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Dynamics

a.k.a. Spinning & Shaking

Warwick Centre for Predictive Modelling

University of Warwick

Coventry CV4 7AL

United Kingdom

Email: nzabaras@gmail.com

URL: http://www.zabaras.com/

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Outline

Course Web Site

Recommended textbooks

Homework

Course Coverage

This (review) Lecture:

Dynamics, R. C. Hibbeler, 13th Edition)

Kinematics of Particles (Chapters 11 and 12),

Mechanics of Materials, Dynamics, F. Beer, E.R.

Johnston, et al. (6th Edt)

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

HomeHoneowork

Course Web Site,

Lectures & Homework

The course web site is

http://www.zabaras.com/Courses/Dynamics/Dynamics.html

course announcements. Visit this link often for useful

information.

Homework problems are assigned on the course web site

related to each lecture.

Solution to the homework is not mandatory but highly

recommended. We consider these homework activities an

essential part of the course.

Solution to a homework set will be provided on the course

web site.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Recommended Textbooks

Vector Mechanics for Engineers, F. Beer,

Textbook

E.R. Johnston and

R. Cornwell, 10th

Edition.

Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, A.

Bedford and W. Fowler (course pack)

Engineering Mechanics, Dynamics, R. C.

Hibbeler, 13th Edition

Notes: Our Lectures and Lecture slides will closely follow the textbooks by Beer et al. and

Hibbeler.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Office Hours

Office

Hours

Office Hours :

4:30 6:30 pm on Mondays (during the duration of the

lectures)

Location

Building: Eng.

Room: 408B (close to the Chemistry bldg.)

Attendance

Attendance

We will work with the hope that no lecture is waste of

your valuable time.

We recommend that you download and study the

lecture notes from the web before attending so you can

maximize your understanding of the class material.

Even with 300+ students, we encourage your questions,

in class or during office hrs.

Out of respect for each other, if you come to class you

come to learn. Not allowed in class: Phones on, reading

papers, bla bla with each other, playing computer

games, etc.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Course Coverage

coverage

Course

Kinematics of a particle (Hibbeler, Chapter 12)

Force and acceleration (Hibbeler, Chapter 13)

Work and energy relations (Hibbeler, Chapter 14, B&F Chapter

15)

Impulse and Momentum (Hibbeler, Chapter 15)

B&F Chapter 17)

Force and acceleration of rigid bodies (Hibbeler, Chapter 17)

Work and energy relations of rigid bodies (Hibbeler, Chapter 18)

Impulse and Momentum of rigid bodies (Hibbeler, Chapter 19)

Vibrations (Hibbeler, Chapter 22, B&F Chapter 21)

Notes

1.

Several lecture notes provide review of things you should know from elementary physics. They are

essential part of the course but will be discussed briefly.

2.

The lecture notes follow closely the three recommended textbooks (thus you dont need to

purchase them).

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Introduction

Dynamics includes:

and time without reference to the cause of motion.

- Kinetics is used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to

determine the forces required to produce a given motion.

Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as

it moves along a straight line.

Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as

it moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

Introduction to Dynamics

Statics:

Study

bodies at rest

Areas

ofofmechanics

(section12.1)

F 0

F 0

M 0

x

Kinematics, is a study the geometry of the motion

s, v, a

Kinetics, is a study of forces F that cause the

motion

F ma

F ma

M I

x

Particle moving along a straight line is

said to be in rectilinear motion.

Position coordinate of a particle is

defined by positive or negative distance

of particle from a fixed origin on the line.

The motion of a particle is known if the

position coordinate for particle is known

for every value of time t. Motion of the

particle may be expressed in the form of

a function, e.g.,

x 6t 2 t 3

10

Frame of Reference

Frame of reference is a place or object that you

assume is fixed

observations of how objects move are

defined in relation to that frame of

reference.

frame of reference.

We usually use the earth as the frame of

reference.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

11

Consider particle which occupies

position P at time t and P at t+Dt,

Dx

Average velocity

Dt

Dx

lim

Instantaneous velocity

Dt 0 Dt

or negative. Magnitude of velocity is

referred to as particle speed.

From the definition of a derivative,

Dx dx

v lim

dt

Dt 0 Dt

e.g. x 6t 2 t 3

,

dx

v

12t 3t 2

dt

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

12

Consider particle with velocity v at time t

and v at t+Dt,

Dv

Instantaneous acceleration a lim

Dt 0 Dt

Instantaneous acceleration may be:

- positive: increasing positive velocity

or decreasing negative velocity

- negative: decreasing positive velocity

or increasing negative velocity.

