan-08

7.4

150

49

42

29.2

28.3

21.7

0.1

0.8

4.1

85

40

1895

04-Jan-08

7.3

253

122

56

35.2

33.5

22.1

0.0

1.7

5.6

77

42

721

05-Jan-08

7.3

283

93

50

33.5

32.3

26.2

0.0

1.2

6.3

109

632

06-Jan-08

7.6

223

64

48

30.9

28.8

22.4

0.1

2.0

4.5

85

22

532

07-Jan-08

7.3

317

121

63

28.2

24.8

20.6

0.0

3.4

4.8

140

62

664

08-Jan-08

7.5

307

120

64

28.5

24.8

15.5

0.1

3.5

4.4

190

46

674

09-Jan-08

7.5

215

78

65

16.2

13.3

3.9

0.1

2.7

2.7

106

37

494

10-Jan-08

7.3

221

81

56

20.0

17.3

6.5

0.1

2.6

3.0

173

57

631

11-Jan-08

7.3

377

202

65

23.1

19.0

4.6

0.1

3.9

4.5

213

80

771

12-Jan-08

7.5

203

55

47

23.2

20.8

13.7

0.1

2.3

3.9

168

82

735

13-Jan-08

7.4

323

131

72

25.1

20.7

9.2

0.1

4.3

4.9

192

100

799

14-Jan-08

7.4

187

49

51

27.3

23.6

15.0

0.1

3.6

4.2

160

90

647

15-Jan-08

7.4

312

106

63

24.9

22.5

11.9

0.0

2.4

4.7

233

102

890

16-Jan-08

7.3

307

92

57

30.1

27.1

15.4

0.1

2.9

4.6

164

110

870

17-Jan-08

7.4

446

221

84

27.8

24.8

13.6

0.1

2.9

4.2

232

95

953

18-Jan-08

7.3

471

140

63

29.3

26.5

14.9

2.7

6.1

143

97

802

19-Jan-08

7.3

448

203

69

33.3

30.0

16.7

3.1

5.6

238

65

893

20-Jan-08

7.4

128

36

22

19.1

16.2

11.3

2.3

2.5

87

60

543

21-Jan-08

8.2

154

86

61

26.0

23.6

14.9

0.1

2.3

4.4

196

65

711

22-Jan-08

7.0

195

85

39

24.1

22.5

13.5

0.1

1.5

3.4

97

72

581

23-Jan-08

7.1

485

239

141

33.4

29.4

14.3

0.2

3.9

6.0

108

45

620

24-Jan-08

7.1

509

222

85

25.7

23.1

11.6

0.2

2.4

4.9

164

142

852

25-Jan-08

7.7

444

151

69

31.4

31.1

18.7

0.1

0.2

6.3

207

77

819

26-Jan-08

7.2

260

114

50

33.2

30.6

18.5

0.1

2.5

4.7

126

75

672

27-Jan-08

8.8

367

156

56

25.9

24.2

10.4

0.1

1.6

4.7

199

50

881

28-Jan-08

7.1

553

90

60

36.3

34.0

20.6

0.1

2.2

5.6

100

60

640

29-Jan-08

8.1

481

213

83

34.0

31.7

17.9

0.2

2.2

7.4

160

70

959

30-Jan-08

6.9

194

92

60

11.1

9.2

5.0

0.1

1.8

2.9

83

45

443

31-Jan-08

6.8

101

43

51

14.8

13.3

6.1

0.1

1.4

1.6

35

27

477

Average

7.4

299

115

62

27.2

24.7

14.6

0.1

2.3

4.5

141

64

803

116

N O 3 -N , m g /l

D a te

P h o s p h o ro u s , m g /l

Table B.1.4 Settled Sewage

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

T K N - N , m g /l

S u lp h a te , m g /l

C h lo r id e , m g /l

C o n d u c t , u S /c m

C o lo u r , H a z e n

5.0

1.0

10.3

2.9

0.4

0.0

7.4

0.7

64

45

483

10

02-Jan-08

7.2

36.0

2.0

1.0

13.3

2.9

0.0

0.1

10.3

0.9

52

37

1385

03-Jan-08

7.0

36.0

5.0

8.0

17.1

2.3

0.7

0.8

14.0

6.6

27

32

1142

04-Jan-08

7.2

18.0

2.2

2.0

18.5

5.2

0.4

0.7

12.6

6.2

35

45

329

05-Jan-08

7.3

21.0

5.4

2.0

12.9

2.9

0.4

0.8

9.1

3.5

34

27

358

06-Jan-08

7.6

37.0

8.5

4.0

13.0

2.9

0.7

0.6

9.5

4.7

37

37

471

07-Jan-08

7.6

39.0

6.9

4.0

11.6

1.7

0.6

0.8

9.1

5.7

70

42

456

08-Jan-08

7.5

63.0

6.5

1.0

9.0

3.5

2.0

0.4

5.1

3.0

143

29

651

10

09-Jan-08

7.5

42.0

3.2

4.0

7.3

4.6

0.0

0.1

2.6

4.3

130

60

545

10

10-Jan-08

7.4

69.0

2.2

1.0

3.2

1.7

0.0

0.1

1.4

0.6

70

53

496

10

11-Jan-08

7.5

29.0

7.7

1.0

9.4

6.9

1.1

0.7

1.8

0.4

132

70

631

10

5.0

N O 3 -N , m g /l

T o ta l - N , m g /l

15.0

9.2

N O 2 -N , m g /l

T S S , m g /l
25.0

36.0

Design

N H 4 -N , m g /l

B O D , m g /l
15.0

7.4

pH

125.0

01-Jan-08

D a te

C O D , m g /l

P h o s p h o r o u s , m g /l

Table B.1.5 Secondary Treated Sewage

12-Jan-08

7.8

42.0

8.0

13.0

6.3

3.5

0.3

0.6

2.3

0.7

174

112

771

15

13-Jan-08

7.8

36.0

6.4

1.0

3.7

1.7

0.6

0.5

1.5

0.7

162

100

751

15

14-Jan-08

7.8

70.0

7.2

10.0

11.1

2.9

1.2

1.2

7.0

0.7

144

107

757

15

15-Jan-08

7.6

37.0

4.4

3.0

6.9

4.6

0.3

0.0

2.3

0.7

213

82

757

15

16-Jan-08

7.7

24.0

3.8

6.0

11.2

5.2

0.2

0.9

5.1

0.4

210

110

841

20

17-Jan-08

7.6

34.0

2.3

13.0

4.9

2.3

0.2

0.1

2.5

0.8

161

107

878

20

18-Jan-08

7.6

40.0

2.0

1.0

6.3

3.5

0.0

0.0

2.8

0.7

197

100

883

20

19-Jan-08

7.5

58.0

3.0

1.0

34.8

30.0

0.2

0.7

4.1

0.2

161

102

824

20

20-Jan-08

7.4

52.0

5.1

1.0

10.2

5.2

0.3

1.2

3.8

0.4

166

90

822

20

21-Jan-08

7.6

35.0

4.9

15.0

11.2

3.5

0.1

0.6

7.1

0.7

125

112

743

10

22-Jan-08

7.5

24.0

9.0

6.0

9.5

4.6

0.3

1.0

3.9

1.9

136

87

670

15

23-Jan-08

7.6

30.0

2.0

2.0

11.1

6.9

4.6

0.3

3.9

0.3

135

50

590

15

24-Jan-08

7.6

36.0

6.0

4.0

6.2

4.0

2.0

0.1

2.1

2.7

143

70

704

15

25-Jan-08

7.5

80.0

5.0

2.0

5.3

4.6

0.9

0.1

0.6

1.3

161

85

715

10

26-Jan-08

7.4

