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AWS Stainless Steel Welding Conference
March 25-26, 2014 Philadelphia, PA
Richard Campbell
281-630-8517 (Cell)

Stainless Steel Structures have been

around for decades
St. Louis Arch (built early 1965)

Chrysler Building (built 1930)

AWS D1.6 Structural Welding Code

Stainless Steel
How old is it?
1st Edition 1999
2nd Edition 2007
3rd Edition being balloted hopefully to be published late
2014 or 2015
Prior to 1999 Edition, many end users applied AWS D1.1
rules to stainless steel
But, they dont work filler metals, preheat, thermal
conductivity are all different for stainless steels
Stainless steel structures:
Supports (legs, supports for pressure vessels)

Clause 1 - General Provisions

1.1 Scope
This code covers welding requirements applicable to stainless
steel structures and weldments subject to design stress
This code is not intended to be used for pressure vessels or
pressure piping.
(AWS D1.1 references AWS D1.6 for welding of stainless steels)
1.2 Base Metals
Carbon 0.5%
Cr 10.5%
Fe exceeds content of any other single element
Combinations of stainless steels with weldable carbon or low
alloy steels

Clause 1 - General Provisions

1.2.2 Stainless steels may include any of the following:
Precipitation Hardening (austenitic, semi-austenitic, and
1.2.3 Combinations of base metal (references Annex F very
good table of suggested filler metals)
1.2.4 Many forms (sheet, plate, tubular, castings, etc.)
1.2.6 Thicknesses 1/16 in. or 16 gage

Clause 1 - General Provisions

1.2.8 Prequalified Base Metals
Austenitic stainless steel base metals (in Table 3.2) whose
filler metals (in Table 3.3) normally produce a small
amount of ferrite can be used in prequalified WPSs
All other stainless steels or combinations shall be qualified
1.2.9 Unlisted Base Metals
Welding of unlisted stainless steels (not listed in Table 3.2)
shall be qualified to Clause 4
Unlisted metals with same chemical composition &
strength as a listed metal may be welded with a
prequalified or qualified WPS for the listed metal

Clause 2 Design of Welded Connections

2.1 Scope of Clause 2
Major revision from 1999 to 2007 Edition to align with D1.1.
Fatigue provisions revised
Added fillet welds and plug and slot welds to Tables 2.1 & 2.2
and revised provisions
Commentary for Clause 2 added
Part A General Requirements
Part B Weld Lengths and Areas
Part C Miscellaneous Structural Details
Nontubular and Tubular Connections
Statically and Cyclically Loaded

Clause 2 Design of Welded Connections

2.3.5 Welding Symbols use (same as AWS A2.4:2007):
S for depth of bevel
E for weld size
AWS A2.4:2012 changes this to:
D for depth of bevel
S for weld size
Next D1 codes will most likely reference AWS A2.4:2007 (also
affects Clause 6 RT weld size)
Table 2.1 provides the maximum allowable stresses for joints
based on type and orientation of applied stresses and based
on lesser strength of base metal or filler metal
Being revised

Clause 3 Prequalification of WPSs

3.0 Scope
Prequalification of WPSs applies only to austenitic
stainless steel base metals and filler metals that form a
small amount of ferrite
AWS B2.1 Standard WPSs also prequalified
3.1 Variables
Amps, volts, TS, shield gas composition & flow rate,
position, SAW flux trade designation, filler metal class
3.4 Processes SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, FAW, some SAW
3.6 Base Metals per Table 3.2
Classified by strength, alloy, ASTM specification into 5
groups (A through E)

Clause 3 Prequalification of WPSs

3.9 Filler Metals per Table 3.3 (revised from 1999 Edition)

1999 said Group B also includes all of Group C base metals of Table 3.2

For proposed revision, several paragraphs are being

moved from Clause 3 Prequalification to Clause 5
Fabrication (e.g. electrode and filler metal requirements)

Clause 4 Qualification
Written similar to ASME Section IX. But, inconsistencies
between text, tables, and figures.
Only minor revisions from 1999 Edition to 2007 Edition.
Part A WPS General Requirements
4.1.1 For qualification of WPSs for 6 processes in Table 4.1
4.1.2 Previous Qualification Records The acceptability of
qualification to other standards is the Engineers responsibility
to be exercised based upon the specific structures and service
conditions. AWS B2.1 may be used for the qualification of
WPSs and personnel. If in conflict, AWS D1.6 takes precedence.