From the definition of a derivative,

Dv dv d 2 x

a lim

2

dt dt

Dt 0 Dt

e.g. v 12t 3t 2

a

dv

12 6t

dt

13

Consider particle with motion given by

x 6t 2 t 3

dx

v

12t 3t 2

dt

dv d 2 x

a

2 12 6t

dt dt

at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2

at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0

at t = 4 s, x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2

at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = -36 m/s, a = 24 m/s2

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

14

15

Motion 11

Motion

16

Motion 22

Motion

17

Motion 33

Motion

slowing

18

Motion 44

Motion

bottom

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

19

Motion 55

Motion

speeding

up

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

20

Motion 66

Motion

Still

rising

21

Motion 77

Motion

top

22

Velocity Acceleration

1

Velocity Acceleration

5

2

6

3

7

4

bottom

23

Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.

Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration

experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position

requires two successive integrations.

Three classes of motion may be defined for:

- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)

- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)

- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

24

Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):

v t

t

dv

a f t

dv f t dt

dv f t dt

dt

v

0

dx

vt

dt

x t

dx vt dt

vt v0 f t dt

0

dx vt dt

x0

xt x0 vt dt

v

dx

dx

or dt

dt

v

v dv f x dx

a

v x

dv

dv

or a v f x

dt

dx

x

v dv f x dx

v0

x0

1 v x 2

2

12 v02

f x dx

x0

25

Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):

dv

a f v

dt

dv

dt

f v

v t

dv

f v t

v0

dv

v a f v

dx

xt x0

v t

v dv

dx

f v

v t

t

dv

f v dt

0

v0

x t

v t

v dv

dx f v

v0

x0

v dv

f v

v0

26

Position x

Velocity

dx

v

dt

Acceleration

dv

dt

dx

dt

v

dt

dv

a

dx dv

v

a

adx vdv

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

27

Example of applying a dx = v dv

A car starts from rest and moves along a straight line with an

acceleration of a = ( 3 x -1/3 ) m/s2. where x is in meters. Determine the

cars acceleration when t = 4 s.

Rest t = 0 , v = 0

1

x 3 dx 3dt

adx vdv

s

3x

0

1

3

dx vdv

0

2

3

1 2

3

(3) x v

2

2

v 3x

1

3

1

dx

v

3x 3

dt

x

0

1

3

dx 3dt

0

3 23

x 3t

2

x (2t )

3

2

3

2

9

2

x(4) (2 4) 2

a (4) 3 2

9

2

1

3

3

2 2

m / s2

28

Example Problem

SOLUTION:

Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

Solve for t at which velocity equals

zero (time for maximum elevation) and

evaluate corresponding altitude.

from window 20 m above ground.

zero (time for ground impact) and

evaluate corresponding velocity.

Determine:

velocity and elevation above ground at

time t,

highest elevation reached by ball and

corresponding time, and

time when ball will hit the ground and

corresponding velocity.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

29

Example Problem

SOLUTION:

Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

dv

a 9.81 m s 2

dt

v t

t

vt v0 9.81t

dv 9.81 dt

v0

vt 10

dy

v 10 9.81t

dt

y t

t

dy 10 9.81t dt

y0

m

m

9.81 2 t

s

s

y t y0 10t 12 9.81t 2

m

m

yt 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2

s

s

30

Example Problem

Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and

evaluate corresponding altitude.

vt 10

m

m

9.81 2 t 0

s

s

t 1.019 s

m

m

y t 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2

s

s

m

m

y 20 m 10 1.019 s 4.905 2 1.019 s 2

s

y 25.1 m

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

31

Example Problem

Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and

evaluate corresponding velocity.

m

m

yt 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2 0

s

s

t 1.243 s meaningles s

t 3.28 s

vt 10

m

m

9.81 2 t

s

s

v3.28 s 10

m

m

9.81 2 3.28 s

s

s

v 22.2

m

s

32

Example Problem

SOLUTION:

a kv

recoil consists of piston attached to

barrel moving in fixed cylinder filled

with oil. As barrel recoils with initial

velocity v0, piston moves and oil is

forced through orifices in piston,

causing piston and cylinder to

decelerate at rate proportional to their

velocity.

v(t).

Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).

v(x).

