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Lecture Strength_Part 2_Simple Strain

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The strength of a material is not the only criterion that must

be considered in designing structures The stiffness of a

material is frequently of equal importance To a lesser

degree mechanical properties such as hardness toughness

and ductility determine the selection of the material

STRAIN

To obtain the unit deformation or strain we divide the

elongation by the length L in which it was measured

thereby obtaining

average value of strain The correct expression for strain at

any position is

d

dL

length dL

STRAIN

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

constant and these conditions are as follows

The specimen must be of constant cross section

! The material must be homogeneous

" The load must be axial that is produce uniform stress

figure shows the stress strain diagram to be a straight line

From this we deduce the well known relation first postulated

by Robert Hooke in )*+ that stress is proportional to strain

Notice carefully that this proportionality does not extend

throughout the diagram- it ends at the proportional limit

original length strain is a dimensionless quantity

11/16/2013

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

Other concepts developed from the stress strain diagram

curve are the following

The elastic limit is the stress beyond which the material

will not return to its original shape when unloaded but will

retain a permanent deformation called permanent set

! The yield point is the point at which there is an

appreciable elongation or yielding of the material without any

corresponding increase of load

" The yield strength is closely associated with the yield

point

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

curve are the following

. The ultimate stress or ultimate strength as it is more

commonly called is the highest ordinate on the stress strain

curve

/ The rupture strength is the stress at failure

maximum safe stress a material can carry In design the

working stress w should be limited to values not exceeding

the proportional limit so as not to invalidate the stress strain

relation of Hookes law on which all subsequent theory is

based However since the proportional limit is difficult to

determine accurately it is customary to base the working

stress on either the yield point or the ultimate strength

divided by a suitable number N called the factor of safety

diagram is the ratio of stress to strain It is called the

modulus of elasticity and is denoted by E

w =

yp

Nyp

or

w =

ult

Nult

which is usually written in the form

= E

In this form it is known as Hookes law Originally Hookes

law specified merely that stress was proportional to strain but

Thomas Young in +5* introduced a constant of

proportionality that came to be known as Youngs modulus

11/16/2013

diagram is the ratio of stress to strain It is called the

modulus of elasticity and is denoted by E

for stress 6 recall that strain is a dimensionless quantity

As an illustration the modulus of elasticity for steel in SI is

approximately !55x 58 N9m! :!55x 58 Pa<

which is usually written in the form

replacing by its equivalent P9A and replacing by 9L

= E

=E

A

L

modulus of elasticity

PL

AE

or =

L

E

deformation the applied load P the length L the cross

sectional area A and the modulus of elasticity E Note that

it is subject to all the restrictions previously discussed in

connection with the equations it combines For convenience

let us restate these restrictions

The load must be axial

! The bar must have a constant cross section and

homogeneous

" The stress must not exceed the proportional limit

forces cause elongations but with an important difference

An element subject to tension undergoes an increase in

length- an element subject to shear does not change the

length of its sides but it undergoes a change in shape from

a rectangle to a parallelogram

figure this defines tan 3 s9L However since the angle

is usually very small tan and we obtain

assuming Hookes law to apply to shear is

s =

s

L

change between two perpendicular faces of a differential

element

= G

in which G represents the modulus of elasticity in shear

more commonly called the modulus of rigidity The relation

between the shearing deformation and applied shearing

forces is then expressed by

s =

VL

As G

area As

11/16/2013

kN applied to a flat bar !5mm thick tapering from a width of

!5mm to .5mm in a length of 5 m as shown below

Assume E 3 !55 GPa

/55lb Neglecting the weight of the wire determine the

required diameter if the stress is not to exceed !5 ksi and

the total elongation is not to exceed 5 !5 in Assume that

modulus of elasticity E 3 !8x 5) psi

carries the axial loads applied at the position shown

Compute the total change in length of the bar if E 3 5x 5)