Clause 4 Qualification
4.1.7 CJP Qualification
CJP tests qualify all positions of plate and pipe
Also qualifies PJP and fillet welds (macroetch tests also
required for PJP and fillet welds)
4.1.8 PJP tests qualify fillets also
4.1.10 Mechanical Testing
Allows testing per AWS B4.0 or D1.6 (if in conflict, D1.6 takes
4.2 Essential Variables Table 4.1
Some conflicts between text and table

Clause 4 Qualification
4.3.1 CJP Groove Weld Tests per Table 4.2

4.3.2 PJP Groove Weld Tests per Table 4.2

A sample weld shall be made using a type of groove
design to be used in construction, but need not exceed
1 in. (for macroetch tests)

Clause 4 Qualification
4.4 Fillet Weld Tests per Table 4.2(B)
Groove & Fillet welds in same table
Note c carried over from AWS D1.1
Note e sends to Table 4.3 but that is Performance Qualification
larger (Errata)

Clause 4 Qualification
4.6.11 Overlay Requirements
For stainless steel overlay of carbon or low alloy steel
Bend tests, penetrant exam, chemical analysis
Separate essential variable table
Part B Performance Qualification Requirements for Welders
and Welding Operators
4.7.3 Previous Qualification Records
Allows performance qualification to AWS B2.1 (new in 2007)
4.7.5 Base Metals
Qualify on any base metal in code
With Engineers approval, may qualify with D1.1, Group I or II

Clause 4 Qualification
4.7.10 Limitations in Tables 4.3 and 4.4
Note b limits thickness for welder qualification to minimum
WPS limits why?
Max. to be welded means what? To change to Unlimited

Clause 4 Qualification
Table 4.3 (2nd part)
Maximum Outside Diameter or Minimum or OD
Note f welder limited to minimum WPS limits for thickness?

4.7.12 No tack welder qualifications tack welding must be done

by qualified welders or welding operators

Clause 4 Qualification
4.8.3 and 4.9.1 Electrode and Shielding Medium
What is an approved electrode and shielding medium?
Approved in PQR or welder qualification?
Is shielding medium the flux for SAW, shielding gas for GTAW?
If change shielding gas composition, does that require

Clause 4 Qualification
Proposed Revision for Next Edition
Part A General Requirements
Part B Welding Procedure Specification Qualification
Part C Performance Qualification
Provides qualification requirements
Allows qualification to other standards or AWS B2.1
(Engineers responsibility)
Added CVN supplementary essential variables
Addresses base metals per AWS B2.1 M-Numbers and Table 3.2
Group Numbers and references AWS B2.1-BMG
Cleaned up tables and figures

Clause 5 Fabrication
5.2 Preparation of Base Metal
Addresses corrosion properties of stainless
Addresses importance of cleaning of stainless
5.4 Assembly Tolerances & 5.5 Distortion of Members
For future editions, need to evaluate concerns with much
higher thermal expansion & lower conductivity of stainless
steels compared with carbon steels
5.10 Weld Cleaning
Addresses importance of using brushes made of stainless steels
& iron-free abrasive wheels
5.16 Postweld Heat Treatment and Recommendations

Clause 6 Inspection
2007 Edition
Part A General Requirements
Part B RT of Groove Welds in Butt Joints
Part C UT of Groove Welds
Different than D1.1 because of large grains in stainless
Part D Other Examination Methods
Part E Quality of Welds (for austenitic stainless steels)
VT, RT, UT, PT for each of:
6.28 Statically Loaded
6.29 Cyclically Loaded
6.7.7 MT of Ferritic and Martensitic and some Precipitation