47.0

6.0

3.0

14.4

9.2

0.8

1.3

3.9

0.4

150

92

801

10

27-Jan-08

7.6

36.0

6.0

8.0

10.9

9.2

0.8

0.1

1.6

0.9

158

90

792

15

28-Jan-08

7.2

53.0

4.0

1.0

14.7

8.1

0.6

1.0

5.6

0.4

134

57

665

15

29-Jan-08

7.4

44.0

11.0

16.0

8.7

2.9

1.0

1.3

4.6

0.8

148

90

773

30-Jan-08

7.2

55.0

20.0

11.0

9.5

5.2

2.7

1.1

3.2

1.0

103

45

557

31-Jan-08

7.3

38.0

8.1

11.0

4.5

2.9

0.1

0.2

1.4

0.2

67

52

425

Average

7.5

41.8

5.9

5.1

10.5

5.1

0.8

0.6

4.9

1.7

124

71.5

699

12

117

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B O D , m g /l

T S S , m g/l

T o tal - N , m g/l

T K N - N , m g /l

N O 3-N , m g /l

P h o s ph o ro u s, m g /l

S u lp h ate , m g /l

C h lo ride , m g /l

C o n du c t, u S /c m

C o lo u r, H aze n

F ae ca l c o lifo rm s (M P N )

H elm in th o va (no .lt)

15.0

5.0

1000

<1

7.5

42.0

3.2

4.4

12.2

4.0

0.3

0.2

7.9

0.5

66

45

1425

10

130

<1

02-Jan-08

32 856

7.4

42.0

2.6

2.0

13.9

5.2

0.1

0.2

8.5

2.9

91

37

400

130

03-Jan-08

27 302

7.4

18.0

2.2

2.0

20.7

9.8

0.0

0.1

10.8

5.6

53

40

1215

80

04-Jan-08

24 652

7.4

18.0

2.3

1.0

18.6

6.3

0.1

0.1

12.2

6.2

29

40

357

130

05-Jan-08

23 393

7.5

33.0

3.5

1.6

13.0

3.5

0.5

0.2

9.4

4.4

37

35

412

240

06-Jan-08

24 240

7.5

27.0

4.2

2.0

15.2

5.8

0.2

0.1

9.3

5.2

51

40

436

80

07-Jan-08

29 240

7.8

33.0

3.0

1.0

12.7

4.0

0.1

0.2

8.5

5.8

74

42

490

80

08-Jan-08

35 203

7.7

45.0

4.9

1.0

7.4

2.3

0.0

0.2

4.9

2.7

132

27

683

10

130

09-Jan-08

65 998

7.8

54.0

5.8

3.2

4.6

2.3

0.0

0.1

2.2

1.5

87

23

542

10

130

10-Jan-08

58 362

7.8

39.0

2.9

2.4

3.3

1.7

0.0

0.1

1.4

1.4

80

55

558

10

130

11-Jan-08

42 931

7.8

2.8

1.0

4.5

2.8

0.1

0.1

1.6

0.5

123

67

635

15

130

12-Jan-08

37 060

7.3

48.0

3.7

4.0

4.2

3.5

0.1

0.1

0.6

0.7

151

95

742

20

80

13-Jan-08

30 766

8.0

21.0

4.5

1.0

6.9

4.0

0.4

0.3

2.6

0.6

164

105

704

20

130

14-Jan-08

28 133

7.8

70.0

2.1

2.0

7.7

2.3

0.4

0.3

5.1

0.7

159

82

747

20

130

15-Jan-08

32 660

7.9

31.0

2.0

1.2

6.4

3.5

0.1

0.0

2.9

0.6

184

92

820

20

240

16-Jan-08

29 546

8.2

31.0

3.3

4.0

5.9

2.9

0.1

0.1

3.0

0.6

194

105

888

20

240

17-Jan-08

27 946

7.9

46.0

2.7

4.0

4.5

1.7

0.1

0.1

2.7

0.5

179

115

965

25

240

18-Jan-08

30 119

7.4

41.0

4.1

2.0

6.5

3.5

0.1

0.1

3.0

0.7

197

105

958

25

240

19-Jan-08

29 192

7.5

29.0

2.1

1.0

7.8

5.2

0.1

0.1

2.6

0.5

186

100

851

25

240

20-Jan-08

24 818

7.3

35.0

2.4

1.0

10.2

5.2

0.1

0.1

4.9

0.5

177

100

818

25

240

21-Jan-08

24 134

7.3

24.0

5.6

1.0

5.5

1.2

0.1

0.4

4.0

2.3

127

82

701

15

240

22-Jan-08

36 872

7.6

36.0

2.0

1.0

8.3

4.6

0.0

0.2

3.5

0.6

137

70

664

20

300

23-Jan-08

26 991

7.7

36.0

2.0

2.8

6.0

2.9

0.3

0.1

3.0

1.6

125

60

669

15

170

24-Jan-08

32 447

7.6

30.0

7.0

1.6

5.0

3.5

1.9

0.1

1.4

2.9

133

72

770

20

300

25-Jan-08

32 344

7.7

56.0

7.0

2.0

1.7

0.6

0.4

0.0

1.1

1.0

138

95

837

15

300

26-Jan-08

29 869

7.8

41.0

4.0

1.0

6.5

5.2

0.5

0.2

1.1

0.5

172

92

890

15

500

27-Jan-08

27 138

8.1

47.0

3.0

3.2

9.1

6.3

0.0

0.1

2.7

0.5

129

82

835

20

500

28-Jan-08

24 295

7.6

53.0

2.0

3.0

10.6

5.2

0.2

0.3

5.1

0.5

109

90

739

20

300

29-Jan-08

27 922

7.4

32.0

4.0

4.0

11.4

8.7

0.6

0.2

2.5

1.0

140

80

815

10

500

30-Jan-08

60 765

7.1

32.0

7.2

2.4

6.6

4.0

1.2

0.2

2.4

1.9

91

37

539

10

500

102

40

489

300

69

729

15

228

N O 2-N , m g /l

C O D , m g /l

15.0

24 211

Design

N H 4-N , m g /l

pH

10.0

01-Jan-08

D ate

F lo w , m 3/d

Table B.1.6 Tertiary Treated Sewage

5.0

31-Jan-08

71 559

7.1

20.0

5.7

2.0

7.1

5.2

0.9

0.2

1.8

0.8

Average

33 967

7.6

37.0

3.7

2.1

8.5

4.1

0.3

0.1

4.3

1.8

118

123

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.2.1 G Bay WWTP


The Grand Bay WWTP, with a designed capacity of 3,500 m3 per day, is a
new centralised plant built by the government in 2006, and it is located in the
north-west region of the island (see Map of Mauritius, Fig. 3.1). It uses an
ASP and a chlorination system for disinfection as tertiary treatment of the
effluent prior to discharge to a borehole.
The main processes are:
 Screening & Grit removal
 Aeration
 Settlement using two clarifiers
 Filtration
 Disinfection using chlorine
 Discharge to borehole
Sludge is dewatered using a centrifuge prior to discharge to the landfill.
Key data and characteristics of the influent and effluent, as per an average
six grab samples in the period June to Oct. 07 are summarised in Table
B.2.2.

