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Introduction to Irrigation

Introduction to Irrigation

Introduction to Irrigation
 IRRIGATION:
 Irrigation is an art of applying water to the land by artificial means to






fulfil the water requirements of crops in areas specially where rainfall


is insufficient.
Benefits
1. Cooling the soil and atmosphere and thereby creating a favourable
environment especially for plants to grow.
2. Washing out and diluting undesirable salts in the soil.
3. Softening the land for better tillage.

Introduction to Irrigation
 Irrigation engineering consists of four

phases:
 1. Storage and diversion.
 2. Conveyance of irrigation water.
 3. Distribution and application of
irrigation water.
 4. Drainage of excess water.

Need for Irrigation


 Food Demand and population
 Arid Zones:
 For such zone annual rainfall is less than 15" and an

irrigation system is necessary.


 Semi-Arid Zones:
 In these areas, precipitation (annual rainfall) ranges from
15"-30" and an irrigation system is desirable.
 Humid Zone:
 For these zones the annual rainfall is more than 30".
Therefore an irrigation system is beneficial.

Sources of Water for Irrigation


 The water supply for agriculture is

from three main sources


 a) Rainfall
 b) Surface water
 c) Ground water

Rainfall
 In Pakistan the mean annual rainfall ranges from less

than 4" in parts of the lower Indus region to more


than 30" in the Northern foothills.
 Of this annual rainfall only a small portion makes
any useful or direct contribution of irrigation water
supplies.
 According to consultant experts of the World Bank
the figure ranges from 1" to 17". The rest is either
surface runoff or addition to the ground water
reservoir while some is lost by evaporation.
 It is estimated that the present direct contribution
to the crops is 6 MAF per annum.

Surface Runoff
 Pakistan rivers carry the melting snow and

rains from the Northern hills down to the


plains where they can be used for
irrigation.
 From mid-March to mid-July (When the
monsoon breaks) the river discharges
derive mainly from melting snow.
 From mid July to September rain water
adds to the volume.

Ground Water
 After rainfall and surface water, ground water is

the most important water source for irrigation.


 In hilly areas this is in form of springs, artesian
wells, etc and may be the only source for
irrigation.
 Using ground water by sinking tube wells may
seem to be the direct and rapid way of meeting
immediate irrigation water requirements.
 However not all the available ground water may
be suitable for irrigation use.

Assignment 1 / Lecture 1
 Which water is most suitable for the purpose of

Irrigation?
 What are the different Salts/Minerals that can be
allowed in the water used for irrigation?
 What is the range of sediments (PPM) that can be
allowed in water used for irrigation?
 If allowable ranges of the above mentioned exceeds, how
the yield of crops can be effected?

Selection of Suitable Source for


Irrigation
 The selection for suitable source for

irrigation depends on the following


 Reliability of the source
 Quantity of water available
 Quality of water

Irrigation System in Pakistan

Irrigation System in Pakistan


 Pakistan is situated in Arid Zone.
 The Indus basin receives less that 15" of rainfall in a year,

with 30% of the area receiving even less than 10%.


 Agriculture therefore heavily depends on irrigation.
 The major rivers in Pakistan are the Indus, its left bank
tributaries of Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Satluj, and right
bank tributaries of Swat, Kunhar, Kabul and Kurram etc.
 The annual runoff of the Indus system of rivers is
estimated as 168 MAF (Million acre ft.) A large
underground water reservoirs exist under the Indus
plains. Use of both the surface water and the ground
water is therefore necessary for the national survival.

Irrigation System in Pakistan


 Pakistan is an agricultural country. Therefore an

irrigation system is necessary for food crops.


 Sukhur Barrage, Chushma Barrage, Rasool Barrage,
Guddu Barrage, Kotri Barrage , Head Sulemankee, Head
Marala, Head Rasool, Head Khanki, Head Bulloki etc.
are constructed for irrigation purposes.
 Besides it, a vast irrigation canal system was constructed
in 1960, to transfer water of western rivers to the canal
system of eastern rivers, Beas, Ravi and Satluj.

