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Running head: RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

Relations Among Parents and Principals/Teachers for Student Success


Stephen Richard
University of New England

Dr. Angela Taylor


Action Research EDU 690
March 26th, 2014

Table of contents

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

Introduction..3
Problem Statement...3
Research Question(s)...4
Hypothesis4
Literature Review.4
Introduction..4
Key Terms........5
Summary of Literature Review8
Methodology8
Introduction..8
Research Design..9
Sample Selection....10
Data Collection Plan..10
Triangulation
Matrix..11
Data Analysis.12
Data Analysis graphs.13
Action Plan.....23
References..24
Appendices.27

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

Introduction
Teaching for the past five years at six different schools has been an unusual, though
educational experience. With aspirations of becoming an administrator, the numerous views and
feedback from six principals has been invaluable. Often inquiring about the difficulties of being
principal, all four current principals have mentioned parent relations being an area of difficulty
especially involving student behavior. Using current principals and schools, past principals,
coworkers and parents as outside sources and references will serve as valuable collection agents
for the research. The findings and results of this study will hopefully bring together a
cohesiveness of parents, administration and ultimately the students, for an increase of positive
behavior and achievement. When parents, their children and administration are on the same page
education can be carried out in a productive manner.
Problem
There is sometimes conflict when communicating with parents because of a disconnect
between the parent and principal view of what the schools role is concerning behavior. The past
five years of speaking with principals, parents and community members has led to the realization
of severity concerning the issue. Conversing with a past principal who retired early and acquired
a different position for the sole reason of difficult parents is a prime example of the strain it
can produce. Understanding that culture and location varies from school to school, there will be
differing expectations of student behavior and educational role of the school. With aspirations of
becoming an administrator, tackling this issue now will lead to becoming a more effective
administrator in the future.

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

Questions
As it is difficult to find exact data on communication issues between administration and
parents concerning behavior, surveys and questionnaires will be valuable tools for this research.
Measurable questionnaires will include questions like: What are the roles of principals in a
school when dealing with behavior and education? How do parents perceive that role? In what
manner or approach should the principal communicate with the parents? Will improving
behavior of students and relations with parents increase achievement?
Hypothesis
When students, parents and administration/teachers understand their independent roles
within the school environment it will create less conflict, satisfied parents and students for
optimal learning and success.
Literature Review
Introduction Key Terms
The subject of relations between parent and teacher/principal is not new. Finding
relevant, recent and respectable sources is a challenge, though the writings being used are of high
quality. Simply viewing the titles of the articles, gives perfect validity to the problem, relations
between parent and teachers/principal. Titles of articles like: Improving relationships within the
schoolhouse, Parents, principals, and power: a historical case study of "managing" parental
involvement (Barth, 2006), and a favorite, The how, whom, and why of parents involvement in
childrens academic lives: More is not always better (Pomerantz, 2008). Just reading the titles
of these articles should give anyone an idea of the difficulties that lie between school and parent
relations. The existing literature reviewed comes to the conclusion many views and techniques

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

are involved in communicating with parents, and solving the issues are vital for total school
success.
Key Terms
Key terms that were used in finding articles varied in order to find the most relevant and
pertinent information. Using an assortment of educational data bases from the Saginaw Valley
State University online library, University of New England online library, ProQuest, and google
scholar, narrowed down usable, peer reviewed articles. Key terms such as: parents teacher,
parent principal, student success, relationships and a combinations of theses word phrases were
used. Although specific phrases and words were used in the search, sifting through the numerous
articles was tedious.
The importance of how and why parents get involved is fundamental in understanding
this relationship and more importantly, how it affects the students academics. Parents get
involved for a variety of reasons, both positive and negative. If parents want to be an integral
part of their childs education, this is better than no concern at all. Parents helping because they
are interested in assisting in the educational process is helpful in general. Parents also get
involved because they believe their child is not having the proper school experience; the first one
is ideal. An assistant principals roll is challenging and the top issue this type of administrator
deals with is discipline. Discipline in nature, will bring parents into the equation. So how do we
successfully approach and handle parents? Especially the ones who believe their childs case is
being mishandled or dealt with incorrectly. The good news is that positive management can reap
constructive benefits for all involved (Robinson, 2007).
A framework of complimentary goals towards success will aid in the interaction of
administration, student and parent. At all levels of school, K-12th grade, parent involvement has