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

33

Example Problem

SOLUTION:

v(t).

v t

t

dv

dv

a

kv

k dt

dt

v v

0

0

ln

vt

kt

v0

vt v0 e kt

dx

vt

v0 e kt

dt

t

x t

t

1

kt

xt v0 e kt

dx v0 e dt

k

0

0

0

v

xt 0 1 e kt

k

34

Example Problem

Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).

dv

a v kv

dx

dv k dx

v0

dv k dx

v v0 kx

v v0 kx

a k v0 kx

Alternatively,

with

v

xt 0 1 e kt

k

kt

kt vt

v

t

v

e

or

e

and

0

v0

v0 vt

1

x

t

then

k

v0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

v v0 kx

35

For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is

zero and the velocity is constant.

dx

v constant

dt

x

x0

dx v dt

x x0 vt

x x0 vt

36

For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the

acceleration of the particle is constant.

dv

a constant

dt

v0

dv a dt

v v0 at

v v0 at

dx

v0 at

dt

x0

dx v0 at dt

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

dv

v a constant

dx

v0

x0

v dv a dx

1

2

v 2 v02 ax x0

v 2 v02 2a x x0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

37

ac

dv

dt

dv ac dt

v

dv a dt

c

vo

v v0 act

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

dx

v

v0 act

dt

x

dx (v

so

act )dt

1 2

x x0 v0t act

2

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

v dv ac dx

v

v dv a

v0

dx

s0

1 2 1 2

v v0 ac ( x x0 )

2

2

v v 2ac ( x x0 )

2

2

0

We throw two balls at the top of a cliff of height H. Ball A is thrown with

an initial speed v0 downwards and ball B with the same speed upwards

(as shown).

The speed of the two balls when they hit the ground are vA and vB

respectively. Which of the following is true:

(a)

vA < vB

(b) vA = vB

A

v0

v0

(c) vA > vB

B

H

vA

vB

41

Intuition should tell you that v = v0

We can prove this:

v 2 v02 2( g ) H H 0

thrown down with speed v0, so

the speed at the bottom should

be the same as that of ball A!!

B

v0

v = v0

H

y=0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

42

We can also just use the equation directly:

A

B

A

v0

v 2 v02 2( g ) 0 H

v v 2( g ) 0 H

2

v0

2

0

same !!

y=H

y=0

43

Summary

Time dependent acceleration

x(t )

dx

v

dt

dv d 2 x

a

2

dt dt

adx vdv

Constant acceleration

v v0 act

1 2

x x0 v0t act

2

v v 2ac ( x x0 )

2

2

0

a g 9.81 m / s 2 32.2 ft / s 2

44

For particles moving along the same line,

time should be recorded from the same

starting instant and displacements should be

measured from the same origin in the same

direction.

x B x A relative position of B

with respect to A

xB x A xB A

xB

v B v A relative velocity of B

with respect to A

vB v A vB A

vB

a B a A relative acceleration of

B with respect to A

aB a A aB A

aB

45

Relative Motion

A

160 km/h

180 km/h

VA VB VA/B

VA/B VA - VB 160 180 20 km / h

VB VA VB/A

VB/A VB - VA 180 160 20 km / h

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

46

Example

The passenger aircraft B is flying east with velocity vB = 800 km/h. A

jet is traveling south with velocity vA = 1200 km/h. What velocity does

A appear to a passenger in B ?

y

v B 800 i

Solution

vA B

v A 1200 j

VA

VB VA B

1200 j 800 i v A B

VA B 800 i 1200 j

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

47

Example

A/ B

Absolute value

:

8002 12002

1442 km / h

y

VB 800 i

tan

800

1200

33.7 West of

South

vA B

VA 1200 j

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

48

Example

A train travels at a constant speed of 60 mi/

h and crosses over a road. If the automobile

A is traveling at 45 mi /h along the road

the velocity of the train relative to the

automobile.

VT VA VT/A

T 60 mi/h

A 45 mi/h

VT/A { 28.2 i - 31.8 j} mi/h

(T / A ) y

31.8

tan

(T / A ) x 28.2

48.5o

Example

At the instant shown, the car at A is traveling at 10 m/s around

the curve while increasing its speed at 2 m/s2. The car at B is

traveling at 18.5 m/s along the straightway and increasing its

speed at 5 m/s2. Determine the relative velocity and relative

acceleration of A with respect to B at this instant

VA VB VA/B

VA/B { -11.42 i 7.07 j} m/s

a A a B a A/B

(10) 2

(10) 2

a A {2 cos 45 i 2 sin 45 jcos 45 i sin45 j }

100

100

aB 5 i

o

50

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Substitute initial position and velocity

and constant acceleration of ball into

general equations for uniformly

accelerated rectilinear motion.

constant velocity of elevator into

equation for uniform rectilinear

motion.

Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level Write equation for relative position of

in elevator shaft with initial velocity

ball with respect to elevator and

solve for zero relative position, i.e.,

of 18 m/s. At same instant, openimpact.

platform elevator passes 5 m level

moving upward at 2 m/s.

Substitute impact time into equation

for position of elevator and relative

Determine (a) when and where ball

velocity of ball with respect to

hits elevator and (b) relative velocity

elevator.