Photo B.2.1 Aeration Basin

119

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.2.2 Survey Data for G Bay WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
WasteWater Management Authority

1 Name of Company

Grand Bay

2 Location

Jan-06

3 Date of plant commissioning

Activated Sludge, Tertiary Treatment

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

3,500

6 Average Flow

M3/day

1,500

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

n/a
Domestic wastewater from G Bay and northern
coast.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Final Effluent

8.1

7.7

b BOD5

mg / L

147

17.6

c COD

mg / L

570

54.1

d TSS

mg / L

470

19.4

e Total - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f TKN - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g NH4- N

mg / L

49.2

12.5

h NO2 - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

i NO3 - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

j Conductivity

uS/cm

n/a

n/a

Count
/100 ml

54 x 106

900

k Faecal Coliforms

Kwh / day

1,068

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Polymer 1.2kg, Lime 1 kg, Chlorine 30 Kg

12 Manpower

no / day

17

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

712

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

1.5

14 Comments

Average results for Oct -Dec 07, 15 grab samples

120

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.3.1: Montagne Jacquot WWTP


The Montagne Jacquot WWTP is the newly commissioned centralised plant
(January 2007) with a capacity of 48,000 m3 d-1, located at Pointe aux sables
on the west coast (see Fig. 3.1and Fig. 3.2)) and serving the regions of Port
Louis and Coromandel. The key features are primary treatment, sludge
treatment and chlorine disinfection of the effluent for discharge via the sea
outfall at a distance of 900 m from the shore and a depth of 40 m below sea
level.
The main processes are:
 Screening (using rotating fine drum frames)
 Grit removal
 Settling through 3 clarifiers (see Photo B.3.1)
 Disinfection using Chlorine
 Discharge through sea outfall
Sludge treatment is carried out using gravity belt thickeners and filter belt
presses (see Photo B.3.2), prior to the discharge of 300 tons monthly to Mare
Chicose landfill.

121

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per an average of the daily grab samples in June 2007 are given in the
survey form in Table B.3.2.

Photo B.3.1 Clarifier

Photo B.3.2 Filter Belt Press

122

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.3.2 Survey data for Montagne Jacquot WWTP


Parameter

Description

Unit

WMA, Montagne Jacquot Treatment Plant

1 Name of Company

Pointe Aux Sables (West Coast)

2 Location

2006

3 Date of plant commissioning

Primary Treatment / Sludge trmt / Chlorine disinfn

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

48,000

6 Average Flow

M3/day

31,918

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

28,000 - 37,000
Domestic & Industrial wastewaters from Coromandel and
PLouis area.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Final Effluent

8.1

7.7

b BOD5

mg / L

281

156

c COD

mg / L

681

356

d TSS

mg / L

288

78

e Total - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f TKN - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g NH4- N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

h NO2 - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

i NO3 - N

mg / L

n/a

n/a

j Conductivity

uS/cm

n/a

n/a

Count
/100 ml

n/a

n/a

k Faecal Coliforms

Kwh / day

1,679

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

PAC - 510 Kg, Chlorine - 340 Kg, and Lime - 167 Kg

12 Manpower

no / day

34

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh /1000 M3 water Treated

52.6

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

6.6

Kg Chemicals /
c
1000 M3 water treated

32.0

Data relates to daily average of June 2007.

14 Comments

Treated effluent discharged via sea outfall

123

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.4.1: Club Med Resort Hotel WWTP


The treatment process utilised at the newly constructed Club Med Hotel is a
Constructed Wetland Reed Bed type, with a designed capacity of 400 m3 d-1
to treat the effluent from the hotel and the forthcoming 40 adjacent villas
under the Integrated Resorts Scheme. A key feature of this 4100 m2 CW is
the reuse of the treated effluent for the irrigation of the 45 ha of green
landscape of the hotel premises.
The main stages of the process are:
 Collection of wastewater from different locations
 Lifting pumps
 Mechanical screening
 Aeration
 Vertical filters (2)
 Horizontal filters (2)
 Retention pond
The plants are cut every year while desludging will be carried out in about 7
to 10 years.
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per an average of the results of the analysis of 7 grab samples taken between
October 2007 and March 2008 are given in the survey form in Table B.4.2.

124

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.4.2 Survey data for Club Med Resort Hotel WWTP
Parameter

Unit

1 Name of Company

Description
Club Mediterraneen Hotel (Club Med)

2 Location

Albion, West Coast


Jul-07

3 Date of plant commissioning


4 Process / Technology

Pre-treatment / Constructed Wetland

5 Design Capacity

M3/day

400

6 Average Flow

M3/day

250

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 250
Wastewater from hotel complex and neighbouring resort
bungalows

8 Nature of plant influent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

6.6

8.4

b BOD5

mg / L

352

18.7

c COD

mg / L

784

52.3

d TSS

mg / L

191

48.6

e NO3

mg / L

1.69

1.8

f NH3

mg / L

37.1

2.14

uS/cm
Count /100
ml

796

561

5400000

13

g Conductivity
h Faecal Coliforms

10 Power Consumption

Kwh / day

36

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Nil

12 Manpower

no / day

0.5

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

144

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

1.73

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

Results represent average of 7 grab samples monthly,


collected between Oct 07 and Mch 08.

14 Comments

Treated effluent re-used for irrigation of hotel lawn

125

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.4.3: Comments on Results of Laboratory Analysis


Table B.4.3 shows a summary of the laboratory analysis results for the Club
Med Albion sewage treatment system over a 6 months period. For Faecal
coliforms, analysis was carried out only once (on 24 March 2008) by SGS, an
ISO 17025 accredited laboratory.
The sampling procedure consisted mainly of grab samples from the
constructed wetland, at different phases of the treatment except on the
28/02/2008 where a manual composite sample of the inlet was available.
These samples were analysed on the dates mentioned in Table B.4.3, and
the observations below have been made upon a review of the data collected.


The overall characteristics of the incoming water to the constructed


wetland are generally compliant with the design criteria which had been
assumed, except for the high COD value on 8/10/2007.

A removal of 91% of TSS is achieved by the two vertical filters V1 and V2


at the initial phase of the filtering process, due to the two different layers of
aggregates,

According to T Jacquet, the bacteria developed at the plants roots of the


vertical filters enable the degradation of COD due to aerobic conditions
maintained by natural and filter rotation. This explains the decrease in
average COD value from 475 mg l-1 to 65 mg l-1 as the water flows in and
out the vertical filters respectively.

Harmful bacteria and viruses are reduced by filtration and adsorption by


biological films developed on the rock media in the vertical flow system.

126

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

This effect can be noticed by the drastic fall in faecal coliforms value from
3.5 x 105 MPN/100 ml to 920 MPN/100ml while the effluent is processed
by the VFs.


