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Elective Course: Robotics and Object Tracking

KUMAR MAYANK

Assistant Professor
ECE Dept
Delhi Technological
University
02-02-2015

Kumar Mayank

Syllabus for Mid Semesters(26/02/2015)

Introduction to Robotics
Mathematical Modelling

Rigid Motions and Homogeneous Transformations

Forward and Inverse Kinematics
Velocity Kinematics
Path and Trajectory Planning
Dynamics

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Robot Definition
A robot is a reprogrammable
multifunctional manipulator
designed to move material, parts,
tools, or specialized devices
through variable programmed
motions for the performance of a

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ROBOTS

Symbolic Representation of Robots
Robot Manipulators are composed of
links connected by joints to form a
kinematic chain.
Revolute joint(R) = Joint is like a hinge
and allows relative rotation between
two links. (Joint variable = theta)
Prismatic joint(P) = linear relative
variable = d)
Joint variable = Relative displacement
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Controller Resolution

Smallest increment of motion that

the controller can sense
Resolution is computed as the
total distance travelled by the tip divided
by 2^n(where n is the number of bits of
encoder accuracy)
Prismatic joints, typically have
higher resolution than revolute joints,
since the straight line distance traversed by
the tip of a linear axis between two points
is less than the corresponding arc length
traced by the tip of a rotational link.
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Problem 1
Referring to right hand side Figure , suppose that the tip of a single link travels a
distance d between two points. A linear axis would travel the distance d while a
rotational link would travel through an arc length l as shown left hand side figure.
Using the law of cosines show that the distance d(represented by c in the figure) is
given by

which is of course less than l . With 10-bit accuracy and l = 1m, = 90 what is the resolution of the

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Problem 2 : A single-link revolute arm is shown in Figure . If the

length of the link is 50 cm and the arm travels 180 degree? what is
the control resolution obtained with an 8-bit encoder?

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Wrists and End Effectors

Wrist (Revolute Joints) = Joints in
the kinematic chain between the
arm and end effector
Spherical wrists : Three joint axes
intersect at a common point

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Configuration Space
Configuration of a manipulator = Complete specification of the location of every
point on the manipulator.
Configuration space = Set of all possible configurations

Degrees-of-freedom (DOF) = Configuration that can be minimally specified by n

parameters.
Example: Arm = 6 DOF - three for positioning and three for orientation (e.g.,
roll, pitch and yaw angles)
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Workspace

Workspace of a manipulator is the total volume swept out by the

endeffector as the manipulator executes all possible motions.
Reachable workspace : Entire set of points reachable by the manipulator.
Dexterous workspace : Points that the manipulator can reach with an
arbitrary orientation of the end-effector.

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Classification of Robotic Manipulators

1) Power Source
Electrically Powered = DC or AC Servo motors
Hydraulically Powered = for lifting heavy loads
(Drawback: require more maintenance due to leakage of hydraulic fluid)
Pneumatic powered = Inexpensive and simple but cannot be controlled
precisely.
2) Application Area
Assembly robots = small, electrically driven and either revolute or SCARA
(Selective Compliant Articulated Robot for Assembly) in design
Non-Assembly robots = welding, spray painting, material handling, and
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Classification of Robotic Manipulators(Cont)

3) Method of Control
Non-servo robots : Open-loop devices whose movement is limited to
predetermined mechanical stops
(generally used for materials transfer)
Servo robots
: closed-loop computer control to determine their
motion and are thus capable of being truly
multifunctional, reprogrammable devices
Point-to-Point robot = no control on the path of the
end-effector in between taught points
Continuous path robots = entire path of the endeffector can be controlled
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Classification of Robotic Manipulators(Cont)

4) Geometry
Articulated (RRR)
Spherical (RRP)
SCARA (RRP)
Cylindrical (RPP)
Cartesian (PPP)
Parallel robot = links are arranged in a closed rather than open kinematic
chain
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Articulated manipulator (RRR)

(Revolute, or Anthropomorphic manipulator)
Revolute manipulator provides for relatively large
freedom of movement in a compact space
Figure : Elbow manipulator
design

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Articulated manipulator (RRR) ( Continued)

(Revolute, or Anthropomorphic manipulator)
design
z2 is parallel to z1
z1 and z2 are perpendicular to z0

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Spherical Manipulator (RRP)

[Ex: Stanford Arm]

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Spherical Manipulator (RRP) : Replace the third or elbow joint

in the revolute manipulator by a prismatic joint to obtain the spherical
manipulator
Revolute manipulator(RRR)

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Spherical manipulator(RRP)

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SCARA(Selective Compliant Articulated Robot

for Assembly) Manipulator (RRP)

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Difference Between Spherical Manipulator (RRP)

and SCARA Manipulator (RRP)
Workspace of the spherical
manipulator

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manipulator

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Difference Between Spherical Manipulator (RRP)

and SCARA Manipulator (RRP)
Spherical manipulator
z0 perpendicular to z1, and z1
perpendicular to z2

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SCARA Manipulator
z0, z1, and z2 mutually
parallel

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Cartesian manipulator (PPP)

Generally used during transfer of
materials or cargo in shipyards.

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Parallel Manipulator
Some subset of the links form a closed chain.
It has two or more independent kinematic chains
connecting the base to the end-effector
Closed chain kinematics of parallel robots can result
in greater structural rigidity, and hence greater
accuracy, than open chain robots.

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It helps to determine the position and orientation of the end-effector in

terms of the joint variables.
The coordinates (x, y) of the tool are expressed in this

Alpha 1 and 2 are the lengths of the two links

Orientation of the tool frame relative to the base frame
is given by the direction cosines of the x2 and y2 axes
relative to the x0 and y0 axes

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Forward Kinematics Equations (Continued..)

Orientation of the tool frame relative to the base frame can be rewritten in the
following matrix form

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Find the direction cosines and direction angles of the vector

-8i+3j+2k.

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Inverse Kinematics

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Inverse Kinematics

Given the joint angles 1, 2 we can determine the end-effector

coordinates x and y(+veElbow Up, -ve Elbow Down) Find 1??
Ans: Using cosine formula solve for 1. Cos(90- 1)=()

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Inverse Kinematics (Problem solution)

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Velocity Kinematics
This tool helps us to know the relationship between the velocity of the tool and the joint velocities.
Differentiate eqn (1.1 and 1.2) to get

Using the vector notation

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Velocity Kinematics(Continued.)

Joint velocities are found from the end-effector velocities via the inverse Jacobian

where inverse J is

Where c and s denote respectively cos

and sin .
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Velocity Kinematics(Continued.)
When 2 =0 then the
manipulator is said to be in a
singular configuration

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manipulator of Figure suppose 1 = 2 = 1.
Find the coordinates of the tool
when
Find the joint angles 1, 2
when the tool is located at
coordinates
{Inverse Kine.}
If the joint velocities are
constant at
what is the velocity of the tool ?
What is the instantaneous tool
velocity when
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