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WEEK 7: CIRCLES

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in geometry, namely triangles. This week, we look at

the other fundamental figure in geometry, namely the

circle. We start by looking at problems involving the

areas of circles.

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of 60 degrees, so its area is 60/360 1= 1/6 the area of

a circle with radius 1.

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his rope doesn't bend. What does this area look like?

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If Spot's rope doesn't bend, then the area that Spot can

reach is a circular sector, bounded by AB and AF.

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of 240 degrees, so its area is 240/360 = 2/3 the area

of a circle with radius 2.

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Is there an easy shape that we can relate the lune to?

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does this give us?

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by AB and BC, and one bounded by AF and EF. (It's

clear that Spot has just enough rope to reach C and E.)

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1.

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area of the circular segment.

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large semicircle to the endpoints of the circular

segment.

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If we have an odd shape defined in terms of arcs

and/or lines, then we can relate the shape to areas we

already know how to compute.

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finding the area of the circular sector OAB, and

subtracting the area of triangle OAB.

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we want to other areas that we already know how to

find.

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will help?

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segments OD and OE to the diagram.

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left out other elements in the diagram. If we did not

leave out those other elements, then we would get a

very cluttered diagram, and it would be hard to see

what was going on. Thus, a useful technique in solving

geometry problems is to draw extra diagrams that

contain only the elements that you are interested in.)

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degrees, so its area is 30/360 = 1/12 the area of a

circle of radius 2.

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the area of quadrilateral ODBE.

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OBE.

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lines or other circles. Whenever you have circles that

are tangent to other geometrical objects, it is almost

always useful to join the centers of the circles to the

points of tangency.

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consider the side BD as the base. Again, we draw

another diagram that makes this idea clearer.

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BD?

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OA = 1.

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tangency.

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such as angles, it's still a good idea to derive what we

want rigorously.

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circles that are tangent to each other.

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triangle ABC has length 2. Therefore, triangle ABC is

equilateral.

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terms of r?

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points O, A, and T are collinear.

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Hence, OA = OT - AT = r - 1.

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us about point O in terms of triangle ABC?

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triangle ABC.

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of triangle ABC. Hence, O lies on medians AP, BQ, and

CR.

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tangency.

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is the midpoint of AC, triangle AOQ is a 30-60-90

triangle. Do we know any sides of triangle AOQ?

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interesting?

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they are parallel.

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we know any sides of triangles APT or AQU?

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any other lengths in the diagram?

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double the corresponding sides of triangle APT. Hence,

P is the midpoint of AQ.

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finding the area of triangle ABC?

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+ PQ + QM = 3 + 3 + 2 = 8.

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can we find BC?

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CM. How can we find CM?

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anything we can compare triangle AMC to?

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useful equation can we write down?

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we do with the diagram?

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triangles.

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perpendiculars from O to chords AB and CD. Drawing in

some radii, such as OB, should be useful: drawing radii

to relevant points is often a good idea!

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Midpoint of Chords

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property of circles: If we drop a perpendicular from the

center of a circle to a chord, then what can we say

about the diagram?

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the radius OB.

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a chord, then the foot of the perpendicular is the

midpoint of the chord.

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directly.

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Then NP = CP - CN = 6 - 4 = 2. Hence, OM = NP = 2. So

what is OB?

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EM. But to do this, we must find EN and MN. What is

EN?

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can we find MN?

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parallel.

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useful equation can we write down?

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draw PG.

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find EM. How can we find EM?

be careful to draw an accurate diagram. For example,

the diagram could like either of the following.

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centers to midpoints of chords, constructing these

additional lines can help you build right triangles,

which will in turn help you find lengths.

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WEEK 8: POLYGONS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL

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GEOMETRY

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geometry by dealing with problems involving polygons

and three-dimensional geometry. In both cases, we

draw on the concepts that we have seen in the previous

classes.

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POLYGONS

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the same techniques that we have used before in other

geometry problems, such as angle chasing and using

right triangles and similar triangles.

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What lengths can we write in terms of s?

