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WEEK 7: CIRCLES
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## Last week, we looked at one of the fundamental figures

in geometry, namely triangles. This week, we look at
the other fundamental figure in geometry, namely the
circle. We start by looking at problems involving the
areas of circles.
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## Each circular sector has radius 1 and contains an angle

of 60 degrees, so its area is 60/360 1= 1/6 the area of
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## As a start, let's think about what area Spot can reach if

his rope doesn't bend. What does this area look like?
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If Spot's rope doesn't bend, then the area that Spot can
reach is a circular sector, bounded by AB and AF.

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## This circular sector has radius 2 and contains an angle

of 240 degrees, so its area is 240/360 = 2/3 the area
of a circle with radius 2.
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## We want to find the area of the lune. Let's start simple.

Is there an easy shape that we can relate the lune to?
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## Of course, Spot's rope can bend. What additional area

does this give us?
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## In addition, we get two circular sectors, one bounded

by AB and BC, and one bounded by AF and EF. (It's
clear that Spot has just enough rope to reach C and E.)
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1.
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## Now, to find the area of the lune, we must subtract the

area of the circular segment.

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## First, we can draw the lines joining the center of the

large semicircle to the endpoints of the circular
segment.
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## The problem is very typical for areas involving circles.

If we have an odd shape defined in terms of arcs
and/or lines, then we can relate the shape to areas we
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## We can then find the area of the circular segment by

finding the area of the circular sector OAB, and
subtracting the area of triangle OAB.
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## As in the previous problem, we want to relate the area

we want to other areas that we already know how to
find.
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will help?
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## Since the area we want involves arc DE, we add line

segments OD and OE to the diagram.

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## (Note that in addition to adding OD and OE, we have

left out other elements in the diagram. If we did not
leave out those other elements, then we would get a
very cluttered diagram, and it would be hard to see
what was going on. Thus, a useful technique in solving
geometry problems is to draw extra diagrams that
contain only the elements that you are interested in.)
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## Circular sector DOE has radius 2 and contains 30

degrees, so its area is 30/360 = 1/12 the area of a
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OBE.
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## We now look at problems involving circles tangent to

lines or other circles. Whenever you have circles that
are tangent to other geometrical objects, it is almost
always useful to join the centers of the circles to the
points of tangency.
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## The easiest way of finding the area of triangle OBD is to

consider the side BD as the base. Again, we draw
another diagram that makes this idea clearer.
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BD?
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OA = 1.
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tangency.
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## Although many features of the diagram are evident,

such as angles, it's still a good idea to derive what we
want rigorously.
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circles that are tangent to each other.

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## Each of the small circles has radius 1, so each side of

triangle ABC has length 2. Therefore, triangle ABC is
equilateral.
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terms of r?
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## The circles with centers O and A are tangent at T, so

points O, A, and T are collinear.
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Hence, OA = OT - AT = r - 1.
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## Similarly, OB = r - 1 and OC = r - 1. What does this tell

us about point O in terms of triangle ABC?
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triangle ABC.
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## But as triangle ABC is equilateral, O is also the centroid

of triangle ABC. Hence, O lies on medians AP, BQ, and
CR.

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tangency.
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## Since O is the center of equilateral triangle ABC, and Q

is the midpoint of AC, triangle AOQ is a 30-60-90
triangle. Do we know any sides of triangle AOQ?
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interesting?
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## We see that both PT and QU are perpendicular to AC, so

they are parallel.
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## This tells us that triangles APT and AQU are similar. Do

we know any sides of triangles APT or AQU?

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## We also know that PQ = 1 + 2 = 3. Does this give us

any other lengths in the diagram?
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## Since PT = 1 and QU = 2, the sides of triangle AQU are

double the corresponding sides of triangle APT. Hence,
P is the midpoint of AQ.
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## But PQ = 3, so AP = PQ = 3. How does this help in

finding the area of triangle ABC?
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## We can say that the altitude of triangle ABC is AM = AP

+ PQ + QM = 3 + 3 + 2 = 8.
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can we find BC?
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## Since M is the midpoint of BC, we can find BC by finding

CM. How can we find CM?
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## Note that CM is a side of triangle AMC. Is there

anything we can compare triangle AMC to?
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## We see that triangles AMC and ATP are similar. So what

useful equation can we write down?
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## We want to find the diameter of the circle. So what can

we do with the diagram?
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triangles.
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## We get right triangles when we drop the

perpendiculars from O to chords AB and CD. Drawing in
to relevant points is often a good idea!
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## How does this help us find the diameter of the circle?