Indus Water Treaty


 In

1947, when
Punjab
was
divided between
the two countries,
many of the canal
head-works
remained
with
India. The division
of Punjab thus
created
major
problems
for
irrigation
in
Pakistan.

Indus Water Treaty


 On April 1, 1948, India stopped the supply of water to

Pakistan from every canal flowing from India to Pakistan.


 Pakistan protested and India finally agreed on an interim
agreement on May 4, 1948.
 This agreement was not a permanent solution; therefore,
Pakistan approached the World Bank in 1952 to help
settle the problem permanently.
 Negotiations were carried out between the two
countries through the offices of the World Bank. It was
finally in Ayub Khan's regime that an agreement was
signed between India and Pakistan in September 1960.
This agreement is known as the IndusWaterTreaty.

Indus Water Treaty


 This treaty divided the use of rivers and canals

between the two countries.


 Pakistan obtained exclusive rights for the three
Western Rivers, namely Indus, Jhelum and
Chenab.
 India retained rights to the three Eastern Rivers,
namely Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.

Indus Water Treaty


 During this period Pakistan was to build huge dams,

financed partly by long-term World Bank loans and


compensation money from India.
 Three multipurpose dams, Warsak, Mangla and Tarbela
were built.
 A system of eight link canals was also built, and the
remodeling of existing canals was carried out.
 Five barrages and a gated siphon were also constructed
under this treaty.

Indus Basin
Irrigation
System IBIS

Assignment 2/ Lecture 1
 In the previous Figure redraw the diagram by yourself to

understand the Irrigation System of Pakistan.


 List down all the Dams and their location in Pakistan
underWAPDA
 List down all the Dams and their location in Pakistan
under Irrigation Department
 List down all the Barrages and their location in Pakistan
especially for the Provinces of Punjab and Sind.
 List down all the Canals with their start and end points
in Sind and Punjab specially.

Assignment 3/ Lecture 1
 Download document of Indus Water Treaty 1960

between India and Pakistan and submit a


comprehensive
report
regarding
your
understanding of this Treaty.

MANGLA

JINNAH

RASUL
MERALA

CHASHMA

QADIRABA
D

BALLOKI

KHANKI

Lahore

TRIMMU
FEROZEPUR

TAUNSA
SIDHNAI

SULAIMANKE
ISLAM

PANJNAD

Barrage/Dam

GUDU

Canal System of Pakistan


 Canal is an artificial waterway constructed for

purposes of irrigation, drainage, or navigation, or


in connection with a hydroelectric dam.
 Canal brings river water close to the field where
it is required to be.
 The canals come out of rivers, dams, and
barrages. The irrigation system of Pakistan is one
of the best in the world. This is one of the largest
irrigation systems in the world.

Canal System of Pakistan


 In Pakistan, almost 75% of the land which is in agricultural use

is covered by the irrigation system.


 Currently there are 3 large dams and 85 small dams, along with
these dams there are 19 barrages to fulfill the water need.
 From these dams and barrages 12 inter link canals and 45 canals
have been taken to provide water to the fields.
 To utilize ground water 0.7 million tube wells have been
installed.
 In Pakistan canals are the most popular means of irrigation as
they supply plenty of water at very cheap rates.
 River Indus, Jhelum and Chenab are the main sources of water
for Pakistan.

Canals of River Ravi


 Upper Bari Doab (originates from Madhupur headworks

in India) and Lower Bari Doab (originates from the


Balloki Headworks) are two important canals of River
Ravi.
 These canals are very important for the production of
summer crops.
 The upper Bari Doab is old canal which was constructed
in 1868.
 Apart from this the Sidhnai Canal rises from the left bank
of the Ravi where the Headworks have been built at
Sidhnai.