The water quality in the pond meets the required irrigation standards. The
increased TSS can be attributed to the presence of algae in the pond.

The treated effluent, which is being used for irrigation over a 20 ha green
landscaped space, meets the Mauritian guidelines for irrigation water
quality for all parameters analysed.

The data collected indicates, after the VFs, a BOD reduction of 97%, TSS
reduction of 95%, TSS reduction of 93% and a Faecal Coliform reduction
of nearly 99.99% (see Table 6.4 in main text). At the pond level, BOD
reduction of 95%, TSS reduction of 83%, ammonia reduction of 95% and
a Faecal Coliform reduction of 99.99% are obtained, as shown in Table
B.4.3). It has also been noted that the 1200 m3 irrigation pond completes
the process by consuming N and P by sedimentation.

127

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

TSS

COD

BOD

NITRATE

AMMONIA

ORTHOPHOSPHATE

FAECAL COLIFORMS

DATE
TYPICAL HOTEL
EFFLUENTS VALUE

CONDUCTIVITY

pH

SAMPLING

Table B.4.3 Results of Laboratory Analysis at Club Med

s/cm

mg/L

mg/L

mg/L

mg N/L

mg N/L

mg P/L

MPN/100ml

INLET

6.5-7.5

10

- 10

100-250

750

50/60

10

350

1908

799

0.28

32.6

12.3

612

60

253

133

2.7

19.9

3.44

NA

NA

267

570

232

0.7

43

1.4

NA

5.93

933

196

960

422

4.3

30.6

8.35

NA

6.82

842

165

766

427

2.03

51.3

10.3

NA

28/02/08

6.83

797

152

690

437

1.83

66.7

9.01

NA

24/03/08

7.02
6.62

NA
796

150
191

342
858

13
352

0.01
1.69

15.72
37.1

6.54
7.5

5400000
5400000

08/10/07

5.5

NA

29/11/07

7.22

30/11/07

13/12/07
11/01/08

AVERAGE

NA

6.7

NA

675

1403

610

0.07

43

4.1

NA

29/11/07

7.23

575

59

284

111

4.31

18.6

3.02

NA

30/11/07

7.1

NA

50

246

101

0.9

17.6

0.58

NA

13/12/07

7.29

802

274

444

197

2.76

27.5

3.68

NA

11/01/08

7.47

673

311

308

244

3.57

30.6

3.65

NA

28/02/08

7.32

615

224

332

140

3.29

30.3

5.05

NA

24/03/08

7.47
7.23

NA
666

260
265

311
475

15
203

0.17
2.15

14.49
26.0

4.43
3.50

350000
350000

V1 OUT

08/10/07

7.3

NA

NA

NA

0.59

NA

0.04

NA

V2 OUT

08/10/07

NA

10

24

0.07

NA

0.61

NA

VI OUT

29/11/07

7.01

743

20

102

31.7

3.37

17.5

5.15

NA

V1 OUT

30/11/07

NA

65

27

0.3

9.8

0.4

NA

V2 OUT

30/11/07

NA

31

14

2.2

6.5

0.5

NA

V1 OUT

13/12/07

6.95

828

34

76

24

2.05

18

6.8

NA

V1 OUT

01/11/08

7.09

764

32

75

7.6

1.28

22.5

4.18

NA

V2 OUT

01/11/08

7.13

818

20

31

3.9

3.79

22.1

1.15

NA

V1 OUT

28/02/08

6.82

636

17

54

20

1.08

25.6

8.54

NA

V2 OUT

28/02/08

6.88

709

33

46

17

1.68

25.8

5.81

NA

V1 OUT

24/03/08

6.63

NA

35

90

0.19

14.07

4.42

920

V2 OUT
24/03/08
AVERAGE

6.55
6.95

NA
750

61
22.9

118
64.7

9
15.4

0.15
1.40

14.37
17.6

5.57
3.60

920
920

H1 OUT

10/08/07

6.9

NA

NA

NA

0.24

NA

0.23

NA

H2 OUT

10/08/07

7.2

NA

NA

NA

0.19

NA

0.23

NA

H1 OUT

29/11/07

7.15

790

16

62

14.4

2.2

12

4.2

NA

H1 OUT

30/11/07

NA

13

73

32

1.9

0.2

NA

H2 OUT

30/11/07

NA

23

46

21

0.5

7.8

0.27

NA

H1 OUT

13/12/07

7.09

785

32

5.4

1.38

6.69

2.75

NA

H2 OUT

13/12/07

7.15

738

29

4.2

1.72

5.38

2.24

NA

H1 OUT

01/11/08

7.4

686

25

3.2

0.8

17.9

0.35

NA

H2 OUT

01/11/08

7.37

722

39

3.8

1.35

17.7

0.4

NA

H1 OUT

28/02/08

7.07

641

26

21

11

0.57

20.8

9.33

NA

H2 OUT

28/02/08

7.35

631

33

28

0.92

19.4

5.14

NA

H1 OUT

24/03/08

6.92

NA

31

31

0.16

11.27

3.99

240

H2 OUT
24/03/08
AVERAGE

7.01
7.12

NA
713

27
14.3

50
39.6

3
9.7

0.41
0.95

9.83
11.9

2.63
2.46

49
145.0
NA

AERATION OUTLET

08/10/07

AVERAGE

10/08/07

NA

NA

NA

0.41

NA

0.16

29/11/07

8.48

550

37

53

19.2

3.17

0.34

0.88

NA

30/11/07

8.8

NA

57

68

33

1.8

2.6

0.02

NA

13/12/07

8.8

569

84

103

45

2.68

0.17

0.82

NA

01/11/08

8.8

616

21

7.4

3.19

5.32

0.99

NA

28/02/08

8.8

507

15

25

5.3

1.05

1.76

1.85

NA

24/03/08
AVERAGE
% REMOVAL EFFICIENCY
IRRIGATION GUIDELINES*

8.8
8.8

NA
561

140
48.6
75
45

44
52.3
94
90

2
18.7
95
30

0.23
1.8
-6
15

2.64
2.14
94
5

1.97
0.96
87
5

13
13
100
1000

IRR POND

V1 OUT
V2 OUT

5.0-9.0

1500

H1 OUT
OUTLET OF HORIZONTAL FILTER 1
H2 OUT
OUTLET OF HORIZONTAL FILTER 2
NA
NOT ANALYSED
GUIDELINES FOR IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY, GENERAL NOTICE N0 617 of 1999 FOR MAURITUS

OULET OF VERTICAL FILTER 1


OUTLET OF VERTICAL FILTER 2

IRRIGATION GUIDELINES*

128

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.5.1: St. Geran Hotel WWTP


The wastewater treatment plant of St Geran Hotel uses an activated sludge
process, and was commissioned in 2004. , The design capacity of the
treatment plant is 470 m3 d-1 and it receives an average flow of 450 m3 d-1.
The treated effluent is used for irrigating the hotel premises.
The main stages of the system are:
 Pretreatment consisting of screening and degreasing
 Aeration
 Clarification
 Filtration
 Chlorination
 Sludge is dried using the drying beds.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in January 2007 are given in the survey form in
Table B.5.2.

