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Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a
process termed reverse transcription. RT is needed for the replication of retroviruses (e.g., HIV), and RT inhibitors
are widely used as antiretroviral drugs. RT activity is also associated with the replication of chromosome ends
(telomerase) and some mobile genetic elements (retrotransposons).
Retroviral RT has three sequential biochemical activities:

(a) RNA-dependent DNA polymerase,

(b) ribonuclease H, and

(c) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

These activities are used by the retrovirus to convert single-stranded genomic RNA into double-stranded cDNA
which can integrate into the host genome, potentially generating a long-term infection that can be very difficult to
eradicate. The same sequence of reactions is widely used in the laboratory to convert RNA to DNA for use
in molecular cloning, RNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or genome analysis.
Heterochromatin has been associated with several functions, from gene regulation to the protection of the integrity
of chromosomes;[8] some of these roles can be attributed to the dense packing of DNA, which makes it less
accessible to protein factors that usually bind DNA or its associated factors. For example, naked double-stranded
DNA ends would usually be interpreted by the cell as damaged or viral DNA, triggering cell cycle arrest, DNA
repair, or destruction of the DNA fragment such as by endonucleases in bacteria.
Some regions of chromatin are very densely packed with fibers displaying a condition comparable to that of the
chromosome at mitosis. Heterochromatin is generally clonally inherited; when a cell divides the two daughter cells
will typically contain heterochromatin within the same regions of DNA, resulting in epigenetic inheritance.
A ring chromosome is a chromosome whose arms have fused together to form a ring.
Associated diseases[edit]
Human genetic disorders can be caused by spontaneous ring chromosome formation; although ring chromosomes
are very rare, they have been found in nearly all human chromosomes. Disorders arising from the formation of a
ring chromosome include ring chromosome 20 syndrome where a ring formed by one copy of chromosome 20 is
associated with epilepsy; ring chromosome 14 and ring chromosome 13 syndrome are associated with mental
retardationand dysmorphic facial features; ring chromosome 15 is associated with mental
retardation, dwarfism and microcephaly. Ring formation of an X-chromosome causes Turner syndrome. Symptoms
seen in patients carrying ring chromosomes are more likely to be caused by the deletion of genes in the telomeric
regions of affected chromosomes, rather than by the formation of a ring structure itself.
Spacer DNA are regions of non-transcribed DNA between tandemly repeated genes, such as ribosomal RNA genes
in eukaryotes. Its function most likely involves ensuring the high rates of transcription associated with these genes.
In bacteria, spacer DNA sequences are only a few nucleotides long. In eukaryotes, they can be extensive and include
repetitive DNA, comprising the majority of the DNA of the genome. The term is used particularly for the spacer
DNA between the many tandemly repeated copies of the ribosomal RNA genes.
Linker DNA is double-stranded DNA in between two nucleosome cores that, in association with histone H1, holds
the cores together. Linker DNA is seen as the string in the "beads and string model", which is made by using
an ionic solution on the chromatin. Linker DNA connects to histone H1 and histone H1 sits on the nucleosome core.
Nucleosome is technically the consolidation of a nucleosome core and one adjacent linker DNA; however, the term
nucleosome is used freely for solely the core. Linker DNA may be degraded by endonucleases.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between
nonhomologous chromosomes. A gene fusion may be created when the translocation joins two otherwise-separated
genes, the occurrence of which is common in cancer. It is detected oncytogenetics or a karyotype of affected cells.
Translocations can be balanced (in an even exchange of material with no genetic information extra or missing, and
ideally full functionality) or unbalanced (where the exchange of chromosome material is unequal resulting in extra
or missing genes).
In humans, when a Robertsonian translocation joins the long arm of chromosome 21 with the long arm of
chromosome 14 (or 15), the heterozygous carrier is phenotypically normal because there are two copies of all major
chromosome arms and hence two copies of all essential genes. [2] However, the progeny of this carrier may inherit an
unbalanced trisomy 21, causing Down Syndrome.
About one in a thousand newborns has a Robertsonian translocation. [3] The most frequent forms of Robertsonian
translocations are between chromosomes 13 and 14, 14 and 21, and 14 and 15, and occur when the long arms of two
acrocentric chromosomes fuse at the centromere and the two short arms are lost.[4]
A Robertsonian translocation in balanced form results in no excess or deficit of genetic material and causes no
health difficulties. In unbalanced forms, Robertsonian translocations cause chromosomal deletions or addition and
result in syndromes of multiple malformations, including trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 21 (Down
A Robertsonian translocation results when the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes fuse at the centromere and
the two short arms are lost. If, for example, the long arms of chromosomes 13 and 14 fuse, no significant genetic
material is lost - and the person is completely normal in spite of the translocation. Common Robertsonian
translocations are confined to the acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22, because the short arms of these
chromosomes encode for rRNA which is present in multiple copies.
Most people with Robertsonian translocations have only 45 chromosomes in each of their cells, yet all essential
genetic material is present, and they appear normal. Their children, however, may either be normal and carry the
fusion chromosome (depending which chromosome is represented in the gamete), or they may inherit a missing or
extra long arm of an acrocentric chromosome.
Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), are repeating
sequences of 2-5 base pairs of DNA.[1] It is a type of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR). Microsatellites are
typically co-dominant. They are used as molecular markers in STR analysis, for kinship, population and other
studies. They can also be used for studies of gene duplication or deletion, marker assisted selection,
and fingerprinting.
In genetics, a molecular marker (identified as genetic marker) is a fragment of DNA that is associated with a
certain location within the genome. Molecular markers are used in molecular biology and biotechnology to identify
a particular sequence of DNA in a pool of unknown DNA.

It has 5 applications in fisheries and aquaculture:


Species Identification


Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations


Comparison between wild and hatchery populations


Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population

5. Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes.However,there still exists some limitations. [1]