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Midpoint of Chords
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## Finally, we look at problems that highlight a certain

property of circles: If we drop a perpendicular from the
center of a circle to a chord, then what can we say

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## If we drop a perpendicular from the center of a circle to

a chord, then the foot of the perpendicular is the
midpoint of the chord.
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## What is OM equal to? Note that we can't calculate it

directly.
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Then NP = CP - CN = 6 - 4 = 2. Hence, OM = NP = 2. So
what is OB?
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## We can apply Pythagoras on right triangle EMN to find

EM. But to do this, we must find EN and MN. What is
EN?
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can we find MN?
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parallel.
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## Hence, triangles AMN and AGP are similar. So what

useful equation can we write down?
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draw PG.
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## We know that M is the midpoint of EF, so it suffices to

find EM. How can we find EM?

## We can start by drawing a diagram. However, we must

be careful to draw an accurate diagram. For example,
the diagram could like either of the following.
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## centers to the points of tangency. Like joining the

centers to midpoints of chords, constructing these
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## AMC 10 PROBLEM SERIES

WEEK 8: POLYGONS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL
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GEOMETRY
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## In today's class, we continue our look at Euclidean

geometry by dealing with problems involving polygons
and three-dimensional geometry. In both cases, we
draw on the concepts that we have seen in the previous
classes.
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POLYGONS
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## In most problems involving polygons, we depend on

the same techniques that we have used before in other
geometry problems, such as angle chasing and using
right triangles and similar triangles.
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## Let s be the side length of equilateral triangle ABC.

What lengths can we write in terms of s?
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SUMMARY
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## In today's class we looked at many problems involving

the properties of circles, such as the areas of circles. If
we have an area involving arcs of circles that we do not
know how to compute directly, then the best strategy
is to compare the area to other figures where you know
how to compute the area.
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## We also saw that if you have circles that are tangents

to lines or other circles, then it is very useful to join the

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## First, let's draw a diagram. What are the parallel sides

x?

in trapezoid ABCD?

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parallel.
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## We want to find the product AB * CD. We don't see any

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Since CD = 6, CM = 6.
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do?
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this?

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FECD?
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## We can use the formula for the area of a trapezoid.

First, let's label the bases.
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## Since ABED is a rectangle, BE = AD = 7 and DE = AB =

x. Then CE = CD - DE = y - x.
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## Since E and F are the midpoints of BC and AD,

respectively, EF = (x + y)/2.
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and FECD?
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## We can start by naming the side length of the regular

octagon. Let s be side length of the regular octagon.
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## By drawing these diagonals, we have created right

triangles which we can use to find lengths.
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## Multiplying both sides by 3x + y, we get x + 3y = 2(3x

+ y) = 6x + 2y. What does this simplify to?

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## But how does the area of triangle OEF compare to the

area of regular octagon ABCDEFGH?
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ABCDEFGH.
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## Therefore, the area of rectangle ABEF is half the area of

regular octagon ABCDEFGH, so it has area 1/2.
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What is AF?
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## First, let's draw a diagram. What can we say about

hexagon ABCDEF that will help us draw it?
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## We are given that the area of triangle ACE is 70% the

area of hexagon ABCDEF. To turn this into a useful
equation, we must express both areas in terms of r.
How can we do that?
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## Is there anything we can do with the figure that will

help us find the area of hexagon ABCDEF?
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## We can extend the sides of the hexagon to form an

equilateral triangle.

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## We can take the area of equilateral triangle PQR, and

subtract the areas of triangles PAC, QCE, and REA.
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## We can use the formula from the triangle class,

comparing the areas of two triangles.
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## We can get the area of hexagon ABCDEF by subtracting

the areas of equilateral triangles PAB, QCD, and REF.
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## How can we find the area of triangle ACE?

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We can now use the fact that the area of triangle ACE is

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## What are the roots of this equation?

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The circular sector has radius 10. What length does this
correspond to in the cone?
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## Notice that both of these numbers are positive and

therefore acceptable.