Canals of River Chenab


 The Upper Chenab flows from the Marala Weir in

the Sialkot district and Lower Chenab flows from


the Khanki weir and irrigates a vast wheat and
cotton area of Rachna Doab.
 The heavily system of canals is also located in this
Doab that comes out from Trimmu Head Works.

Canals of River Jhelum


 The upper Jhelum canal originates at the Mangla

Weir in Jhelum district. It joins the Chenab at Khanki


and gives its surplus water to lower Chenab Canal.
 The Lower Jhelum canal flows from the River
Jhelum at the Rasul Weir in district Gujrat.
 These two canals along with lower Ban Doab link the
three rivers i.e. Jhelum Chenab and Ravi.

Canals of River Sutlej


 There are three Head Works on river Sutlej i.e.
 Feroze-Wala,
 Sulaimanki and
 Islam,
 whereas fourth is on the Puhjnad.
 These canals irrigate the area of Nili Bar and

Bahawalpur.

Canals of River Indus


 The canals from Jinnah Barrage near Kalabagh

irrigate the desert area of Thar for agricultural


purpose.
 Districts of D.G. Khan and D.I. Khan are
irrigated by a link canal from Chashma barrage,
Taunsa barrage and Guddu barrage also have
canals which irrigate vast areas.
 At Sukkur Barrage four canals flow from the right
bank and three from the left bank of the river
Indus.

Punjab Barrages/Head works


River

Barrage/Head works

Indus

Chashma

Jhelum

Rasul

Chenab

Marala

Khanki

Ravi

Balloki

Sidhnai

Sutlej

Sulaimanki

Islam

Punjnad

Punjnad

Taunsa

Qadirabad

Trimmu

Important Link Canals in Punjab and Rivers Links


Link
 Canal
Chashma-Jhelum

Linked Rivers
Indus

Jhelum

Taunsa-Punjnad
Rasul-Qadirabad
Marala-Ravi
Bambanwala-RaviBedian
Upper ChenabBalloki
Qadirabad-Balloki
Trimmu-Sidhnai
Balloki-Sulaimanke
Sidhnai-Mailsi

Indus
Jhelum
Chenab
Chenab

Chenab
Chenab
Ravi
Ravi

Chenab

Ravi

Chenab
Chenab
Ravi
Ravi

Ravi
Ravi
Sutlej
Sutlej

Sutlej

Link Canals in Punjab and Rivers Links


 The link canals have a total length of about 800

Km with a total capacity of about 100,000 cusecs.


 These canals transport water from the three
western rivers to the three eastern rivers which
run short of water as their water has been
allotted to India.
 References:
 www.eoearth.com
 www.teabreak.pk
 Encarta Encyclopedia

Irrigation
System in
Punjab,
Pakistan

Irrigation System in Pakistan


 Inspite of that, ground water is utilised for irrigation

purposes. In order to exploit ground water for


irrigation purposes, wells and pumping machinery have
to be used.
 Finally to avoid water-logging and salinity and the
consequent loss of cultivable land, a drainage system for
excess water was designed.
 Irrigation authority has programmed for tube well
system for water-logging areas to lower ground water
and to avoid undesirable salts.

Irrigation System in Pakistan


 Dams are also constructed for Hydel power generation

and irrigation purposes e.g.


 The WARSAK DAM on river Kabul.
 The TARBELA DAM on river Indus.
 The MANGLA DAM on river Jhelum.

Important Websites
 http://irrigation.punjab.gov.pk/
 http://pida.punjab.gov.pk/
 http://pmo-pb.gop.pk/pages/index.php
 http://irrigation.punjab.gov.pk/ppdb.aspx
 http://waterinfo.net.pk/cms/

Assignment 4/ Lecture 1
 Write a note on the Cropping Pattern
 Discuss in detail the Cropping Pattern in Pakistan
 What do you know about Rabi and Kharif Seasons in Pakistan
 List all the Crops for Rabi Season
 List all the Crops for Kharif Season
 Write details on the yields of different crops in Pakistan and

being an agricultural country comment on the future


agriculture and irrigation system in Pakistan