Photo B.5.1 Clarifier

129

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.5.2 Survey data for St. Geran Hotel WWTP


Parameter

Description

Unit

One & Only One St Geran Hotel

1 Name of Company

Belle Mare, East Coast

2 Location

2004

3 Date of plant commissioning

Activated Sludge System/ Sludge Thickening/


Chlorination

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

470

6 Average Flow

M3/day

450

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 470
Wastewater of hotel - sanitation, kitchen, etc.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

8.5

7.2

b BOD5

mg / L

400

0.9

c COD

mg / L

656

16.5

d TSS

mg / L

220

3.5

e NO3

mg / L

0.4

f NH3

mg / L

25

0.3

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

> 1800

< 10

h Conductivity

S/cm

640

150

Kwh / day

521

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Chlorine - 1.4

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
1158

a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated


b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

3.1

Results of analysis of grab sample in Jan 07

14 Comments

Treated effluent re-used for irigation of hotel

130

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.6.1: Touessrok Hotel WWTP


The wastewater treatment plant of Touessrok Hotel, which uses an activated
sludge process, was commissioned in 2003, with the aim to reuse the treated
effluent for irrigation of the hotel premises. The design capacity of the
treatment plant is 250 m3 d-1 and it receives an average flow of 200 m3 d-1.
The main stages of the system are:


An inlet works and equalisation tank

A degreaser

A set of anaerobic tanks of 500 m3 capacity

A biological tank

One clarifier (Photo B.6.1) with a surface area of 28.3 m2

A chlorine contact tank with an effective volume of about 15 m2.

The contact time within the tank is at least 15 minutes at peak flow.


A filtration system using pressure sand filters

Sludge is dried using the annexed drying beds.


Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and characteristics of the influent and effluent, as per
analysis of a grab sample in December 2007 are given in the survey form in
Table B.6. 2.

Photo B.6.1 Clarifier

Photo B.6.2 Drying Beds

131

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.6.2 Survey data for Touessrok Hotel WWTP


Parameter

Description

Unit

Le Touessrok Hotel

1 Name of Company

Trou D'Eau Douce, East Coast

2 Location

2003

3 Date of plant commissioning

Activated Sludge Process

4 Technology / Process
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

250

6 Average Flow

M3/day

225

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 250
Wastewater of hotel - sanitation, kitchen, etc.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

6.5

8.6

b BOD5

mg / L

900

c COD

mg / L

1349

d TSS

mg / L

400

9.6

e NO3

mg / L

0.43

0.46

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

5,000

<1

10 Power Consumption
11 Chemical Consumption

Kwh / day

576

Kg / day

Polyelectrolyte 3.5 kg/day


Granular Chlorine 1.35 kg/day

12 Manpower

no / day

13 Ratios
2304

a Kwh /1000 M3 water Treated


b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals
/1000 M3 water treated

21.3

Effluent meets norms for wastewater discharge for irrigation

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample, effected in July 07

132

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.7.1: Ile aux Cerfs WWTP


The Ile aux Cerfs (Photo B.7.1) WWTP was commissioned in 2003. An RBC
system (Photo B.7.2) is used to process the wastewater from the recreational
activities held on this islet, situated a few hundred meters away from
Touessrok Hotel. The treated effluent is used for the irrigation of the islet.
The process is made up of:
 Pre-treatment using a bar rack
 Equalization tank
 Clarification
 Disinfection using chlorine
 Filtration through pressurized sand filters
Sludge is removed and dried in the drying beds of the plant.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and characteristics of the influent and effluent, as per
analysis of a grab sample in August 2007 are given in the survey form in
Table B.7. 2.

Photo B.7.1 Approaching Ile aux Cerfs

Photo B.7.2 RBC unit at the rear of plant

133

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.7.2 Survey data for Ile aux Cerfs WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
Sun Resorts Ltd

1 Name of Company

Ile aux Cerfs

2 Location

2003

3 Date of plant commissioning

Anaerobic tank with RBC units

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

120

6 Average Flow

M3/day

100

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 120
Wastewater from recreational activities - sanitation, kitchen, etc.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

n/a

7.45

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

c COD

mg / L

n/a

19

d TSS

mg / L

n/a

9.2

e TKN

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f Oil & grease

mg / L

n/a

<1

g Nitrate (as N)

mg / L

n/a

1.4

h Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

<1

10 Power Consumption
11 Chemical Consumption

Kwh / day

176

Kg / day

Alum 15 -30 kg/day


Chlorine 30 kg/day at 10 % concentration

12 Manpower

0.3

no / day

13 Ratios
a Kwh /1000 M3 water Treated

73.3

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

470

Results of analysis of a grab sample effected in Aug 07

14 Comments

Effluent reused for irrigation

134

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.8.1: Coco Beach Hotel WWTP


The Coco Beach Hotel wastewater treatment plant was commissioned in
2004, with the aim to reuse the treated effluent for irrigation of the hotel
premises. The design capacity of the treatment plant is 470 m3 d-1 while the
average flow is 400 m3 d-1 and the process used is an activated sludge
system.
The process is made up of:
 pre-treatment using a bar rack and a grease removal system
 activated sludge process in an aeration tank (see Photo B.8.1)
 clarification (see Photo B.8.2)
 disinfection using chlorine
 filtration through pressurised sand filters
Sludge is removed and dried using the drying beds.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in December 2007 are given in the survey form
in Table B.8. 2.

Photo B.8.1 Aeration tank

Photo B.8.2 Clarifier

135

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.8.2 Survey data for Coco Beach Hotel WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
Coco Beach Hotel

1 Name of Company

Belle Mare

2 Location

2004

3 Date of plant commissioning

ASP , Sludge thickening & Chlorination

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

470

6 Average Flow

M3/day

470

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 470
Wastewater of hotel - sanitation, kitchen, etc.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

6.4

7.1

b BOD5

mg / L

500

1.2

c COD

mg / L

922

23

d TSS

mg / L

74

14

e NO3

mg / L

0.14

13.7

f NH3

mg / L

27.7

0.2

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

1700

48

h Conductivity

mg / L

675

490

Kwh / day

594 (est)

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Chlorine - 2 Kg

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
1264

a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated


b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

4.3

Results of analysis of grab sample in Dec 07

14 Comments

Treated effluent reused for irrigation of hotel premises

136

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.9.1: Sagar Hotels Le Meridien WWTP


The Le Meridien Hotel WWTP was commissioned in 2005 and uses an
activated sludge process. The treatment plant has a design capacity of 300
m3 d-1 and an average flow of 300 m3 d-1. The treated effluent is used for the
irrigation of the hotel premises.
The process consists of:
 Pre-treatment using a rotary screen
 A degreaser micro float type
 Equalization tank
 Aeration (see Photo B.9.1)
 Clarification
 Disinfection using chlorine
 Filtration through pressurized sand filters
 Drying beds for sludge removal thickening
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in Oct. 07 are given in the survey form in Table
B.9.2.