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

in impact on education. With either sex, male or female, both are found to have a more positive
school outcome than when parents are not involved. Interestingly, parent involvement at home
actually provided a more positive result than parent involvement in school. Although parent
involvement at all levels is important, studies found that at the middle school/high school age,
involvement had the largest impact (Carter, 2002).
A study from the Institute of Educational Sciences was bold enough to state: The nature
of relationships among the adults within a school has a greater influence on the character and
quality of a school and on student accomplishment than anything else. From the short five years
of teaching experience, this statement is quite accurate. Though the articles researched were
valuable, pertinent and interesting with usable information in them, personal research may
produce even more valuable findings (Barth, 2006). Congenial relationships with parents are the
most ideal kinds of relationships between parent and teacher/principal. A congenial relationship
is open and personal and friendly. When principals and or teachers have an open door policy that
allows parents to understand the classroom and school policies communication works. This
congenial relationship is necessary for peaceful communication between school and parent
(Barth, 2006).
Just as parent relations need to go beyond the bake sale, administration relations must
also go beyond coffee with the principal. A study from three schools in the Los Angeles
Unified School District, all of which had 80% - 95% free or reduced lunch, found that creating
opportunities for conversing, listening and setting a tone of respect with parents gave a sense of
ease. Simply making yourself as the administrator visible makes a huge difference in the
perceived care of the school for parents. Going to school sporting events, plays, dances will let
parents know the administrator cares about affairs outside the office. Authentic partnerships

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

welcome parent involvement and an open door policy though most importantly, true involvement
is actual say in school affairs. Superficial participation in real school happenings is easily
perceived and means nothing to parents. Encouraging input at public board meetings and
forming meetings with parents shows compassion for the school and ultimately their children.
When parents know the administration cares then they too are more willing to invest in their
childs success and achievement (Journal of School Leadership, 2010).
A thirty year longitudinal study on a K-8 school involving relations between parents and
administration is the perfect reference for quality evidence of practical effective leadership.
Parents and school administrators are natural enemies concerning the power struggle that
exists between them. (Curci, 2010). All leaders and organizations are affected by the culture and
the time they exist in. Principals and administrators must adapt over time. To avoid the revolving
door turnover, which is sometimes common of principals, adaptation of scenarios is essential. A
principals job, is made infinitely easier when the principal has the support and engagement of
the community (Curci, 2010). Ongoing, active management of encouraging parent support will
tap into an incredible resource that can aid in administration duties. When performed effectively,
as principal Monroe did, at a disclosed school the increase of proficiency in math and English
were staggering. Within a three year time frame, math proficiency or above, rose from 18.7% to
70.2%, while English proficiency rose from 20.8% to 65%. Both the math and English scores are
spectacularly high from where they started, all because of a serious effort to involve the valuable
resource of parents (Curci, 2010).
A book titled, Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships
(Henderson, 2007), lists some do more and do less for a school. Among the list of do less
is: No trespassing signs, giant meetings in the gym, complaining that parents are not involved,

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

pushing off parent communication to other staff members, meeting only during the designated
school hours, and planning events that parents may not care about then broadcasting them. On
the list of do more is: Add welcome signs saying how may we help you?, welcome signs
with the principals name and school name, parent meetings with group leaders and breaking into
groups, one on one meetings and one to one emails, going to as many school events as possible,
sending thank you cards or emails whenever possible, greet parents before and after school, and
surveying parents about ideas and their input on school happenings.
Summary of Literature Review
When researching the subject of communication and relationship between parents and
school personnel, several articles appeared, though none with specific answers. According to the
vast quantity of articles found, recent and from the early 1900s, the topic and closely related
topics have been prevalent since schools began in the United States. The broad spectrum of
culture, location, social class and beliefs all factor into a general guidelines to follow. There is no
set policy or rulebook to follow, which leads to the strain of relationships between parents and
schools, in the end affecting student success.
Methodology
One of the most concerning issues teachers and principals have throughout any given
week is dealing with parents. This has become an ever growing concern while completing
courses to become an administrator. Speaking intently with one retired principal, one assistant
head of school, one superintendent and four current principals, all of them had similar distresses.
To last in this job, you must be able to take your work coat off at the door of your home. If you
take difficult work issues home with you, they will eat at you all weekend long. Its taken quite a
few years as an administrator to realize that, and I can finally get some sleep. Said one of the