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## The circular sector contains an angle of 252 degrees,

which is 252/360 = 7/10 of the full circle.
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## Vieta's formulas, but how do we know that both roots

are possible values? What if one of the roots is
negative? By computing both roots and seeing that
they are positive, we see that they are viable.
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THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

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## This corresponds to the circumference of the base of

the cone. So what is the radius of the base of the cone?
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## so each face has area 24/6 = 4. Hence, the side length

of the outer cube is 2.
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the sphere?
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## The sphere is inscribed in a cube with side length 2.

Then the diameter of the sphere is 2, so its radius is 1.
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## Now, we need the side length of the inner cube. Let x

be the side length of the inner cube. How can we
determine x?
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## Perhaps the easiest way is to consider a diagonal of the

inner cube going from one vertex to an opposite vertex.
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## This diagonal is also equal to a diameter of the sphere,

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which is 2.
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First, let's work with the outer cube. What is the side
length of the outer cube?
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triangles.

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WEEK 9: COUNTING
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## We know the radius of the cone is the same as the

radius of the ice cream, namely r. Let h be height of the
cone. Then what is the volume of the cone?
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## In today's class, we will cover techniques for solving

problems in counting. Counting problems come in a
wide variety of forms, and accordingly there are a wide
variety of techniques for solving them. We will try to
cover as many of these techniques as we can.
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PRODUCT PRINCIPLE
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## One of the simplest principles in counting is the

We are told that when the ice cream melts, it fills the

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## I just multiply the number of choices for each piece of

clothing, giving me 3 * 4 * 2 = 24 different outfits.
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## objects, then the number of ways is simply the product

of the numbers of ways of choosing each individual
object.
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SUMMARY
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## In today's lecture, we looked at techniques to solve

problems involving polygons and three-dimensional
geometry. However, none of these techniques were
really new.

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## We need to compute the number of license plates

under the old scheme, and the number of license plates
under the new scheme.
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scheme?
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## For example, when dealing with polygons, one useful

approach is to break them up into triangles, and then
apply what we know about triangle geometry. In threedimensional geometry, we can take cross-sections, and

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scheme?
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## Let a, b, and c be the three digits. We want these digits

to satisfy (a + c)/2 = b, or a + c = 2b.
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## sequence. How can we count the number of such

arithmetic sequences?
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## There are many ways to approach this problem. For

example, we can ask how many arithmetic sequences
have a first term of 0, a first term of 1, and so on.
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## We can also ask how many arithmetic sequences have

a certain common difference. For example, we can ask
how many arithmetic sequences have a common
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## The problem itself tells us how to apply the product

principle. Each tourist must choose one of the two
guides.
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## So the first tourist chooses one of the two guides, the

second tourist chooses one of the two guides, and so
on. How many groupings does this give us?
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## difference of 0, a common difference of 1, and so on.

(And don't forget negative common differences.)
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## Both approaches will work, but they involve dividing

into cases. Let's see if we can find an approach that
avoids casework.
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## To get a feel for the problem, let's look at a certain

example. How many such three-digit numbers start
with the digit 3?
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## subtract the number of groupings in which a guide has

no tourists. How many such groupings are there?
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## What is interesting to me about these numbers are the

last digits, namely 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9.
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the tourists. There are two ways this can happen, one

more generally?

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## In every three-digit number that we want to count, the

first and last digits are either both even or both odd.

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## common that because of some condition in the

So let's look at the even case and odd case. (So we are

using casework, but it's only two cases, so it's not that

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## The possible first digits that are even are 2, 4, 6, and 8

(but not 0), for a total of 4. How many possible last
digits are even?

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## The possible last digits that are even are 0, 2, 4, 6, and

8, for a total of 5.
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## So how many ways can we choose the first and last

digits to be even?

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## We can choose the first and last digits to be even in 4 *

5 = 20 different ways.
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Notice that when both first and last digits are even, for
any choice of the first and last digits the middle digit is
uniquely determined.
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digits are odd?