psi Assume the bar is suitably braced to prevent lateral

buckling

steel rod at B Determine the largest load P that can be

applied at C if the stress in the steel rod is limited to "5 ksi

and the vertical movement of end C must not exceed 5 5

in

before the load P is applied Determine the vertical

movement of P if its magnitude is /5 kN

There are certain combinations of axially loaded members in

which equations of static equilibrium are not sufficient for a

solution This condition exists in structures where the

reactive forces or the internal resisting forces over a cross

section exceed the number of independent equations of

equilibrium Such cases are called statically indeterminate

and require the use of additional relations that depend on the

elastic deformations in the member

11/16/2013

The cases are so varied that they can best be described by

sample problems illustrating the following general principles

To a free body diagram of the structure or a part of it

apply the equations of static equilibrium

! If there are more unknowns than independent equations

of equilibrium obtain additional equations from the

geometric relations between the elastic deformations

produced by the loads To define these relations clearly

you will find it helpful to draw a sketch that exaggerates

the magnitudes of the elastic deformations

axially with six symmetrically placed steel bars each )55

mm! in area If the applied load P is 555 kN compute the

stress developed in each material Use the following moduli

of elasticity for steel Es 3 !55 GPa- for concrete Ec 3 .

GPa

be s 3 !5 MPa and c 3 ) MPa Compute the maximum

safe axial load P that may be applied

The copper rod projects 5 55/ in as shown What maximum

load P may be applied to the bearing plateF Use the data in

the following table

assumed rigid is supported by a bronze rod ! 5m long and

a steel rod 5m long Using the data in the accompanying

table compute the stress in each rod

by a shell of cast iron / mm thick Compute the load that will

compress the combined bar a total of 5 + mm in the length

of !m For steel E 3 !55 GPa and for cast iron E 3 55

GPa

11/16/2013

spaced rods as shown below Each copper rod has an area

of 855 mm!- E 3 !5 GPa- and the allowable stress is *5

MPa The steel rod has an area of !55 mm!- E 3 !55

GPa- and the allowable stress is .5 MPa Determine the

largest mass M which can be supported

THERMAL STRESSES

It is well known that changes in temperature cause bodies to

expand or contract the amount of linear deformation T

being expressed by the relation

T 3 L:T<

where

3

L 3

T 3

length

temperature change

THERMAL STRESSES

THERMAL STRESSES

by the use of expansion joints no loads or stress will be

induced in the structure But in some cases it may not be

feasible to permit these temperature deformations- the result

is that internal forces are created to resist them The

stresses caused by these internal forces are known as

thermal stresses

caused when temperature deformation is prevented is

outlined in these steps

THERMAL STRESSES

load on the rod is zero at !5C compute the stress when

the temperature drops to !5C The cross sectional area of

the rod is !55 mm! 3 * m9:mC< and E 3 !55

GPa Solve assuming :a< that the walls are rigid and :b<

that the walls spring together a total distance of 5 /55 mm

as the temperature drops

caused when temperature deformation is prevented is

outlined in these steps

" The geometric relations between the temperature and

load deformations on the sketch give equations that

together with the equations of static equilibrium may be

solved for all unknown quantities

constraints so that temperature deformations can occur

freely Represent these deformations on a sketch and

exaggerate their effect

! Now imagine sufficient loads applied to the structure to

restore it to the specified conditions of restraint

Represent these loads and corresponding load

deformations on the sketch for step

11/16/2013

symmetrically placed as shown Assuming the block to

remain horizontal determine the stress in each rod after a

temperature rise of 55F The lower ends of the rods are

assumed to have been at the same level before the block

was attached and the temperature changed Use the data in

the following table

stretched between two fixed points The tensile load at *5F

is !55 lb What will be the stress at 5FF At what

temperature will the stress be zeroF Assume 3 ) / x 5 )

in9:inF< and E 3 !8 x 5) psi

is stretched between two fixed points The tensile force is

!55 lb at .5F Using E 3 !8 x 5) psi and 3 ) / x 5 )

in9:inF< calculate :a< the temperature at which the stress

in the bar will be 5 ksi- and :b< the temperature at which

the stress will be zero

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