Robotics Lecture 1

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Robotics Lecture 1

© All Rights Reserved

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KUMAR MAYANK

Assistant Professor

ECE Dept

Delhi Technological

University

02-02-2015

Kumar Mayank

Introduction to Robotics

Mathematical Modelling

Forward and Inverse Kinematics

Velocity Kinematics

Path and Trajectory Planning

Dynamics

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Robot Definition

A robot is a reprogrammable

multifunctional manipulator

designed to move material, parts,

tools, or specialized devices

through variable programmed

motions for the performance of a

variety of tasks.

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Kumar Mayank

02-02-2015

Kumar Mayank

Symbolic Representation of Robots

Robot Manipulators are composed of

links connected by joints to form a

kinematic chain.

Revolute joint(R) = Joint is like a hinge

and allows relative rotation between

two links. (Joint variable = theta)

Prismatic joint(P) = linear relative

motion between two links. (Joint

variable = d)

Joint variable = Relative displacement

between adjacent links

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Controller Resolution

the controller can sense

Resolution is computed as the

total distance travelled by the tip divided

by 2^n(where n is the number of bits of

encoder accuracy)

Prismatic joints, typically have

higher resolution than revolute joints,

since the straight line distance traversed by

the tip of a linear axis between two points

is less than the corresponding arc length

traced by the tip of a rotational link.

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Kumar Mayank

Problem 1

Referring to right hand side Figure , suppose that the tip of a single link travels a

distance d between two points. A linear axis would travel the distance d while a

rotational link would travel through an arc length l as shown left hand side figure.

Using the law of cosines show that the distance d(represented by c in the figure) is

given by

which is of course less than l . With 10-bit accuracy and l = 1m, = 90 what is the resolution of the

linear link? of the rotational link?

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Kumar Mayank

length of the link is 50 cm and the arm travels 180 degree? what is

the control resolution obtained with an 8-bit encoder?

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Kumar Mayank

Wrist (Revolute Joints) = Joints in

the kinematic chain between the

arm and end effector

Spherical wrists : Three joint axes

intersect at a common point

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Configuration Space

Configuration of a manipulator = Complete specification of the location of every

point on the manipulator.

Configuration space = Set of all possible configurations

parameters.

Example: Arm = 6 DOF - three for positioning and three for orientation (e.g.,

roll, pitch and yaw angles)

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Workspace

endeffector as the manipulator executes all possible motions.

Reachable workspace : Entire set of points reachable by the manipulator.

Dexterous workspace : Points that the manipulator can reach with an

arbitrary orientation of the end-effector.

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1) Power Source

Electrically Powered = DC or AC Servo motors

Hydraulically Powered = for lifting heavy loads

(Drawback: require more maintenance due to leakage of hydraulic fluid)

Pneumatic powered = Inexpensive and simple but cannot be controlled

precisely.

2) Application Area

Assembly robots = small, electrically driven and either revolute or SCARA

(Selective Compliant Articulated Robot for Assembly) in design

Non-Assembly robots = welding, spray painting, material handling, and

machine loading and unloading

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3) Method of Control

Non-servo robots : Open-loop devices whose movement is limited to

predetermined mechanical stops

(generally used for materials transfer)

Servo robots

: closed-loop computer control to determine their

motion and are thus capable of being truly

multifunctional, reprogrammable devices

Point-to-Point robot = no control on the path of the

end-effector in between taught points

Continuous path robots = entire path of the endeffector can be controlled

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4) Geometry

Articulated (RRR)

Spherical (RRP)

SCARA (RRP)

Cylindrical (RPP)

Cartesian (PPP)

Parallel robot = links are arranged in a closed rather than open kinematic

chain

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(Revolute, or Anthropomorphic manipulator)

Revolute manipulator provides for relatively large

freedom of movement in a compact space

Figure : Elbow manipulator

Parallelogram linkage= common revolute joint

design

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(Revolute, or Anthropomorphic manipulator)

Parallelogram linkage= common revolute joint

design

z2 is parallel to z1

z1 and z2 are perpendicular to z0

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[Ex: Stanford Arm]

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in the revolute manipulator by a prismatic joint to obtain the spherical

manipulator

Revolute manipulator(RRR)

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Spherical manipulator(RRP)

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for Assembly) Manipulator (RRP)

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and SCARA Manipulator (RRP)

Workspace of the spherical

manipulator

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manipulator

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and SCARA Manipulator (RRP)

Spherical manipulator

z0 perpendicular to z1, and z1

perpendicular to z2

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SCARA Manipulator

z0, z1, and z2 mutually

parallel

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Generally used during transfer of

materials or cargo in shipyards.

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Parallel Manipulator

Some subset of the links form a closed chain.

It has two or more independent kinematic chains

connecting the base to the end-effector

Closed chain kinematics of parallel robots can result

in greater structural rigidity, and hence greater

accuracy, than open chain robots.

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terms of the joint variables.

The coordinates (x, y) of the tool are expressed in this

Orientation of the tool frame relative to the base frame

is given by the direction cosines of the x2 and y2 axes

relative to the x0 and y0 axes

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Orientation of the tool frame relative to the base frame can be rewritten in the

following matrix form

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-8i+3j+2k.

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Inverse Kinematics

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Inverse Kinematics

coordinates x and y(+veElbow Up, -ve Elbow Down) Find 1??

Ans: Using cosine formula solve for 1. Cos(90- 1)=()

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Velocity Kinematics

This tool helps us to know the relationship between the velocity of the tool and the joint velocities.

Differentiate eqn (1.1 and 1.2) to get

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Velocity Kinematics(Continued.)

Joint velocities are found from the end-effector velocities via the inverse Jacobian

where inverse J is

and sin .

Kumar Mayank

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Velocity Kinematics(Continued.)

When 2 =0 then the

manipulator is said to be in a

singular configuration

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manipulator of Figure suppose 1 = 2 = 1.

Find the coordinates of the tool

when

Find the joint angles 1, 2

when the tool is located at

coordinates

{Inverse Kine.}

If the joint velocities are

constant at

what is the velocity of the tool ?

What is the instantaneous tool

velocity when

02-02-2015

Kumar Mayank

35

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