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## This symbol is known as a binomial coefficient, and it is

in some form on a combination.
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## The possible first digits that are odd are 1, 3, 5, 7, and

9, for a total of 5.
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The possible last digits that are odd are the same, for
another 5. So how many ways can we choose the first
and last digits to be odd?
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## We can choose the first and last digits to be odd in 5 *

5 = 25 different ways.
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Similar to the even case notice that when both first and
last digits are odd, for any choice of the first and last

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## How can we specify a line segment, where both

endpoints are vertices of the cube?
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## We specify such a line segment by choosing two

vertices of the cube. How many ways are there to
choose two vertices of the cube?
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## The total number of such three-digit numbers is 20 +

25 = 45. The answer is (E).
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## Not every counting problem can be solved by using the

product principle, but if you can use it, then it is usually
the easiest way to solve the problem.
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COMBINATIONS
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## In a combination, we are selecting objects from a set,

where the order of the objects does not matter. For

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## We want to compute the number of ways of arranging

three Xs and two Os in a row. How can we do this?
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## combinations makes things even easier. How can we

selecting B, C, and A.

use combinations?

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## Let's think about how can specify an arrangement of

three Xs and two Os in a row. We have five tiles to
order, so how can we specify such an arrangement?

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## We can specify such an arrangement by placing the

three Xs first (or we can go with the Os if you want -same idea.)
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## Therefore, the probability that the arrangement reads

XOXOX is 1/10. The answer is (B).
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## We now present a method for counting certain kinds of

COMPLEMENTARY COUNTING
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## In some counting problems, it is easier to count the

objects that we don't want, rather that the objects that
we do want. This is technique is called complementary
counting.
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## distributions, which we call stars and bars. (It goes by

other names too, like balls and urns.)
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## To illustrate the method, we look at a specific example.

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many ways that a four-digit number that can have at
least one digit that is a 2 or a 3. For example, the
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## number can be 7201, or 3587, or 2322.

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and one powdered. It's not hard to list all the possible

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given condition.

## chocolate, and one powdered, then we represent this

with the following row of stars and bars:
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**|*|*
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## If the number does not satisfy the given condition, then

the number does not contain at least one digit that is a
2 or a 3. In other words, none of the digits are 2 or 3.
8:14:38 pm

8:07:00 pm

***||*
8:08:24 pm

8:16:25 pm

## We look at each digit individually. What are the

possible first digits?
8:17:33 pm

8:08:33 pm

8:18:45 pm

## represented by a row of four stars and two bars. How

for a total of 8.

## many ways can we arrange four stars and two bars?

8:19:15 pm

The possible third and fourth digits are the same as the
possible second digits. So how many four-digit
numbers do not contain a 2 or 3?
8:19:40 pm

## The number of four-digit numbers that do not contain a

2 or 3 is 7 * 8 * 8 * 8 = 3584. What do we want to do
with this number?
8:20:32 pm

8:20:43 pm

8:29:17 pm

numbers.

8:20:52 pm

8:20:59 pm

CASEWORK
8:21:14 pm

8:29:22 pm

8:30:26 pm

## No one can sit next to or directly across from his or her

spouse, so man M1 can only sit between W2 and W3, or
W4 and W5.
8:30:59 pm

W3.

8:21:29 pm

8:31:04 pm

8:22:54 pm

8:24:50 pm

## As is customary in society, we seat the ladies first. How

many ways can the first woman be seated?
8:25:49 pm

8:31:10 pm

the diagram?

sit?
8:26:31 pm

## The men and women must alternate, so there are only

four chairs that the remaining four women can sit in.
How many ways are there to seat the remaining four
women?
8:27:59 pm

women.
8:28:02 pm

8:29:11 pm

8:32:25 pm

8:33:01 pm

8:33:04 pm

8:33:53 pm

8:36:10 pm

## The case is symmetric with the first case, so again

there is only one way to seat the rest of the men, which
we can derive as follows.

8:33:57 pm

8:36:22 pm

8:34:03 pm

8:36:29 pm

## Then man M5 must sit between women W1 and W2,

and then man M3 must sit between women W4 and W5.
8:34:45 pm

Let's recap.
8:36:35 pm

## There are 10 ways to seat the first women, then 24

ways to seat the remaining women.
8:36:39 pm

Then there are 2 ways to seat the first man, then only
one way to seat the remaining men. So how many
seating arrangements are there?
8:38:09 pm

8:38:13 pm

## When dividing into cases, make sure that your cases

are exhaustive (in other words, your cases cover all
possibilities), and that you work all your cases through
8:35:15 pm

thorough.