Photo B.9.1 Aeration tank at Hotel Le Meridien WWTP

137

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.9.2 Survey data for Sagar Hotels Le Meridien WWTP

Parameter

Unit

Description
Sagar Hotels Le Meridien

1 Name of Company

Pointe aux Piments

2 Location

2005

3 Date of plant commissioning

Activated Sludge Process

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

300

6 Average Flow

M3/day

300

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

200-300
Wastewater of hotel - sanitation, kitchen, etc.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

<7.5

7.5

b BOD5

mg / L

<500

10

c COD

mg / L

<1000

26

d TSS

mg / L

<250

45

e NO3

mg / L

n/a

19

f NH3

mg / L

<40

10

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

<1800

<90

h Orthophosphate

mg / L

<20

<10

Kwh / day

520 (est)

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Chlorine - 4 Kg

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
1733

a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated


b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
c
1000 M3 water treated

13.3

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample in Jan 08.


Treated effluent reused for irrigation of hotel premises

138

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.10.1: Phoenix Breweries Ltd WWTP


The Phoenix Beverage Ltd wastewater treatment plant was commissioned in
2004. An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket system is used to process the
wastewater of the Brewery factory. The design capacity of the treatment plant
is 2300 m3 d-1 and it receives an average flow of 837 m3 d-1. The treated
effluent is suitable for discharge in the municipal sewer. One of the objective
of the anaerobic wastewater treatment plant is also to remove about 85
90% of the total BOD and COD and to produce a corresponding biogas with a
methane content of + or 85 %. Presently the biogas produced is being
flared but an option for reutilization depends on the client.
The process consists of:
 Pre-treatment using a Screen Extractor
 Equalization tank with pH correction
 Anaerobic treatment in an UASB reactor
 Discharge in the municipal sewer
Sludge is removed as and when required by pumping to tankers.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in February 2008 are given in the survey form
in Table B.10.2.

Photo B.10.1 UASB Reactor

139

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.10.2 Survey data for Phoenix Breweries LTD WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
Phoenix Breweries Ltd

1 Name of Company

Phoenix

2 Location

2004

3 Date of plant commissioning

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

2300

6 Average Flow

M3/day

837

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 to 70 M3 /hr
Brewery wastewaters, no sanitation wastes

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

6.8

7.0

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

241

c COD

mg / L

2800

531

d TSS

mg / L

>100

47

e NO3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

n/a

h Oil & Grease

mg / L

n/a

75

mg / L

n/a

56

i TKN

Kwh / day

150 (est)

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

HCL - 50 Kg/day, NaOH - 70 Kg /day

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

24.0

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

143.4

Results of analysis of grab sample on 10 Feb 08.

14 Comments

Effluent meets norms for discharge to sewer.

140

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.11.1: Phoenix Camp Minerals Ltd WWTP


The

Phoenix

Camp

Minerals

Ltd

wastewater

treatment

plant

was

commissioned in 2004. An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket system is used


to process the wastewater of the soft drinks factory. The design capacity of
the treatment plant is 600 m3 /day and it receives an average flow of 480
m3/day.The treated effluent is suitable for discharge in the municipal sewer.
The process consists of:
 Pre-treatment using a Screen Extractor
 Equalization tank with pH correction
 Anaerobic treatment in an UASB reactor
 Discharge in the municipal sewer
Sludge is removed as and when required by pumping to tankers.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in February 2008 are given in the survey form
in Table B.11.2.

Photo B.11.1 UASB Reactor

141

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.11.2 Survey data for Phoenix Camp Minerals LTD WWTP

Parameter

Unit

Description
Phoenix Camp Minerals Ltd (PCM)

1 Name of Company

Phoenix

2 Location

2004

3 Date of plant commissioning

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

600

6 Average Flow

M3/day

480

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 600
Soft Drink factory wastewaters, no sanitation wastes

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics

Influent

Effluent

a pH

6 - 11

6.8

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

210

c COD

mg / L

3333

442

d TSS

mg / L

n/a

73

e NO3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

n/a

h Oil & Grease

mg / L

n/a

57

mg / L

n/a

40

i TKN

Kwh / day

132 (est)

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

HCL - 48 Kg/day, NaOH - 26 Kg /day

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

24.0

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

154

Results of analysis of grab sample on 12 Feb 08.

14 Comments

Effluent meets norms for discharge to sewer.

142

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.12.1: Food and Allied Industries Ltd WWTP


The wastewater treatment plant at the Food and Allied Industries Ltd, which
uses a physico-chemical process, was commissioned in June 2005, to treat
the effluent to the standard of discharge into the municipal sewer. The design
capacity of the treatment plant to treat the effluent from chicken slaughtering
and processing, is 600 m3 d-1 and it receives an average flow of 335 m3 d-1.
The main stages of the system are:
 An influent sump
 A horizontal Rotary screen
 An equalisation tank
 A Dissolved Air Flotation unit with the addition of coagulant and
polyelectrolyte
 Scum and grease removal incorporated in the DAF unit
 Effluent Discharge in the municipal sewer
The sludge is discarded at landfill.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and characteristics of the influent and effluent, as per
analysis of a grab sample in Nov 07 are given in the survey form in Table
B.12. 2

Photo B.12.1 DAF unit

143

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.12.2 Survey data for Food and Allied industries Ltd WWTP
Parameter

Unit

Description
FAIL

1 Name of Company

PHOENIX

2 Location

Plant re-conditioned in June 2005

3 Date of plant commissioning

Physico-chemical

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

600

6 Average Flow

M3/day

335

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

350 -450
Waste water of Poultry factory

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

5.8

6.4

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

n/a

c COD

mg / L

3417

64

d TSS

mg / L

984

28

e TKN

mg / L

384

78

mg / L

417

56

g Phosphate

mg / L

27.1

6.8

h Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

n/a

f Oil & grease

10 Power Consumption
11 Chemical Consumption

Kwh / day

234

Kg / day

Polyelectrolyte Cationic 2.0 kg/day


Polyelectrolyte Anionic 0.7 kg/day
Coagulant 1 kg/day and Lime 2 kg/day

12 Manpower

no / day

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

77

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
c
1000 M3 water treated

17.1

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample effected on Nov 21, 2007


The effluent meets the norms for waste water discharge to
the sewer except for TKN due to high blood concentration

144

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.13.1: Poulet Arc en Ciel Ltd WWTP


The WWTP at the Poulet Arc En Ciel Ltd, a chicken slaughter factory, uses
an activated sludge process and was commissioned in 2004 to treat the
effluent to the required standard for discharge into the nearby river. The
design capacity of the treatment plant is 190 m3 d-1 and it receives an
average flow of 125 m3 d-1.
The main stages of the system are:
 Pre-treatment consisting of screening and degreasing
 pH correction using caustic soda
 Aeration
 Clarification
 Sludge thickening
 Chlorination
 Discharge in surface water/river
Sludge is dried using the drying beds
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in Nov. 07 are given in the survey form in Table
B13. 2.

Photo B.13.1 Drying bed

145

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.13.2 Survey data for Poulet Arc en Ciel WWTP


Parameter

Description

Unit

POULET ARC EN CIEL

1 Name of Company

BEAU VALLON

2 Location

2004

3 Date of plant commissioning

Activated sludge

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

190

6 Average Flow

M3/day

100 - 150

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 190
Waste water of Poultry factory

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

6.1

5.9

b BOD5

mg / L

593

25

c COD

mg / L

1424

64

d TSS

mg / L

421

38

e NO3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g Faecal Coliforms

Count /
100 ml

n/a

n/a

h Oil & grease

mg / L

103

36

mg / L

143

26

i TKN

10 Power Consumption
11 Chemical Consumption

Kwh / day

184 (est)

Kg / day

Caustic soda 17 kg/day


Chlorine 30 kg/day at 10 % concentration

12 Manpower

no / day

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

121

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
c
1000 M3 water treated

314

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample effected on 14 Dec 2007.