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SUMMARY

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the properties of circles, such as the areas of circles. If

we have an area involving arcs of circles that we do not

know how to compute directly, then the best strategy

is to compare the area to other figures where you know

how to compute the area.

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to lines or other circles, then it is very useful to join the

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x?

in trapezoid ABCD?

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parallel.

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Since CD = 6, CM = 6.

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do?

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answer is (B).

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this?

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FECD?

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First, let's label the bases.

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x. Then CE = CD - DE = y - x.

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respectively, EF = (x + y)/2.

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The answer is (C).

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and FECD?

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octagon. Let s be side length of the regular octagon.

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triangles which we can use to find lengths.

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+ y) = 6x + 2y. What does this simplify to?

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area of regular octagon ABCDEFGH?

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ABCDEFGH.

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regular octagon ABCDEFGH, so it has area 1/2.

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What is AF?

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hexagon ABCDEF that will help us draw it?

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area of hexagon ABCDEF. To turn this into a useful

equation, we must express both areas in terms of r.

How can we do that?

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help us find the area of hexagon ABCDEF?

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equilateral triangle.

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subtract the areas of triangles PAC, QCE, and REA.

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comparing the areas of two triangles.

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the areas of equilateral triangles PAB, QCD, and REF.

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We can now use the fact that the area of triangle ACE is

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The circular sector has radius 10. What length does this

correspond to in the cone?

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therefore acceptable.

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which is 252/360 = 7/10 of the full circle.

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are possible values? What if one of the roots is

negative? By computing both roots and seeing that

they are positive, we see that they are viable.

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THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

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the cone. So what is the radius of the base of the cone?

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of the outer cube is 2.

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the sphere?

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Then the diameter of the sphere is 2, so its radius is 1.

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be the side length of the inner cube. How can we

determine x?

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inner cube going from one vertex to an opposite vertex.

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radius 7, so the correct answer is (C).

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which is 2.

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First, let's work with the outer cube. What is the side

length of the outer cube?

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triangles.

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WEEK 9: COUNTING

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radius of the ice cream, namely r. Let h be height of the

cone. Then what is the volume of the cone?

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problems in counting. Counting problems come in a

wide variety of forms, and accordingly there are a wide

variety of techniques for solving them. We will try to

cover as many of these techniques as we can.

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PRODUCT PRINCIPLE

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We are told that when the ice cream melts, it fills the

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clothing, giving me 3 * 4 * 2 = 24 different outfits.

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of the numbers of ways of choosing each individual

object.

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SUMMARY

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problems involving polygons and three-dimensional

geometry. However, none of these techniques were

really new.

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under the old scheme, and the number of license plates

under the new scheme.

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scheme?

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approach is to break them up into triangles, and then

apply what we know about triangle geometry. In threedimensional geometry, we can take cross-sections, and

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scheme?

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to satisfy (a + c)/2 = b, or a + c = 2b.

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arithmetic sequences?

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example, we can ask how many arithmetic sequences

have a first term of 0, a first term of 1, and so on.

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a certain common difference. For example, we can ask

how many arithmetic sequences have a common

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principle. Each tourist must choose one of the two

guides.

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second tourist chooses one of the two guides, and so

on. How many groupings does this give us?

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(And don't forget negative common differences.)

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into cases. Let's see if we can find an approach that

avoids casework.

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example. How many such three-digit numbers start

with the digit 3?

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no tourists. How many such groupings are there?

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last digits, namely 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9.

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the tourists. There are two ways this can happen, one

more generally?

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answer is (D).

first and last digits are either both even or both odd.

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So let's look at the even case and odd case. (So we are

using casework, but it's only two cases, so it's not that

bad.)

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(but not 0), for a total of 4. How many possible last

digits are even?

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8, for a total of 5.

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digits to be even?

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5 = 20 different ways.

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Notice that when both first and last digits are even, for

any choice of the first and last digits the middle digit is

uniquely determined.

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digits are odd?

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read "n choose k." In counting, many answers depend

in some form on a combination.

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9, for a total of 5.

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The possible last digits that are odd are the same, for

another 5. So how many ways can we choose the first

and last digits to be odd?