8:35:19 pm

## What if man M1 sits between women W4 and W5? How

many ways are there to seat the rest of the men then?
8:35:24 pm

8:38:19 pm

8:38:32 pm

8:45:47 pm

## that seems to fit the situation. However, in some

counting problems, the best way to solve the problem
8:39:08 pm

8:46:19 pm

8:46:56 pm

8:47:03 pm

8:40:11 pm

8:41:36 pm

## We can think about how the tournament proceeds, and

the number of players left in each round.
8:41:40 pm

8:48:14 pm

8:42:32 pm

## The remaining players play 72/2 = 36 games. So how

many players advanced to the second round?
8:42:37 pm

## A player is eliminated in each of the 36 games, so 36 +

28 = 64 players advance to the second round.
8:43:41 pm

8:48:41 pm

Ouch, no.
8:49:02 pm

8:49:37 pm

8:50:03 pm

faster way.

8:50:10 pm

8:43:46 pm

## The tournament goes from 100 players down to 1

player, so we need to eliminate 99 players. How does a
player get eliminated?
8:44:44 pm

## Exactly one player gets eliminated in each game. So

how many games must there be?
8:45:12 pm

## There must be 99 games. Of the answer choices, only

(E) is true. That's it.
8:45:40 pm

## The fact that the top 28 players get a bye is completely

irrelevant. This condition impacts the number of rounds

8:51:08 pm

## the first place. How does this triangle get created?

casework. And last but not least... just think about it.

8:51:17 pm

8:51:27 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:30:58 pm

## AMC 10 PROBLEM SERIES

WEEK 10: PROBABILITY
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7:31:05 pm

## In today's lecture, we look at various types of

probability problems and the techniques for solving
probability.
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7:31:10 pm

PROBABILITY BY COUNTING
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8:52:33 pm

## In turn, the three chords are specified by six points on

the circle. So how can we count the number of
triangles?
8:54:05 pm

7:32:05 pm

## In probability, we typically work with "events." For

example, flipping a coin and getting three heads in a
row can be an event.
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7:32:10 pm

## the interior of the circle, each of the 6 points must be

connected to the one opposite.

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7:32:16 pm

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7:32:37 pm

8:54:13 pm

8:54:34 pm

SUMMARY

8:54:37 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:54:43 pm

## Do not start, for example, by trying to guess the right

binomial coefficient that seems to fit. The right way to
start solving a counting problem is to consider what it
is you are trying to count. Is there a simple way of
describing the objects you want to count? Is there a

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7:33:23 pm

7:33:26 pm

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7:33:45 pm

## We see that 100/2 = 50 of these numbers are divisible

by 2. These numbers are {2, 4, 6, ..., 100}.

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7:33:57 pm

8:54:56 pm

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7:34:16 pm

## Instead of trying to find how many are not divisible by

3, what else can we ask?

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7:35:25 pm

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7:40:26 pm

## What is the numerator of the probability?

are divisible by 3.
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7:35:32 pm

7:41:05 pm

## combinations of bill will work?

are divisible by 6?
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7:35:47 pm

7:42:55 pm

casework!

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7:36:14 pm

7:43:27 pm

divisible by 3?

that?

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7:36:40 pm

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7:44:33 pm

two cases.

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7:37:07 pm

7:44:37 pm

## The probability that a number from 1 to 100 is divisible

by 2 and not divisible by 3 is 34/100 = 17/50. The

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7:44:46 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:37:14 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:45:17 pm

## We can draw a twenty then a smaller bill, or vice versa.

Also, we have 2 possibilities for which 20 we draw and
6 possibilities for which smaller denomination bill we
draw. How many possibilities is this altogether?

Valentin Vornicu

7:38:30 pm

## So we'll need to count the numerator and denominator.

But before we do that, we have to decide a couple
things: Are the bills distinguishable? Does order
matter? No matter what we choose, the probability will
be the same (it better be). We would get different
counts that have the same ratio.
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7:39:02 pm

## So the question is: what choices do we make to make

counting easy? Let's try distinguishable, order does
matter.
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7:39:10 pm

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7:40:06 pm

## There are 8 possibilities for the first bill, and 7

possibilities for the second bill, for a total of 56.

