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Serviceability in terms of perception of sway in strong winds would certainly be

checked by any designer proposing a building of this height - indeed, much lower

buildings have encountered criticism in this respect, in cases of unusual slenderness or

exceptionally exposed location. Because subjective comfort is a very ' soft' criterion,

a preliminary check will usually be made using such generalised procedures as are

available to the designer. The EN notation is used here: vm= mean speed,

Iv=intensity of turbulence (use UK NA figs NA3/4/5/6).

first check is on the margin between the potential frequency of periodic vortex

shedding (nw. say), and the natural frequency of the structure,(n1). nvs is

proportional to the wind-speed V, according to the 'reduced velocity' VR=V/nvab for

the given prismatic shape; VR""" 5 for circular sections, VR = 6.5 to 8 for rectangular

sections, where b is the width facing the wind. The relevant velocity is the value that

can be sustained for 20 or 30 seconds, evaluated at a 'representative' height (say

z=0.6h EN Annex B): V=(l+1.5 lv)Vm is reasonable. For a comfort check the

design value can be reduced for an appropriate return period r (say); typiCally

r-5years. The UK NA endorses EN exp 4.2, so the reduction factor on' speed is

{(1+0.2ln r)/(1+0.2ln 50)} 0~. A margin of at least 300/o is desirable between nvs and

na; otherwise a special study, and then probably extra damping, will be required.

'

components of turbulence, interacting with flow separations, commonly cause.

crosswind accelerations greater than alongwind. However, the availability of

relatively robust analytical models of alongwind response (papers of Davenport,

Wyatt, and others; also EN1991-1-4 Annex B) encourage their use for the preliminary

check. The gust response is very broad-band in frequency. The low frequency part,

characterised as ' background' 'B', makes little contribution to acceleration

(reminder, a=ym2) . Attention therefore focuses on the '(quasi) resonant' contribution,

arising from excitation over a narrow band frequencies centred on the natural

frequency; this is characterised 'R' or 'narrow-band' 'N'. The actual defining

equations forB and R in the EN formulation are

crB(Y) 21 B

Ym

crN(y) = 21 R

v

Ym

in which as, aN are the nns values of the broad-band and narrow-band contributions

to response y, respectively. The factor 2 follows from linearisation of the basic

speed, F=K(vm+Av)2

relationship of wind force to wind

\

The resonant response is evaluated through the power spectrum; in general this

describes how the mean square value of the process, a 2, is an integration of frequency

components; by definition

oO

0

which is best expressed in the form advocated by Davenport (cfEN exp B2 & fig Bl)

..,

J nS (n)

v

d(log n) = 1

2

- ao

av

This integral will be seen to be the area under the plot on logarithmic abscissa.

In view of this relationship, most spectral operations focus on the square of the

respective physical quantity; hence the format of the expressions for B2, R2 (EN exp.

B3, B6). Note, however, that care is necessary in comparing the EN with most

conventional presentations; notations SL, Rb, R.., ,1] are anomalous (see Appendix).

Expression B6 for R2 thus comprises

- dynamic magnifier (on square of response);(~ is damping log dec)

- wind speed spectral value at the resonant frequency

- allowance for spatial correlation (aerodynamic admittance) (R2=RnRI,).

which is commonly >> 1 (for example, for a 250m building, wind speed 25mls,

frequency 0.20Hz. T)b=250/[25/4.6x0.20]=9) so that the value ofR2 is dominated by

the first te~ lll)h. giving R..,<<l. Rb is similar, but has less impact on the outcome.

If the mean tip deflection (ym) for the given wind speed is already known, or can

plausibly be scaled from existing work in proportion to the square of the nominal

wind speeds at height z.s=0.6h (5-year design mean speed and (1+31v)times the 50 year

value respectively}, the nns narrow-band tif displacement amplitude follows as

21vRYm. and thence the rms acceleration (m times displacement amplitude).