Effluent meets the norms for waste water discharge to sewer.

146

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.14.1: Thon Des Mascareignes WWTP


Effluent Treatment Plant at Thon des Mascareignes Ltd
Thon des Mascareignes Ltd, a tuna factory located in Port Louis, processes
an average of 200 tonnes of fish per day. Around 600 m3 of wastewater from
the fish processing units are directed towards the effluent treatment plant
prior to evacuation in the municipal sewer system. The wastewater consists of
oil and grease, blood, fish proteins and coarse solid materials.
As the influent COD is very high, the treatment process at the Thon des
Mascareignes ETP was designed to comprise both anaerobic and aerobic
treatment processes (see flowchart in Fig B.14.1 below). Wastewater from the
factory normally originates from the storage area where fish are left to thaw
and from cutting section. A high volume of wastewater is obtained from the
cookers and when the factory is washed.
Description of Process
The treatment process consists of:
a) pre-treatment, which includes screening and removal of oil and
grease
b) anaerobic treatment
c) aerobic treatment
Pre-treatment
After screening, the wastewater is then pumped from the influent sump at a
constant rate to the Dissolved Air Floatation (DAF) unit. This technology uses
a combination of pressurised air and water to drive oil, fats and grease at the

147

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

surface of a tank which is subsequently scraped away and stored in a grease


tank which is finally dewatered and disposed.
Anaerobic Treatment
The anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, also known as biological
methane generation, is a microbial process where the substrate, which
consists of soluble or insoluble complex organic matter, is converted to
methane and carbon dioxide. Complex organic matters in the wastewater are
hydrolysed into simpler molecules and undergo a number of intermediate
reactions/conversions before being converted into methane gas and carbon
dioxide.
At the Thon des Mascareignes ETP, the anaerobic process starts in the
Equalisation Tank. Wastewater is then pumped into the Upflow Anaerobic
Contactor which consists of an expanded bed of anaerobic methanogenic
micro organisms. Correction of pH prior to entry in UAC is done to maintain a
pH of 7.0-7.5 in the UAC for optimal microbial activity. As the water flows
upwards in the UAC, micro organisms act on the organic matter thereby
reducing the organic load drastically. The methane produced is flared.
The effluent of the UAC moves to a primary clarifier (see Photo B.14.1) where
the sludge in the effluent settles at the bottom and is recycled into the UAC.
This prevents loss of anaerobic sludge.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Aerobic Treatment
The aerobic treatment at the Thon des Mascareignes uses the activated
sludge system to remove nutrients such as Total Kjedahl Nitrogen and
phosphorus from the wastewater and part of organic matter.
The aerobic treatment unit on the ETP consists of a denitrification (or anoxic)
basin, an aeration-nitrification basin and a final clarifier. Ammonia nitrogen is
oxidised to nitrate in the aeration tank. Nitrate is removed after recycling in
the anoxic basin where micro organisms oxidise incoming organic matter with
nitrate instead of oxygen thereby converting nitrate to nitrogen gas.
Sludge flows into the clarifier in the mixed liquor, settles at the bottom of the
clarifier and is recycled into the anoxic basin. The final overflow from the
clarifier is eventually pumped into the municipal sewer system.

Sludge Treatment
Excess sludge from aerobic and anaerobic treatments, and fats, oil and
grease from DAF are stored in a dedicated tank. The sludge is pumped into a
decanter centrifuge which spins at 5000 rpm to dewater the sludge. The solid
material is collected in plastics bags while the liquid flows back to the influent
sump.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Influent and effluent characteristics


A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in January 2008 is given in the survey form in
Table B.14. 1

Photo

Photo B.14.1 Clarifier at TDM

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

WW under treatment

Polyelectrolyte

DAF

Raw
Wast
ewat

Screw
Screen

Caustic
soda for
pH
correction

Equalisation
Tank

Influent
Sump

Upflow
Anaerobic

Contactor

Effluent
Holding

tank

Anoxic

To
Sewer

Effluent
Retention
Tank

Tank

Aeration Tank
Clarifier

Primary
Clarifier

Fig B.14.1 Schematic of Thon des Mascareignes Effluent Treatment Plant

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.14.2 Survey data for Thon des Mascareignes WWTP


Parameter

Description

Unit

Thon Des Mascareignes

1 Name of Company

Quay D Port-Louis

2 Location

Jul-05

3 Date of plant commissioning

UASB followed by Activated Sludge

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

456

6 Average Flow

M3/day

407

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 to 19 M3 /hr
Waste water of tuna canning factory with high
concentration of grease and blood

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics

Influent

Effluent

a pH

6.5 to 7

78.3

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

100

c COD

mg / L

10000 - 13000

185

d TSS

mg / L

1000 - 10000

32

e TKN

mg / L

>200

79

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

n/a

h Oil & Grease

mg / L

n/a

8.6

i Conductivity

S/cm

n/a

3200

10 Power Consumption
11 Chemical Consumption

Kwh / day

1224

Kg / day

Polyelectrolyte - 0.5 kg
NaOH - 180 kg

12 Manpower

no / day

4 (on shift system)

13 Ratios
a Kwh / M3 water Treated

111

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n /a

Kg Chemicals /
c
M3 water treated

401

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample in Jan08.


Effluent is discharged in municipal sewer.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.15.1: SOFAP Ltd WWTP


The SOFAP Ltd WWTP (Photo B.15.1), which uses a physico-chemical
process, was commissioned in 2002, with an aim to bring the treated effluent
to the standard for discharge into the municipal sewer. SOFAP Ltd is a paint
manufacturing company and the washings of the paint preparation tanks are
the only effluent of the treatment plant. The design capacity of the plant is 40
m3 d-1 and it receives an average flow of 30 m3 d-1.
The main stages of the system are:
 A lifting sump with a mixer
 Buffer tanks
 On line coagulation injection
 Polyelectrolyte dosing in reactors with mixers
 Clarifier
 Degasifier
 Effluent Discharge in the municipal sewer
The sludge is carted away to landfill.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample in January 2008 are given in the survey form in
Table B.15.2.

Photo B.15.1 SOFAP Ltd WWTP

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.15.2 Survey data for SOFAP LTD WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
SOFAP LTD - PERMOGLAZE

1 Name of Company

Coromandel

2 Location

2002

3 Date of plant commissioning

Physico - chemical

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

40

6 Average Flow

M3/day

30

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 to 40
Wastewater of paint factory, without sanitation

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

n/a

7.4

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

185

c COD

mg / L

4359

620

d TSS

mg / L

n/a

20

e NO3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

n/a

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

n/a

h Phosphate

mg / L

n/a

1.0

mg / L

n/a

17.5

i TKN

Kwh / day

216 (est)

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Polyelectrolyte - 0.5 Kg, PAC - 0.5 kg

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

450

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

34

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample in Jan 08.