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7:47:06 pm

## There are 2*2*6=24 possibilities for drawing bills of

different denomination with total value over 20 dollars.
Altogether there are 24 + 4 = 28 successful outcomes.
Since there were 56 outcomes in total, the probability
is 28/56 = 1/2.
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7:47:48 pm

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7:48:30 pm

ways.

numerator of p?
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7:49:32 pm

7:56:13 pm

## Similarly, we can choose two slips with the number b in

4 choose 2 = 6 ways.

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7:49:35 pm

7:56:17 pm

q/p?

from 1 to 10.
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7:49:38 pm

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7:50:16 pm

## The denominator of p is the number of ways of

7:57:42 pm

7:58:22 pm

ALGEBRAIC PROBABILITY

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number?

7:58:25 pm

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7:50:58 pm

## compute the denominator of p. Let's just call this large

than or equal to 2?

number N.
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7:51:01 pm

7:59:20 pm

## The probability that we get heads is 1/2, and the

probability that we roll a number that is less than or
equal to 2 is 2/6 = 1/3, so the probability that both

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7:52:29 pm

## The numerator of q is the number of ways of choosing

four slips of the form a, a, b, b, where a and b are

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number?

7:59:24 pm

Valentin Vornicu

7:53:22 pm

## First, we can determine the number of ways of

choosing the numbers a and b. How many ways can we

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7:59:30 pm

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8:00:01 pm

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7:54:25 pm

## The number of ways of choosing the numbers a and b is

10 choose 2 = 45.
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7:54:42 pm

## Now that we have determined a and b, we must

determine the number of ways of choosing two slips
with the number a, and two slips with the number b.
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7:54:45 pm

number a?
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7:56:06 pm

8:01:20 pm

8:01:25 pm

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8:01:31 pm

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8:09:49 pm

## of choosing 2, and so on, up to the probability of

choosing 100. What can we say about all these

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8:10:10 pm

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8:10:40 pm

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8:02:32 pm

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8:03:36 pm

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8:11:37 pm

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8:12:13 pm

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8:03:54 pm

## The probabilities for each of the numbers from 1 to 50

is p, and the probabilities from each of the numbers
from 51 to 100 is 3p. So what is the sum of these
probabilities?
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8:04:29 pm

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8:12:17 pm

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8:13:33 pm

## The sum of these probabilities is 50 * p + 50 * 3p =

50p + 150p = 200p. So what is p?
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8:05:32 pm

means p = 1/200.
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8:05:58 pm

mayor's work?

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8:07:16 pm

8:15:15 pm

## There are three ways exactly one voter approve the

mayor's work, one for each voter.

## the number of perfect squares from 1 to 100, then

dividing by 100. However, this won't work here.

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8:15:20 pm

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8:08:39 pm

occurring?

## probability of being chosen. The probability of choosing

a number from 1 to 50 is p, and the probability of

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we do?

8:16:01 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:09:33 pm

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8:16:04 pm

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8:09:36 pm

0.3 = 0.063.

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8:09:48 pm

8:16:09 pm

## The other two scenarios have the same probability of

occurring. So what is the answer?

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8:17:41 pm

## The probability that exactly one voter approve the

mayor's work is 3 * 0.063 = 0.189. The answer is (B).
Valentin Vornicu

8:17:54 pm

TREE ANALYSIS
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8:17:58 pm

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8:23:04 pm

## drawn from an urn. One systematic way of dealing with

such processes is constructing a tree, where the

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8:23:23 pm

and 2/2 - 1 = 0.
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8:18:09 pm

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8:23:28 pm

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8:24:18 pm

## Then for each possible third term, we compute the

possible fourth terms.
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8:18:51 pm

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8:24:23 pm

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8:24:28 pm

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8:20:44 pm

## The possible values of the second term are 2 * 6 - 1 =

11 and 6/2 - 1 = 2.
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8:20:47 pm

## Accordingly, we draw a tree with a 6 at the top,

branching to 11 and 2.
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8:20:52 pm

integer?
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8:22:03 pm

## If 11 is the second term, then what are the possible

values of the third term?
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8:22:57 pm

8:24:50 pm

## Of the eight possible fourth terms, five are integers, so

the probability is 5/8. The answer is (D).
Valentin Vornicu

8:25:18 pm

CASEWORK

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8:23:01 pm

8:25:19 pm

## least the principles of counting), it should not be

surprising that we must sometimes employ casework in
probability.
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8:25:25 pm

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8:36:52 pm

rolls?
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8:25:33 pm

## A lot of this problem is in the wording! So let's make

sure that we understand the problem.
Valentin Vornicu

8:25:38 pm

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8:37:26 pm

## The probability of rolling at least five high rolls is

4/243 + 1/729 = 13/729. The answer is (A).
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8:37:39 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:39:00 pm

## other words rolls that are fives or sixes, so let's call a

five or a six a "high roll," and everything else a "low
roll." Which probability do we want to compute?
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8:27:14 pm

## We want to compute the probability that we roll at

least five high rolls. In other words, we want to
compute the probability that we roll five or six high
rolls. How can we compute this probability?