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5 = 25 different ways.

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Similar to the even case notice that when both first and

last digits are odd, for any choice of the first and last

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endpoints are vertices of the cube?

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vertices of the cube. How many ways are there to

choose two vertices of the cube?

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25 = 45. The answer is (E).

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product principle, but if you can use it, then it is usually

the easiest way to solve the problem.

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COMBINATIONS

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where the order of the objects does not matter. For

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three Xs and two Os in a row. How can we do this?

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selecting B, C, and A.

use combinations?

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three Xs and two Os in a row. We have five tiles to

order, so how can we specify such an arrangement?

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three Xs first (or we can go with the Os if you want -same idea.)

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answer is (D).

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XOXOX is 1/10. The answer is (B).

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COMPLEMENTARY COUNTING

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objects that we don't want, rather that the objects that

we do want. This is technique is called complementary

counting.

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other names too, like balls and urns.)

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many ways that a four-digit number that can have at

least one digit that is a 2 or a 3. For example, the

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and one powdered. It's not hard to list all the possible

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given condition.

with the following row of stars and bars:

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**|*|*

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the number does not contain at least one digit that is a

2 or a 3. In other words, none of the digits are 2 or 3.

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8:07:00 pm

***||*

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possible first digits?

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for a total of 8.

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The possible third and fourth digits are the same as the

possible second digits. So how many four-digit

numbers do not contain a 2 or 3?

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2 or 3 is 7 * 8 * 8 * 8 = 3584. What do we want to do

with this number?

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numbers.

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answer is (E).

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CASEWORK

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spouse, so man M1 can only sit between W2 and W3, or

W4 and W5.

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W3.

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many ways can the first woman be seated?

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the diagram?

sit?

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four chairs that the remaining four women can sit in.

How many ways are there to seat the remaining four

women?

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women.

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there is only one way to seat the rest of the men, which

we can derive as follows.

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and then man M3 must sit between women W4 and W5.

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Let's recap.

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ways to seat the remaining women.

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Then there are 2 ways to seat the first man, then only

one way to seat the remaining men. So how many

seating arrangements are there?

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arrangements. The answer is (C).

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are exhaustive (in other words, your cases cover all

possibilities), and that you work all your cases through

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thorough.

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many ways are there to seat the rest of the men then?

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8:38:19 pm

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counting problems, the best way to solve the problem

is to put your pencil down and simply think about what

it is really asking for.

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the number of players left in each round.

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many players advanced to the second round?

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28 = 64 players advance to the second round.

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8:48:41 pm

Ouch, no.

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8:50:03 pm

faster way.

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8:43:46 pm

player, so we need to eliminate 99 players. How does a

player get eliminated?

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how many games must there be?

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(E) is true. That's it.

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irrelevant. This condition impacts the number of rounds

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casework. And last but not least... just think about it.

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8:51:27 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:30:58 pm

WEEK 10: PROBABILITY

Valentin Vornicu

7:31:05 pm

probability problems and the techniques for solving

them. We start with the most common definition of

probability.

Valentin Vornicu

7:31:10 pm

PROBABILITY BY COUNTING

Valentin Vornicu

8:52:33 pm

the circle. So how can we count the number of

triangles?

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7:32:05 pm

example, flipping a coin and getting three heads in a

row can be an event.

Valentin Vornicu

7:32:10 pm

connected to the one opposite.

Valentin Vornicu

7:32:16 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:32:37 pm

8:54:13 pm

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SUMMARY

8:54:37 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:54:43 pm

binomial coefficient that seems to fit. The right way to

start solving a counting problem is to consider what it

is you are trying to count. Is there a simple way of

describing the objects you want to count? Is there a

Valentin Vornicu

7:33:23 pm

7:33:26 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:33:45 pm

by 2. These numbers are {2, 4, 6, ..., 100}.

Valentin Vornicu

7:33:57 pm

8:54:56 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:34:16 pm

3, what else can we ask?

Valentin Vornicu

7:35:25 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:40:26 pm

are divisible by 3.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:35:32 pm

7:41:05 pm

are divisible by 6?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:35:47 pm

7:42:55 pm

casework!

