You are on page 1of 7

11/16/2013

THE STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM


The strength of a material is not the only criterion that must
be considered in designing structures The stiffness of a
material is frequently of equal importance To a lesser
degree mechanical properties such as hardness toughness
and ductility determine the selection of the material

THE STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM

STRAIN
To obtain the unit deformation or strain we divide the
elongation by the length L in which it was measured
thereby obtaining

The strain so computed however measures only the


average value of strain The correct expression for strain at
any position is

d
dL

where d is the differential elongation of the differential


length dL

STRAIN

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

Under certain conditions the strain may be assumed


constant and these conditions are as follows
The specimen must be of constant cross section
! The material must be homogeneous
" The load must be axial that is produce uniform stress

From the origin O to a point called the proportional limit the


figure shows the stress strain diagram to be a straight line
From this we deduce the well known relation first postulated
by Robert Hooke in )*+ that stress is proportional to strain
Notice carefully that this proportionality does not extend
throughout the diagram- it ends at the proportional limit

Since strain represents a change in length divided by the


original length strain is a dimensionless quantity

11/16/2013

THE STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
Other concepts developed from the stress strain diagram
curve are the following
The elastic limit is the stress beyond which the material
will not return to its original shape when unloaded but will
retain a permanent deformation called permanent set
! The yield point is the point at which there is an
appreciable elongation or yielding of the material without any
corresponding increase of load
" The yield strength is closely associated with the yield
point

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

THE STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM

Other concepts developed from the stress strain diagram


curve are the following
. The ultimate stress or ultimate strength as it is more
commonly called is the highest ordinate on the stress strain
curve
/ The rupture strength is the stress at failure

WORKING STRESS AND FACTOR OF SAFETY

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

The working stress also called the allowable stress is the


maximum safe stress a material can carry In design the
working stress w should be limited to values not exceeding
the proportional limit so as not to invalidate the stress strain
relation of Hookes law on which all subsequent theory is
based However since the proportional limit is difficult to
determine accurately it is customary to base the working
stress on either the yield point or the ultimate strength
divided by a suitable number N called the factor of safety

The slope of the straight line portion of the stress strain


diagram is the ratio of stress to strain It is called the
modulus of elasticity and is denoted by E

w =

yp
Nyp

or

w =

ult
Nult

Slope of stress strain curve 3 E =


which is usually written in the form

= E
In this form it is known as Hookes law Originally Hookes
law specified merely that stress was proportional to strain but
Thomas Young in +5* introduced a constant of
proportionality that came to be known as Youngs modulus

11/16/2013

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

The slope of the straight line portion of the stress strain


diagram is the ratio of stress to strain It is called the
modulus of elasticity and is denoted by E

The units for modulus of elasticity E are identical to the units


for stress 6 recall that strain is a dimensionless quantity
As an illustration the modulus of elasticity for steel in SI is
approximately !55x 58 N9m! :!55x 58 Pa<

Slope of stress strain curve 3 E =


which is usually written in the form

A convenient variation of Hookes law is obtained by


replacing by its equivalent P9A and replacing by 9L

= E

=E
A
L

Eventually this name was superseded by the phrase

modulus of elasticity

PL
AE

or =

L
E

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

The equation shown expresses the relation among the total


deformation the applied load P the length L the cross
sectional area A and the modulus of elasticity E Note that
it is subject to all the restrictions previously discussed in
connection with the equations it combines For convenience
let us restate these restrictions
The load must be axial
! The bar must have a constant cross section and
homogeneous
" The stress must not exceed the proportional limit

Shearing forces cause a shearing deformation just as axial


forces cause elongations but with an important difference
An element subject to tension undergoes an increase in
length- an element subject to shear does not change the
length of its sides but it undergoes a change in shape from
a rectangle to a parallelogram

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

HOOKES LAW( AXIAL AND SHEARING DEFORMATIONS

The actual shearing strain is found by dividing s by L In the


figure this defines tan 3 s9L However since the angle
is usually very small tan and we obtain

The relation between shearing stress and shearing strain


assuming Hookes law to apply to shear is

s =

s
L

More precisely the shearing strain is defined as the angular


change between two perpendicular faces of a differential
element

= G
in which G represents the modulus of elasticity in shear
more commonly called the modulus of rigidity The relation
between the shearing deformation and applied shearing
forces is then expressed by

s =

VL
As G

in which V is the shearing force acting over the shearing


area As

11/16/2013

Compute the total elongation caused by an axial load of 55


kN applied to a flat bar !5mm thick tapering from a width of
!5mm to .5mm in a length of 5 m as shown below
Assume E 3 !55 GPa

A steel wire "5 ft long hanging vertically supports a load of


/55lb Neglecting the weight of the wire determine the
required diameter if the stress is not to exceed !5 ksi and
the total elongation is not to exceed 5 !5 in Assume that
modulus of elasticity E 3 !8x 5) psi

An aluminium bar having a cross sectional area of 5 / in!


carries the axial loads applied at the position shown
Compute the total change in length of the bar if E 3 5x 5)
psi Assume the bar is suitably braced to prevent lateral
buckling