Alternatively, expression B10 expresses the same process. This expression assumes

that the mode shape <P is norinalised to unity at the tip (see B4(3) NOTE). The

refinement ofKx is superfluous; ziz.o is of order 1000, and a sufficient

generalisation is Kx=(1 +2Q/(l +Q. For buildings with a typical balance of shear and

bending deformation, it is common for preliminary design to assume a 'straight-line'

mode shape, C=1 giving Kx=l.5. If bending is dominant, C=I.5 is more appropriate,

or C=0.5 for shear-dominant cases.

occurrence (return period), there remains th~ question of an acceptable limit. This is

the least satisfactory part of the process. The attached chart has been repeated very

many times with minor changes. It will be noted that it focuses on peak value,

usually evaluated as ga. (in the EN, kp replaces the more usual 'g'). For this

application the up-crossing frequency should be taken as the natural frequency and the

exposure timeT as not less than 1 hour; g is usually taken not less than 3.4. The

criterion is commonly expressed in milli-g, units of0.010m/s2 . Other

recommendations about subjective sensitivity to.motion generally use the i-ms, which

is a more robust measure statistically, but use of the peak value has a Jong history. It

has been argued that peak value is more appropriate for the case of building sway

dominated by two modal motions at right-angles in plan. It is surprising that the

given values are independent of frequency, despite the widespread opinion elsewhere

that sensitivity to acceleration in lateral sway diminishes as the frequency is reduced

below about 1Hz (cfprevious handout on subjective comfort).

..

Appendix

Relation of Eurocode to mainstream format

The EN normalised form of the spectrum (EN Exp. B2) differs from the Harris~von

Karman for that is more familiar to wind engineers (the ESDU Data Items are widely

accepted), but gives similar values in the region of fundamental frequencies of tall

buildings 0.5<fL<3. More controversial is the integral scale parameter L; other

authorities (e.g. ESDU) suggest a greater sensitivity to terrain roughness, with larger

values for 'town'. This would reduce the.narrow~band response in this terrain.

The analogous scaling parameter for the resonant frequency component (~spectral

integral scale Ln) that expresses the spatial correlation of the resonant excitation is

also widely argued. It is commonly expressed as Lu=vn/Cn, in which C is a numerical

constant; typically 4<C<10. The normalised cospectrum P,.(n) (say) is a function of

the separation A. between any two points under consideration, and Ln=JP,.(n)dn (limits

0 to oo). It wiU be seen that if~ can be approximated as an exponential decay

function exp(~CnN'vm), this gives Ln=va/Cn as above. This has led many to view C as

the 'exponential decay constant'; exponential decay is not magic, but the numerical

value of C is central to practical evaluation of dynamic response.

For wind speeds in fre~stream well above the ground, there is theoretical basis for

C=8.9. On encounter of an obstacle such as a building. a gust 'spreads out', giving

C=4.5 to 6.0 for pressures on the upwind face. The form of the algebraic expression

B7 matches the ailalytic solution for a uniformly~weighted load effect with the

substitution l}b=h/2Ln (and B8likewise, for b). As noted earlier, the EN formulation

can be written TJb=h/(vn/4.6ni), which would imply Ln=vn/9.2n~, or C=9.2.

As a larger value of C implies smaller Ln and thus reduced gust correlation, this is

potentially non~conservative. The discrepancy would be larger in the~ of load

effect weighted in accordance with a likely mode shape function. The potential

compensating factor is that the force coefficient cr includes the loading on the rear

(downwind) face, which will be less responsive to the incoming gusts, but this has not

been widely reviewed; caution is advised!

References

Wyatt, in AJ. Kappos (Ed.) Dynamic Loading and Design of Structures (Spon, 2002)

para 3.1, also in Wind Engineering in the eighties (CIRIA London 1980).

Dyrbye & Hansen, Wind Loads on Structures (Wiley, 1997) Chapter 6.

Wind Structure; Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence . . . single point data, . ..

ESDU Data Item 85020 RevE 1990, ESDU International London 1990.

''

Characteristics of atmospheric turb'e ...variations in space and time.

ESDU Data Item 86010, idem, 1986

The original Davenport papers are also highly illuminating. Proc. ICE, 1961 19 (Aug),

Proc. ICE 1986, 23 (Nov), 1964 28 (June)

...

1: OFFICE OCCUPANCY

2: RESmENnALOCCUPANCY

40

-~

at

NBCC RECOMMENDAnONS

30

I=

..J

20

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HANSON, REED,

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a:

:X:

~

:3

Q.

10

EMPIRE

STATE

EXPERIENCE

(DAVENPORT)

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V"!/1: ~t

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Q~lil:o.O#e. Jl.a~ IJtUte-i V~ J(ot;tu. 's eJ..-4 l TIJO- I&SC. &IJ~7-101, 1"11

1k ~

--=-"'"--....:= __

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(CHEN & ROBERTSON)

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0.1

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I

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4, .I:!St ~. e4 1 ~;./; ~ ir, ~4.. ,~

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