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:36:14 pm

7:43:27 pm

Let's start with the two tens. If the two tens are

divisible by 3?

that?

Valentin Vornicu

7:36:40 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:44:33 pm

two cases.

the answer?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:37:07 pm

7:44:37 pm

by 2 and not divisible by 3 is 34/100 = 17/50. The

Valentin Vornicu

answer is (C).

7:44:46 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:37:14 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:45:17 pm

Also, we have 2 possibilities for which 20 we draw and

6 possibilities for which smaller denomination bill we

draw. How many possibilities is this altogether?

Valentin Vornicu

7:38:30 pm

But before we do that, we have to decide a couple

things: Are the bills distinguishable? Does order

matter? No matter what we choose, the probability will

be the same (it better be). We would get different

counts that have the same ratio.

Valentin Vornicu

7:39:02 pm

counting easy? Let's try distinguishable, order does

matter.

Valentin Vornicu

7:39:10 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:40:06 pm

possibilities for the second bill, for a total of 56.

Valentin Vornicu

7:47:06 pm

different denomination with total value over 20 dollars.

Altogether there are 24 + 4 = 28 successful outcomes.

Since there were 56 outcomes in total, the probability

is 28/56 = 1/2.

Valentin Vornicu

7:47:48 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:48:30 pm

ways.

numerator of p?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:49:32 pm

7:56:13 pm

4 choose 2 = 6 ways.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:49:35 pm

7:56:17 pm

q/p?

from 1 to 10.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:49:38 pm

answer is (A).

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:50:16 pm

7:57:42 pm

7:58:22 pm

ALGEBRAIC PROBABILITY

Valentin Vornicu

number?

7:58:25 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:50:58 pm

than or equal to 2?

number N.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:51:01 pm

7:59:20 pm

probability that we roll a number that is less than or

equal to 2 is 2/6 = 1/3, so the probability that both

Valentin Vornicu

7:52:29 pm

four slips of the form a, a, b, b, where a and b are

Valentin Vornicu

number?

7:59:24 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:53:22 pm

choosing the numbers a and b. How many ways can we

Valentin Vornicu

7:59:30 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:00:01 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:54:25 pm

10 choose 2 = 45.

Valentin Vornicu

7:54:42 pm

determine the number of ways of choosing two slips

with the number a, and two slips with the number b.

Valentin Vornicu

7:54:45 pm

number a?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

7:56:06 pm

8:01:20 pm

8:01:25 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:01:31 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:09:49 pm

choosing 100. What can we say about all these

Valentin Vornicu

8:10:10 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:10:40 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:02:32 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:03:36 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:11:37 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:12:13 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:03:54 pm

is p, and the probabilities from each of the numbers

from 51 to 100 is 3p. So what is the sum of these

probabilities?

Valentin Vornicu

8:04:29 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:12:17 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:13:33 pm

50p + 150p = 200p. So what is p?

Valentin Vornicu

8:05:32 pm

means p = 1/200.

Valentin Vornicu

8:05:58 pm

mayor's work?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:07:16 pm

8:15:15 pm

mayor's work, one for each voter.

dividing by 100. However, this won't work here.

Valentin Vornicu

8:15:20 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:08:39 pm

occurring?

a number from 1 to 50 is p, and the probability of

Valentin Vornicu

we do?

8:16:01 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:09:33 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:16:04 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:09:36 pm

0.3 = 0.063.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:09:48 pm

8:16:09 pm

occurring. So what is the answer?

Valentin Vornicu

8:17:41 pm

mayor's work is 3 * 0.063 = 0.189. The answer is (B).

Valentin Vornicu

8:17:54 pm

TREE ANALYSIS

Valentin Vornicu

8:17:58 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:23:04 pm

such processes is constructing a tree, where the

Valentin Vornicu

8:23:23 pm

and 2/2 - 1 = 0.

Valentin Vornicu

8:18:09 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:23:28 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:24:18 pm

possible fourth terms.

Valentin Vornicu

8:18:51 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:24:23 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:24:28 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:20:44 pm

11 and 6/2 - 1 = 2.