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

interviewers in an administration position. Without question, the issue of parent management is


exceedingly important and needs strict attention. The problem may be that student success is
hindered because of role confusion and negative interaction between parent and
teacher/administrator. The question of knowing individual roles must be inquired. Also, how can
difficult issues and upset parents be defused? What kind of communication should be used
between parent and teacher or administrator? Is there a communication protocol that could foster
healthier outcomes in dealing with adverse issues? When students, parents and
administration/teachers understand their independent roles within the school environment it will
create less conflict, satisfied parents and students for optimal learning and success.
Research Design:
Qualitative analysis will be the data analysis of choice because of the unknown qualities
of the roles of administrators, teachers and students. The largest unknown is what can be done by
means of communication in order to increase student success. Quantitative analysis is not
applicable even though information thus far has seemingly been close to what was expected for
answers from, administrators, students and parents. Due to straightforward facts not being there,
qualitative analysis is the best option.
While planning the research design, the conclusion that was eventually realized, is that
there are no clear cut answers to any of the need to know questions. The hypothesis of, understanding independent roles within the school and less conflict between parents and
teachers/principals equals optimal success. is incredibly difficult to measure. Finding the
measured results could not be accomplished by simply taking a test, measuring attendance or
increase of student grades. Establishing a study of such great complication would need at a
significant amount of time, even if complete understanding of roles could be accomplished,

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results would not be seen right away. However, to start processing information, data from each
category of student, parent and administrator/teacher must be collected to find out what each
actually believes their role is according to the educational environment.
Sample Section:
Sample participants come from two main groups; either the facebook and some teacher,
parent, student and other group which completed the survey monkey, or the sample group from
AOS96, Machias, Maine and surrounding area. Participants were chosen for the study based on
them being at school the day the questionnaire was given. The sample selection is larger than it
needs to be for the represented group of individuals as approximately half of the student
population and nearly all the staff filled out a survey. Using nearly all the students from grades
five and up, all four principals, one superintendent, one assistant head of school and several
parents, both with children in school and out, I am confident of attaining a solid percent of the
represented group.
Data Collection Plan:
Many data collecting instruments were used while collecting information for the study.
Conducting a comprehensive survey monkey questionnaire was the original thought for
collecting valuable data. The survey was intended not just for individuals involved in education
but opinions of many were taken as a simple facebook share expanded the survey immensely.
A Survey Monkey collection and analysis can be a useful tool, especially when answers are
multiple choice and easy to evaluate. Logging onto the survey monkey website was a gratifying
as the stats were in graph from with easy to read colors and numbers. The online data collection
plan started to evolve as time went on. Technology can be a great asset, though a few of the

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survey takers were unable to use a computer or access one, forcing a paper and pencil. Some of
the best information was gathered from person to person interviews, conducted either face to
face or by phone. Taking a brief amount of time out of classes to fill out a questionnaire and
giving it to other staff members seemed to result in the easiest and quickest collection of
information. The data collection plan was to gather information from students, parents, teachers
and administrators. Obviously, the personal interviews could not remain anonymous and
handwritten surveys would be grouped into student, parent, teacher and administration piles to
determine the opinion of each group. No names are on any written survey.
Triangulation matrix:
Research
Questions
Role of a
student

Role of a parent

Student
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Role of
administration

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Questions
involving
communication
and student
success.

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Parent

Administrator

Teacher

Other

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
Interview
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview
Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire &
interview

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

Survey
monkey/written
questionnaire

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Data Analysis:
In general, so far, students believe their role to learn, teachers believe their role is to teach
and administrators believe their role is to run the school. Its the small intricacies that will have
to be sifted through to find some real answers. To keep results of the written questionnaire valid,
it only extended down to the fifth grade in order to keep answers more genuine and credible. Not
that younger students dont have valuable input, though they may not have a full understanding
of what school is about and understand it just yet. Displaying and organizing the information that
has been gathered will be completed in a few different manners. First, all student, teacher,
administrator and other groups will be separated with the highest ranking answers of the
questions displayed in graph form similar to the style of the survey monkey results. This will
clearly show the differing answers of each people group and where the inconsistencies of
answers lie. The second data analysis will consist of the results from the survey monkey which
have already been nicely displayed. This information is different in that it is not separated by
people group, though it is still valuable because it gives the view of the general population and
not just people within short reach. Lastly, data collected from the interviews of all people groups
will be shown in graph form to keep visual perception the same for easier conceptualization of
multiple data collection forms. Once graphed for ease of understanding, analyzing the data will
be the comparing of opinions and thoughts, which then be used to better understand how student
success is affected.
Action Plan:
Based on what has been learned from this study, further action ought to take place. With
greater defining of the role of the many who are involved in school and how to properly execute
communication, all may reap the benefits. Though the research of communication to improve