Clause 6 Inspection
Proposed Revision to Parallel AWS D1.1:2010
Part A General Requirements
Part B Contractors Responsibilities
Part C Acceptance Criteria
New VT Table
Part D NDT Procedures
Part E RT of Groove Welds
Part F UT of Groove Welds
Part G Other Examination Methods

Clause 7 Stud Welding

Example of proposed revision from responses to several
interpretation requests on Pre-production bending test:
Test to approximately 30o, not destruction
At temperatures below 50F, preferable to do continuous slow
bending moving to Commentary
Torque test doesnt apply just to below 50F
Torque test to values in Tables 7.3 or 7.4, not to destruction
Since pre-production
testing is also used to
qualify welders, same
information is being
copied to a new section

Clause 7 Stud Welding

Current 2007 Clause 7 Outline
7.1 Scope
7.2 General Requirements
7.3 Mechanical Requirements
7.4 Workmanship
7.5 Technique
7.6 Stud Application Qualification Requirements
7.7 Production Control
7.8 Fabrication and Verification Inspection Requirements
Annex D Manufacturers Stud Base Qualification Requirements
Poor organization

Clause 7 Stud Welding

Draft Revised Clause 7 Outline
7.1 Scope
7.2 General Requirements
7.3 Mechanical Requirements of Studs
7.4 Manufacturers Stud Base Qualification Requirements
(moved from Annex D)
7.5 Stud Welding Procedure Qualification
7.5.1 Prequalified WPSs
7.5.2 WPSs Qualified by Testing
7.6 Stud Welder Performance Qualification

Clause 7 Stud Welding

Draft Revised Clause 7 Outline
7.7 Production Welding / Fabrication
7.7.1 Pre-Production Testing
7.7.2 Technique
7.7.3 Production Welding
7.7.4 Workmanship
7.7.5 Repair of Studs
7.7.6 Removal and Repair
7.7.7 Fillet Welding Option
7.8 Inspection and Testing
C7 Commentary
More logical organization

No Clause 8 on Strengthening & Repairing

Existing Structures
Since stainless steels do not rust, there is no clause pertaining to
strengthening and repairing existing structures.
However, there are several paragraphs in Clause 5 that address
importance of cleanliness of base metal as well as corrosion
issues other than rusting.

Informative Annex F Suggested Filler

Metals for Various Combinations of Stainless
Steels and Other Ferrous Base Metals
Provides recommendations on which filler metals to use for
combinations of
Austenitic stainless steels
Ferritic stainless steels
Martensitic stainless steels
Duplex stainless steels
Precipitation hardening stainless steels
Stainless steels to carbon and low alloy steels

Informative Annex I Nonprequalified

Stainless Steels Guidelines for WPS
Qualification and Use
Addresses uses of nonprequalified stainless steels
Martensitic stainless steels
Ferritic stainless steels
Austenitic stainless steels which do not produce ferrite
when welded without filler metal
Austenitic stainless steels whose strength cannot be
matched by an AWS classification of austenitic stainless
steel filler metal which provide a small amount of ferrite
Duplex stainless steels
Precipitation hardening stainless steels

Informative Annex I
Engineer to evaluate strength, hardness, toughness, corrosion
Addresses concerns about:
Hot cracking of austenitics with low ferrite
Cold cracking of martensitics and need for preheat, low
hydrogen electrodes, postweld heat treatment
Embrittlement of ferritics due to grain growth and use
of low heat input
High or low ferrite content in duplex and controlling
heat input
Special conditions for welding precipitation hardening
Concerns with welding stainless to carbon or low alloy

Informative Annex N Etchant Solutions

Provides recommended etchants for macroetching stainless
For PQRs on fillet welds and PJP groove welds
Recommended etchants formulas
Recommendations for various metals
Safety procedures

2007 Edition only Commentary is on Clause 2
Commentary will be added for other Clauses as appropriate
in upcoming Edition