Valentin Vornicu

8:20:47 pm

branching to 11 and 2.

Valentin Vornicu

8:20:52 pm

integer?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:22:03 pm

values of the third term?

Valentin Vornicu

8:22:57 pm

8:24:50 pm

the probability is 5/8. The answer is (D).

Valentin Vornicu

8:25:18 pm

CASEWORK

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:23:01 pm

8:25:19 pm

surprising that we must sometimes employ casework in

probability.

Valentin Vornicu

8:25:25 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:36:52 pm

rolls?

Valentin Vornicu

8:25:33 pm

sure that we understand the problem.

Valentin Vornicu

8:25:38 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:37:26 pm

4/243 + 1/729 = 13/729. The answer is (A).

Valentin Vornicu

8:37:39 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:39:00 pm

five or a six a "high roll," and everything else a "low

roll." Which probability do we want to compute?

Valentin Vornicu

8:27:14 pm

least five high rolls. In other words, we want to

compute the probability that we roll five or six high

rolls. How can we compute this probability?

Valentin Vornicu

8:29:19 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:40:53 pm

into?

Valentin Vornicu

8:30:20 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:41:23 pm

faces.

Valentin Vornicu

8:31:42 pm

Valentin Vornicu

are exactly five high rolls, then there is exactly one low

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:31:45 pm

8:41:27 pm

8:43:33 pm

ways. The probability of each face being either color is

Valentin Vornicu

8:32:56 pm

1/2.

probability of rolling a low roll is 1 - 1/3 = 2/3. So

Valentin Vornicu

8:43:38 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:45:01 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:34:43 pm

red faces, what is the probability that the cube can be

Valentin Vornicu

8:35:36 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:36:31 pm

all the same color?

Valentin Vornicu

8:45:57 pm

If there are 0 red faces, then all faces are blue, so the

probability is 1.

Valentin Vornicu

8:46:04 pm

that the cube can be placed on the surface?

Valentin Vornicu

8:47:06 pm

is 1.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:47:08 pm

8:51:37 pm

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:49:20 pm

If we paint one face of the cube red, then there are five

8:52:53 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:52:59 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:53:44 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:49:24 pm

red faces are opposite each other is 1/5. This is also

the probability that the cube can be placed on the

surface.

Valentin Vornicu

8:49:27 pm

probability that the cube can be placed on the surface?

Valentin Vornicu

8:53:53 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:50:13 pm

four faces with the same color. There are only three red

Valentin Vornicu

GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:50:41 pm

8:53:59 pm

8:54:05 pm

what if we have a probability problem involving a

Valentin Vornicu

8:51:19 pm

point of view.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:54:12 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:54:38 pm

8:51:22 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:51:25 pm

Similarly, the probabilities for five red faces and six red

faces are also 1.

Valentin Vornicu

8:51:27 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:51:32 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:56:24 pm

and y are greater than zero, or both x and y are less

than zero.

Valentin Vornicu

9:00:30 pm

8:56:30 pm

interval [-20,10] is greater than zero?

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

than zero?

Valentin Vornicu

9:01:19 pm

Valentin Vornicu

9:01:57 pm

8:57:33 pm

0 is (0,10]. The length of the interval (0,10] is 10, and

the length of the interval [-20,10] is 30, so the

probability of choosing a number greater than zero is

10/30 = 1/3.

Valentin Vornicu

Valentin Vornicu

8:58:20 pm

less than zero is 1 - 1/3 = 2/3.

Valentin Vornicu

8:58:24 pm

Valentin Vornicu

SUMMARY

9:02:00 pm

should be to determine what kind of probability you are

dealing with. In some cases, all you have to do is

compute the number of "successful" outcomes, and

divide by the total number of outcomes. However, in

other cases, you may have to use other techniques,

such as tree analysis or geometric probability.

8:59:52 pm

Valentin Vornicu

9:02:03 pm

probability, simply relying on intuition can easily lead

Valentin Vornicu

9:00:19 pm

Valentin Vornicu

9:00:29 pm

you understand why your steps are correct.

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