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student success rate is difficult to measure, the importance of it cannot be overlooked. The action
plan proposal will take place during the start of the 2014/2015 school year and conclude at the
end of the second quarter. Starting early on and finishing at the half way point, will give ample
time for communication engagements at all levels to transpire.
This action plan will take place school wide because it involves the principal, teachers,
students and parents, with possible supplementary staff as well. A guideline for perceived
communication levels involving, administration, student and teacher will be given at the
beginning and end of the study. With some certainty, connecting the data from this study and
proposed action plan, it will show that enhanced communication will indeed foster a successful
student, which is/should be the goal of every teacher and administrator.
Mills offers a few factors of significance for facilitating educational change which are
relevant to this particular study. He believes that relationships between administrators and
teachers need to be restructured, which may solve communication issues between the two
parties. Every individual is a contributing factor of change and the culture of the school must be
considered, are also valued points of Mills that directly link to this study. Lastly, the most
important question needs to be asked and answered; does the outcome of this study benefit the
student? Yes.
The graphed data from the survey monkey site is given below with brief description of
the information gleaned from it:

This graph simply shows what percentage of individuals took the survey monkey questionnaire.
Mostly students completed survey monkey, with only four administrators.

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

In with a unanimous answer, learning information is the role of a student.

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Less obvious of an answer, the administrator has a more broad role, though running the school is
the main priority.

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

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RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS


Again, parents also have a role that is more spread out, making sure students complete their
homework is their main role with their students education. Remember, mostly students
completed this survey.

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This graph is slightly misleading. A one means this is the best kind of communication. Person
to person is the most beneficial form of communication.

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With a six percent difference, behavior issues/grades rank higher than miscommunication with
the most common issue between parents and administrators.

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS


More communication clearly received most of the votes to improve the relationship between
parents and administrators.

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RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

Without any close competitors, quality teachers are the major factor of student success.

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RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

No individual communication type stuck out, apparently all type are used and needed.

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Action Plan:
Based on what has been learned from this study, further action ought to take place. With
greater defining of the role of the many who are involved in school and how to properly execute
communication, all may reap the benefits. Though the research of communication to improve
student success rate is difficult to measure, the importance of it cannot be overlooked. The action
plan proposal will take place during the start of the 2014/2015 school year and conclude at the
end of the second quarter. Starting early on and finishing at the half way point, will give ample
time for communication engagements at all levels to transpire.
This action plan will take place school wide because it involves the principal, teachers,
students and parents, with possible supplementary staff as well. A guideline for perceived
communication levels involving, administration, student and teacher will be given at the
beginning and end of the study. With some certainty, connecting the data from this study and
proposed action plan, it will show that enhanced communication will indeed foster a successful
student, which is/should be the goal of every teacher and administrator.
Mills offers a few factors of significance for facilitating educational change which are
relevant to this particular study. He believes that relationships between administrators and
teachers need to be restructured, which may solve communication issues between the two
parties. Every individual is a contributing factor of change and the culture of the school must be
considered, are also valued points of Mills that directly link to this study. Lastly, the most
important question needs to be asked and answered; does the outcome of this study benefit the
student? Yes.

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References
Barth, R. (2006). Improving relationships within the schoolhouse. Educational Leadership,
63(6), 8-13. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ745553.
"Beyond coffee with the principal: toward leadership for authentic school-family partnerships."
Journal of School Leadership 20.6 (2010): 728+. Academic OneFile. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.
Document URL
http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE
%7CA241628730&v=2.1&u=lom_saginawvsu&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=f40895f7
75cb371e5d128b3d4d3faafe.
Carter, S. (2002). The impact of parent / family involvementon student outcomes:an annotated
bibliographyof research from thepast decade. CADRE, Retrieved from
http://www.directionservice.org/cadre/pdf/the impact of parent family involvement.pdf.
Curci, J., Horvat, E., & Partlow, M. (2010). Parents, principals, and power: a historical case
study of "managing" parental involvement . (Master's thesis), Available from Journal of
School Leadership. (20.6)Retrieved from http://rpsagsu.svsu.edu/gale-go/ps/i.do?
action=interpret&id=GALE|
A241628729&v=2.1&u=lom_saginawvsu&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1.
Hill, N. E., Castellino, D. R., Lansford, J. E., Nowlin, P., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E. and Pettit, G.
S. (2004), Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement,
and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence. Child Development,
75: 14911509. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.14678624.2004.00753.x/references.
Henderson , A. T., Mapp, K. L., Johnson, V. R., & Davies, D. (2007). Beyond the bake sale: The