Effluent meets norms for discharge to sewer.

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.16.1 Medine S.E. WWTP


A set of ponds is used in Medine SE, a sugar estate located in the western
part of the island, for the processing of the effluent from its sugar factory,
cooling tower and boilers, before its re-use for irrigation purposes. The
wastewater passes first through a settling pond, where about 300 tons of
sludge are removed every week and sent to the fields. The water then flows
successively through all the four ponds under gravity, before being pumped
away for irrigation purposes.
The main stages of the process are:
 Settling pond
 Flow by gravity through WSP (set of four ponds)
 Effluent reuse for irrigation
Sludge is removed from the WSPs yearly for pond 1(see Photo B.16.1),
every two years for pond 2, and every 7 to 10 years for ponds 3 & 4 and
sent to the sugar cane fields.
A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per average results of the analysis of 20 grab sample between 1 Aug and 28
Nov 2007 are given in the survey form in Table B.I6.2.

Photo B.16.1 Pond 1 dried up

155

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.16.2 Survey data for Medine S.E. WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
Medine S E

1 Name of Company

Medine

2 Location

Jun-05

3 Date of plant commissioning

Waste Stablisation Ponds

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

550 M3 / hr

6 Average Flow

M3/day

385 M3 / hr

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

275 - 425 M3 / hr (between 1 Aug to 28 Nov 07)


Waste from sugar factory, cooling tower, boilers, etc.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

7.0

6.9

b BOD5

mg / L

N/A

N/A

c COD

mg / L

122

40

d TSS

mg / L

228

29

e NO3

mg / L

N/A

N/A

f NH3

mg / L

N/A

N/A

Count
/100 ml

N/A

N/A

g VFA
h Faecal Coliforms

Kwh / day

Nil

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Nil

12 Manpower

No / day

0.5

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water treated

Nil

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

Nil

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

Nil

Results represent average of some 20 grab samples,


collected between 1 Aug and 28 Nov 2007, once to twice
weekly.

13 Comments

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.17.1 Deep River Beau Champ (DRBC) WWTP


The

Deep

River

Beau

Champs

wastewater

treatment

plant

was

commissioned in 2003 and uses a Rotating Biological Discs system. It


receives effluent from the sugar factory during cutting season and also
effluent from the power station on site. The design capacity of the treatment
plant is 1200 m3/day with an average flow of 1000 m3/day. The treated
effluent is used for the irrigation of the golf premises at Ile Aux Cerfs.
The process consists of:
 Sedimentation ponds
 A series of two anaerobic ponds
 An aerobic pond (see Photo B.18.1)
 Two pairs of Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) with alum dosage
for precipitation and decantation of sludge
 Disinfection - Chlorination
Oil and grease with debris from mainly the power station which are removed
in the sedimentation ponds are carted away to landfill.
Influent and effluent characteristics
A summary of key data and characteristics of the influent and effluent, as per
analysis of a grab sample in November 2007 are given in the survey form in
Table B.I7.2.

Photo B.17.1 Surface aerator in the aeration pond

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Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.17.2 Survey Data for DRBC WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
DRBC Ltd

1 Name of Company

Deep River Beau Champ

2 Location

2003

3 Date of plant commissioning

Rotating Biological Discs System (RBC)

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

1200

6 Average Flow

M3/day

1000 - 1200 (during harvest season)

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

0 - 1200
Wastewaters from sugar cane processing plant, and
power station at CIEL.

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent

Effluent

7.2

7.3

b BOD5

mg / L

120

<0.5

c COD

mg / L

320

<5

d TSS

mg / L

100

10

e NO3

mg / L

0.26

1.54

f NH3

mg / L

n/a

0.7

g Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

<1

h Oil & Grease

mg / L

n/a

<1

mg / L

n/a

n/a

i TKN

Kwh / day

702 (est)

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

24

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water Treated

24.0

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals /
1000 M3 water treated

65.6

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample in November 2007


Effluent meets norms for discharge to sewer.

158

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

B.18.1 Airports of Mauritius Ltd WWTP


The plant is situated in the airport area in the South East of the island, and
has a design capacity of 1300 m3 d-1. It uses an activated sludge process,
and was commissioned in February 2008. It is presently running at a reduced
rate of 480 m3 d-1 but will cater for all the wastewater generated as the
activities in the airport area gradually increase. The wastewater that is
currently treated in the plant consists of effluent from the catering services,
administration buildings, stores, maintenance workshops, aircraft discharge
etc of the airport area.
The influent is characterised by a large quantity of chemically treated
wastewater originating from the aircraft being serviced at the airport. This
waste contains large quantities of biocides and disinfectants, and it is dosed
to the works under controlled conditions to avoid upsetting of the treatment
process. The treatment effluent is used for irrigation on the airport premises.
The biological wastewater treatment process is the Modified UCT process
which was developed by the University of Cape Town. The Modified UCT
process has its objectives the removal of primary nutrients (carbon, nitrogen
and phosphorus) from the wastewater.
The main stages of the operation are:
 An inlet works comprising screening and degritting
 Biological reactor (see Photo B.18.1)
 Secondary Settling Tank
 Chlorine Contact Tank
 Filtration
 Dewatering
 Irrigation Tank
The treated effluent is stored in an irrigation tank used on the premises of the
airport.

159

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Influent and effluent characteristics


A summary of key data and the characteristics of the influent and effluent, as
per analysis of a grab sample on 23 January 2008 are given in the survey
form in Table B.18.2.

Photo B.18.1 Anaerobic reactor at AML

160

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

Table B.18.2 Survey data for Airports of Mauritius WWTP


Parameter

Unit

Description
Airports of Mauritius Ltd (AML)

1 Name of Company

Plaine Magnien, South East

2 Location

Feb-07

3 Date of plant commissioning

Anaerobic / Aerobic processes , with dewatering of sludge

4 Process / Technology
5 Design Capacity

M3/day

1500

6 Average Flow

M3/day

480

7 Min - Max Flow

M3/day

300 - 1500
Airport area and aircraft discharge effluent

8 Nature of plant effluent

9 Water characteristics
a pH

Influent/ Aircraft

Effluent

7.2 / 7.5

7.5

b BOD5

mg / L

n/a

n/a

c COD

mg / L

1416 / 1947

20

d TSS

mg / L

280 / 102.5

e NO3

mg / L

n/a

3.2

f NH3

mg / L

26.7 / 570

3.5

n/a

n/a

g Conductivity
h Faecal Coliforms

Count
/100 ml

n/a

170

i Orthophosphate

mg / L

38 / 19

14.5

j TKN

mg / L

81.5 / 505

Kwh / day

1080

11 Chemical Consumption

Kg / day

Chlorine 4 kg, Polyelectrolyte 2 kg

12 Manpower

no / day

10 Power Consumption

13 Ratios
a Kwh / 1000 M3 water treated

94

b Kwh / Kg BOD5 removed

n/a

Kg Chemicals/
1000 M3 water treated

15

14 Comments

Results of analysis of grab sample effected on 23 Jan 2008


Treated effluent reused for irrigation and airport premises.

161

Low-Cost Low-Energy and Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Developing Countries

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