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8:29:19 pm

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8:40:53 pm

into?
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8:30:20 pm

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8:41:23 pm

faces.
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8:31:42 pm

## We can roll exactly five high rolls in six ways. If there

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are exactly five high rolls, then there is exactly one low

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8:31:45 pm

8:41:27 pm

8:43:33 pm

## We can choose n of the six faces to be red in 6 choose n

ways. The probability of each face being either color is

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8:32:56 pm

1/2.

## The probability of rolling a high roll is 2/6 = 1/3, so the

probability of rolling a low roll is 1 - 1/3 = 2/3. So

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8:43:38 pm

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8:45:01 pm

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8:34:43 pm

## Now let's go through the cases. Given that there are 0

red faces, what is the probability that the cube can be
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8:35:36 pm

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8:36:31 pm

## placed on the surface, so that all four vertical faces are

all the same color?

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8:45:57 pm

If there are 0 red faces, then all faces are blue, so the
probability is 1.
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8:46:04 pm

## Given that there is one red face, what is the probability

that the cube can be placed on the surface?
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8:47:06 pm

is 1.
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8:47:08 pm

8:51:37 pm

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## We want to multiply the probabilities in each row, then

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8:49:20 pm

If we paint one face of the cube red, then there are five

8:52:53 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:52:59 pm

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8:53:44 pm

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8:49:24 pm

## Only face is opposite, so the probability that the two

red faces are opposite each other is 1/5. This is also
the probability that the cube can be placed on the
surface.
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8:49:27 pm

## Given that there are three red faces, what is the

probability that the cube can be placed on the surface?

Valentin Vornicu

8:53:53 pm

Valentin Vornicu

8:50:13 pm

## To place the cube on the surface, we must have at least

four faces with the same color. There are only three red

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## faces and three blue faces, so the probability is 0.

GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY

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8:50:41 pm

8:53:59 pm

8:54:05 pm

## that we can count, like the number of rolls of a die. But

what if we have a probability problem involving a

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8:51:19 pm

point of view.

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8:54:12 pm

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8:54:38 pm

8:51:22 pm

## Hence, the probability in this case is also 1/5.

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8:51:25 pm

Similarly, the probabilities for five red faces and six red
faces are also 1.
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8:51:27 pm

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8:51:32 pm

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8:56:24 pm

## The product xy is greater than zero if and only if both x

and y are greater than zero, or both x and y are less
than zero.
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9:00:30 pm

8:56:30 pm

## What is the probability that a number chosen from the

interval [-20,10] is greater than zero?
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than zero?
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9:01:19 pm

Valentin Vornicu

9:01:57 pm

8:57:33 pm

## The portion of the interval [-20,10] that is greater than

0 is (0,10]. The length of the interval (0,10] is 10, and
the length of the interval [-20,10] is 30, so the
probability of choosing a number greater than zero is
10/30 = 1/3.
Valentin Vornicu

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8:58:20 pm

## It follows that the probability of choosing a number

less than zero is 1 - 1/3 = 2/3.
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8:58:24 pm

Valentin Vornicu

SUMMARY
9:02:00 pm

## When solving a probability problem, the first step

should be to determine what kind of probability you are
dealing with. In some cases, all you have to do is
compute the number of "successful" outcomes, and
divide by the total number of outcomes. However, in
other cases, you may have to use other techniques,
such as tree analysis or geometric probability.

8:59:52 pm

Valentin Vornicu

9:02:03 pm

## Also, make sure you read the problem carefully. In

probability, simply relying on intuition can easily lead
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9:00:19 pm

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9:00:29 pm

## to incorrect answers. Therefore, you should make sure

you understand why your steps are correct.