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

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essential guide to family-school partnerships. New York, NY: The New York Press.
Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?
hl=en&lr=&id=UmW6_znswp8C&oi=fnd&pg=PT7&dq=parent and principal
relationships
school&ots=hmXOSWUbD&xsig=mOJzYa4KxU_onybDUq5WwGKHbfA.
Kathleen V. HooverDempsey, Joan M. T. Walker, Howard M. Sandler, Darlene Whetsel,
Christa L. Green, Andrew S. Wilkins, Kristen Closson. (2005). Why do parents become
involved? research findings and implications. The Elementary School Journal, 106(2),
105-130. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/full/10.1086/499194.
Kochanek, J. R. (2005). Building trust for better schools: Research-based practices. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?
hl=en&lr=&id=fUPznuXu1cQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=parent and principal
relationships school&ots=rD12gMPUCK&sig=VPnYhxzsE9mr2pKZFwO9NknPnf0.
Marshall, C., & Looley, R. M. (2006). The assistant principal: Leadership choices and
challenges. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Retrieved from
http://books.google.com/books?
hl=en&lr=&id=qRfIvDgrgMwC&oi=fnd&pg=PT7&dq=parent and principal
relationships school&ots=-1S1EwJrsl&sig=rTMYhUMuh9E0fFSCB44FC7wY898.
Mills, G. E. (2014). Action research a guide for the teacher researcher. (5th Ed.). Pearson
Education, Inc.
Pomerantz, E. M. (2008). The how, whom, and why of parents involvement in childrens

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS

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academic lives: More is not always better. New York, NY: The New York Press.
Retrieved from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/77/3/373.short.
Robinson, V. M. J. (2007). School leadership and student outcomes:identifying what works and
why. Winmalee, NSW, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Leaders Inc.,.
Retrieved from http://www.cred.unisa.edu.au/SILA/resource/frase9.pdf.

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Appendices:
Interview Questions/Process:
Interviewee: __________________ Position: _________________
1. Do agree or disagree with this statement: When students, parents and
administration/teachers understand their independent roles within the school environment
it will create less conflict, satisfied parents and students for optimal learning and
success.
2. We already know that parents and the communication that we have with them is crucial
for further progress with the issue at hand. In your opinion, how can or should parents
and administrators communicate for the best possible outcome?

3. In your opinion, what is the role of a parent?

4. In your opinion, what is the role of a student?

5. In your opinion, what is the role of an administrator?

6. In what way can an administrator diffuse a parent who is upset?

7. Do you think a communication protocol could be possible?

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8. Do you think an administrator would ever leave their position because of difficulty with
parents?

9. Any more comments about parents and communication or how to deal with them?

______________________________________________________________________________

Survey Monkey:
This survey will be used as an analysis tool for Mr. Richard to complete a research paper only.
Please answer questions honestly as it is absolutely anonymous. Select the best answer for each
question or explain.
1. Select the category that fits you:
O Student
O Teacher
O Administration
O Parent
O Other
2. What is the role of a student in education? Pick the top one or two answers.
O Follow the directions of the teachers
O Learn information
O Socialize and make friends
O Other, please specify:
3. What is the role of parents in education? Pick the top one or two answers.
O Talk to the teachers and administrators
O Make sure you are doing your work
O Help with school and out of school activities
O Other, please specify:
4. What is the role of a school administrator? Pick the top one or two answers.
O Make sure the teachers do their jobs
O Run the school
O Discipline the students

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O Communicate with the community


O Other, please specify:

5. What form of communication would be of the most benefit between parents and
administrators?
email

Best
O email

Works
O email

Not ideal
O email

Worst
O email

phone

O phone

O phone

O phone

O phone

person to person O person to person O person to person O person to person O person to person
text

O text

O text

O text

O text

6. What common issues exist between parents and administrators? Pick the top one or two
answers.
O Miss-communication
O Student/child behavior or grade issues
O Not performing in their role as administrator or parent
O Other, please specify:
7. How could the relationship between parents and administrators be improved? Pick the
top one or two answers.
O More communication
O More school/community events
O An open door policy for the administrator
O Other, please specify:
8. Name a major factor of student success. Pick the top one or two answers.
O Quality Teachers
O Quality administrator
O Money for quality supplies/opportunities
O Other, please specify:

9. How do you find out information about a school? Example: finding if there is a snow day
or the basketball game schedule.

RELATIONS AMONG PARENTS AND PRINCIPALS FOR SUCCESS


Always Use
School

Might Use

Never Use

School website

School website

School website

Other parents

Other parents

Other parents

or peers

or peers

or peers

or peers

Notices sent

Notices sent

Notices sent

Notices sent

School website

Sometimes Use

30

website
Other parents or
peers
Notices sent
home
Facebook

Other parents

home

home

home

home

Facebook

Facebook

Facebook

Facebook

Other, please specify:

Or please take this entire survey online with survey monkey!


https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/MPH83DF