The rigid bar ABC shown is hinged at A and supported by a


steel rod at B Determine the largest load P that can be
applied at C if the stress in the steel rod is limited to "5 ksi
and the vertical movement of end C must not exceed 5 5
in

The rigid bar AB attached to two vertical rods is horizontal


before the load P is applied Determine the vertical
movement of P if its magnitude is /5 kN

STATICALLY INDETERMINATE MEMBERS


There are certain combinations of axially loaded members in
which equations of static equilibrium are not sufficient for a
solution This condition exists in structures where the
reactive forces or the internal resisting forces over a cross
section exceed the number of independent equations of
equilibrium Such cases are called statically indeterminate
and require the use of additional relations that depend on the
elastic deformations in the member

11/16/2013

STATICALLY INDETERMINATE MEMBERS


The cases are so varied that they can best be described by
sample problems illustrating the following general principles
To a free body diagram of the structure or a part of it
apply the equations of static equilibrium
! If there are more unknowns than independent equations
of equilibrium obtain additional equations from the
geometric relations between the elastic deformations
produced by the loads To define these relations clearly
you will find it helpful to draw a sketch that exaggerates
the magnitudes of the elastic deformations

The short concrete post in the figure below is reinforced


axially with six symmetrically placed steel bars each )55
mm! in area If the applied load P is 555 kN compute the
stress developed in each material Use the following moduli
of elasticity for steel Es 3 !55 GPa- for concrete Ec 3 .
GPa

In the preceding problem assume the allowable stresses to


be s 3 !5 MPa and c 3 ) MPa Compute the maximum
safe axial load P that may be applied

A copper rod is inserted into a hollow aluminum cylinder


The copper rod projects 5 55/ in as shown What maximum
load P may be applied to the bearing plateF Use the data in
the following table

A horizontal bar of negligible mass hinged at A and


assumed rigid is supported by a bronze rod ! 5m long and
a steel rod 5m long Using the data in the accompanying
table compute the stress in each rod

A steel bar /5 mm in diameter and ! m long is surrounded


by a shell of cast iron / mm thick Compute the load that will
compress the combined bar a total of 5 + mm in the length
of !m For steel E 3 !55 GPa and for cast iron E 3 55
GPa

11/16/2013

A rigid block of mass M is supported by three symmetrically


spaced rods as shown below Each copper rod has an area
of 855 mm!- E 3 !5 GPa- and the allowable stress is *5
MPa The steel rod has an area of !55 mm!- E 3 !55
GPa- and the allowable stress is .5 MPa Determine the
largest mass M which can be supported

THERMAL STRESSES
It is well known that changes in temperature cause bodies to
expand or contract the amount of linear deformation T
being expressed by the relation

T 3 L:T<
where

3
L 3
T 3

coefficient of linear expansion


length
temperature change

THERMAL STRESSES

THERMAL STRESSES

If a temperature deformation is permitted to occur freely as


by the use of expansion joints no loads or stress will be
induced in the structure But in some cases it may not be
feasible to permit these temperature deformations- the result
is that internal forces are created to resist them The
stresses caused by these internal forces are known as
thermal stresses

A general procedure for computing the loads and stresses


caused when temperature deformation is prevented is
outlined in these steps

THERMAL STRESSES

A steel rod ! / m long is secured between two walls If the


load on the rod is zero at !5C compute the stress when
the temperature drops to !5C The cross sectional area of
the rod is !55 mm! 3 * m9:mC< and E 3 !55
GPa Solve assuming :a< that the walls are rigid and :b<
that the walls spring together a total distance of 5 /55 mm
as the temperature drops

A general procedure for computing the loads and stresses


caused when temperature deformation is prevented is
outlined in these steps
" The geometric relations between the temperature and
load deformations on the sketch give equations that
together with the equations of static equilibrium may be
solved for all unknown quantities

Imagine the structure relieved of all applied loads and


constraints so that temperature deformations can occur
freely Represent these deformations on a sketch and
exaggerate their effect
! Now imagine sufficient loads applied to the structure to
restore it to the specified conditions of restraint
Represent these loads and corresponding load
deformations on the sketch for step

11/16/2013

A rigid block weighing ! kips is supported by three rods


symmetrically placed as shown Assuming the block to
remain horizontal determine the stress in each rod after a
temperature rise of 55F The lower ends of the rods are
assumed to have been at the same level before the block
was attached and the temperature changed Use the data in
the following table

temperature rise 3 55F

A steel rod with a cross sectional area of 5 !/ in! is


stretched between two fixed points The tensile load at *5F
is !55 lb What will be the stress at 5FF At what
temperature will the stress be zeroF Assume 3 ) / x 5 )
in9:inF< and E 3 !8 x 5) psi

A steel rod " ft long with a cross sectional area of 5 !/ in!


is stretched between two fixed points The tensile force is
!55 lb at .5F Using E 3 !8 x 5) psi and 3 ) / x 5 )
in9:inF< calculate :a< the temperature at which the stress
in the bar will be 5 ksi- and :b< the temperature at which
the stress will be zero