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Cassano, Paolo, and Maurizio Fava. "Depression and Public Health." Journal of Psychosomatic
Research 53.4 (2002): 849-57. Print. This article provides an overview of the public
health issues associated with depression as of 2002. The article is a bit old, but I thought
it would be helpful in gaining a general understanding of this issue.
Collins, Pamela Y., Thomas R. Insel, Arun Chockalingam, Abdallah Daar, and Yvonne T.
Maddox. "Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health: Integration in Research, Policy,
and Practice." PLoS Medicine 10.4 (2013): E1001434. Print. Unipolar depression is the
single greatest global mental health challenge according to this report, taking over 65
million daily life years. The report discusses how public policy questions related to
mental ought to best be addressed.
Croghan, T. W., R. L. Obenchain, and W. E. Crown. "What Does Treatment of Depression
Really Cost?" Health Affairs 17.4 (1998): 198-208. Print. For those diagnosed with
depression, the corresponding non-depressive illnesses account for 70% of their total
healthcare costs. Those with depressive illness tend to consume two to four times more
medical resources than those without this illness.
"Current Depression Among Adults." Journal of the American Medical Association 304.20
(2010): 2233-235. Centers for Disease Control. Web. 1 Apr. 2014. This Centers for
Disease Control report shows the prevalence of depression around the country by state. I
would like to approximate these numbers on a state level.
Ehrenberg, Alain. The Weariness of the Self: Diagnosing the History of Depression in the
Contemporary Age. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 2010. Print. Although serious
depression does come with significant morbidity and mortality, many patients who meet

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the criteria for depression have a mild variant of the condition that creates little
impairment and is self-limiting. Ehrenberg makes the opposite argument in 2010 as what
was argued in 1990 in the most well-cited articles.
Kenneth Walsh and Wendy Cross (2013). Depression: Classification, Culture and the
Westernisation of Mental Illness, Mood Disorders, Prof. Nese Kocabasoglu (Ed.), ISBN:
978-953-51-0959-4, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/54176. Available From:
Kiloh, L. G., G. Andrews, and M. Neilson. "The Long-term Outcome of Depressive Illness." The
British Journal of Psychiatry 153.6 (1988): 752-57. Print. Research shows only 20% of
people remain continuously well for the period of 15 years after a depressive episode and
nearly 10% commit suicide during that period. Another approximately 10% will remain
incapacitated by the illness for that period. This carries importance for my thesis because
it demonstrates the grave long term implications of depression for those who suffer from
Lancet, The. "No Mental Health without Physical Health." The Lancet 377.9766 (2011): 611.
Print. This article suggests that mental health is key to overall physical health and
meeting Millennium Development goals related to equality.
Lorant, V. "Socioeconomic Inequalities in Depression: A Meta-Analysis." American Journal of
Epidemiology 157.2 (2003): 98-112. Print. This is the most highly-cited meta-analysis of
studies that link socioeconomic factors to depression. There were a few relationships
mentioned. Results indicated that low-SES individuals had slightly higher chances of
being depressed and a moderately higher risk of depression persistence. This relationship

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varies according to the way depression and SES are measured as well as across
geographic region and time. The authors suggest that the relationship tends to be that low
SES causes depression and not vice versa, but that both relationships are present over
individual life-cycles. Gender, age, and physical disease were confounding factors in this
Monroe, Scott M., and Kate L. Harkness. "Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual
Analysis." Psychological Review 118.4 (2011): 655-74. Print. Clinical depression has
been increasingly understood using a chronic disease model, but researchers have not yet
found a way of understanding what causes depression to recur in some patients but not in
others. This paper attempts to provide the most recent understanding on the nature of
recurrence. The authors suggest that the reasons why current researchers have not yet
found differentiating symptoms between individuals for whom depression is an acute,
one-time episode versus those for whom it recurs is because these two groups have not
been studied separately and are still grouped into one category.
Patel, Vikram, Alan J. Flisher, Sarah Hetrick, and Patrick Mcgorry. "Mental Health of Young
People: A Global Public-health Challenge." The Lancet 369.9569 (2007): 1302-313.
Print. Most mental disorders begin during youth, though depression at that timeframe
goes undiagnosed. Of note is that Twitter's target market is youth, meaning it may give
insight into depressive disorders during this age group. Authors argue that public health
efforts for depression should focus on youth.
Paul, Karsten I., and Klaus Moser. "Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-analyses."
Journal of Vocational Behavior 74.3 (2009): 264-82. Print. This study concludes that
unemployment is associated with poorer mental health. Unemployed individuals have a

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34% likelihood of having psychological problems, versus 16% for the employed.
Richards, Derek. "Prevalence and Clinical Course of Depression: A Review." Clinical
Psychology Review 31.7 (2011): 1117-125. Print. Depression has a high lifetime
prevalence, complex recurrence patterns, and is influenced by comorbidity.
Rihmer, Zoltan, Peter Dome, and Xenia Gonda. "The Role of General Practitioners in Prevention
of Depression-related Suicides." Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica XIV.4 (2012):
245-51. Web. 1 Apr. 2014. Over half of depressed patients who commit suicide will visit
a GP before they do so. Research shows that training of GPs improves identification and
treatment of depression such that this problem can be solved.
Schomerus, G., H. Matschinger, and M. Angermeyer. "The Stigma of Psychiatric Treatment and
Help-seeking Intentions for Depression." Das Gesundheitswesen 71.08/09 (2009): n. pag.
Print. This study concludes that stigma prevents people from properly seeking treatment
from depression. This implies that the figures that I get using Twitter may be far higher
than government reports, since my data collection method does not involve an "admission
of guilt" from the perspective of the depressed patient.
Simon, Gregory E. "Social and Economic Burden of Mood Disorders." Biological Psychiatry
54.3 (2003): 208-15. Print. Depressive disorder is associated with significantly higher
healthcare costs and improvement of these symptoms is associated with a reduction of
these costs. Though associations between depression and socioeconomic factors are not
well researched, significant evidence exists for functional impairment for depressed
Zivin, Kara, Daniel Eisenberg, Sarah E. Gollust, and Ezra Golberstein. "Persistence of Mental
Health Problems and Needs in a College Student Population." Journal of Affective

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Disorders 117.3 (2009): 180-85. Print. This study surveyed mental health statistics for
college students. It found that over half of the students had a mental health related issue
either at the first or followup survey. This study carries implications for my thesis
because it implies that the demographic targeted by Twitter may also be a particularly
high risk age.