51

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Substitute initial position and velocity and constant

acceleration of ball into general equations for

uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.

v B v0 at 18

m

m

9.81 2 t

s

s

m

m

y B y0 v0t 12 at 2 12 m 18 t 4.905 2 t 2

s

s

Substitute initial position and constant velocity of

elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear

motion.

vE 2

m

s

m

y E y0 v E t 5 m 2 t

s

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

52

Sample Problem

Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to

elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

yB

12 18t 4.905t 2 5 2t 0

t 0.39 s meaningles s

t 3.65 s

Substitute impact time into equations for position of

elevator and relative velocity of ball with respect to

elevator.

y E 5 23.65

y E 12.3 m

v B E 18 9.81t 2

16 9.813.65

v B E 19.81

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

m

s

53

Particles

The motion of one particle

will depend on the

corresponding motion of

another particle

Inextensible cords

connection

Position

How to establish the position

coordinate

Reference from a fixed point

(O) or fixed datum.

Measures along each

inclined plane in the

direction of motion

Has positive sense from C

to A and from D to B.

equation

s A lCD sB lT

55

Velocity

Velocity is the time derivative

of the position

From the total cord length

equation

s A lCD sB lT

s A sB lT lCD const

Velocity

ds A dsB

0 or B A

dt

dt

56

Acceleration

Acceleration is the time

derivative of the velocity

From the velocity equation

B A

Acceleration

d B d A

dt

dt

aB a A

57

Example Problem

Position coordinate

2 sB h s A l

2 sB s A l h const.

Velocity

2 B A

Acceleration

1

B A

2

2 aB a A

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

58

Example Problem

Position coordinate

l

Velocity

2 B A

Acceleration

2 aB a A

Positive signs, why?

59

Position of a particle may depend on position of

one or more other particles.

Position of block B depends on position of block A.

Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum

of lengths of segments must be constant.

x A 2 x B constant (one degree of freedom)

For linearly related positions, similar relations hold

between velocities and accelerations.

dx

dx A

dx

2 B C 0 or 2v A 2v B vC 0

dt

dt

dt

dv

dv

dv

2 A 2 B C 0 or 2a A 2a B aC 0

dt

dt

dt

2

60

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Define origin at upper horizontal surface

with positive displacement downward.

rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration

and time t to reach L.

Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.

Calculate change of position at time t.

which is pulled down at 3 in./s. At t

Block B motion is dependent on motions

= 0, collar A starts moving down

of collar A and pulley D. Write motion

from K with constant acceleration

relationship and solve for change of

and zero initial velocity. Knowing

block B position at time t.

that velocity of collar A is 12 in./s as

it passes L, determine the change in

elevation, velocity, and acceleration Differentiate motion relation twice to

develop equations for velocity and

of block B when block A is at L.

acceleration of block B.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

61

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Define origin at upper horizontal surface with

positive displacement downward.

Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear

motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach

L.

v 2A v A 02 2a A x A x A 0

2

in.

12 2a A 8 in.

s

aA 9

in.

s2

v A v A 0 a At

12

in.

in.

9 2t

s

s

t 1.333 s

62

Sample Problem

Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.

Calculate change of position at time t.

x D x D 0 v D t

in.

x D x D 0 3 1.333 s 4 in.

s

Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar

A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and

solve for change of block B position at time t.

Total length of cable remains constant,

x A 2 x D x B x A 0 2 x D 0 x B 0

x A x A 0 2xD xD 0 xB xB 0 0

8 in. 24 in. x B x B 0 0

x B x B 0 16 in.

63

Sample Problem

Differentiate motion relation twice to develop

equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.

x A 2 x D x B constant

v A 2v D v B 0

in. in.

12 2 3 v B 0

s s

v B 18

in.

s

a A 2a D a B 0

in.

9 2 vB 0

s

in.

a B 9 2

s

64

Particle moving along a curve other than a straight

line is in curvilinear motion.

Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by

a vector between origin O of a fixed reference

frame and the position occupied by particle.

Dt,

Dr dr

v lim

dt

Dt 0 Dt

instantaneous velocity (vector)

Ds ds

dt

Dt 0 Dt

v lim

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

65

velocity v at t + Dt,

Dv dv

a lim

dt

Dt 0 Dt

instantaneous acceleration

(vector)

tangent to particle path and velocity vector.

66

dP

DP

Pu Du Pu

lim

lim

du Du 0 Du Du 0

Du

d P Q dP dQ

du

du du

Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,

d f P df

dP

P f

du

du

du

Derivative of scalar product and vector product,

d P Q dP dQ

Q P

du

du

du

d P Q dP

dQ

Q P

du

du

du

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

67

Curvilinear Motion

We will investigate particle motion along a curved path

using three coordinate systems

Rectangular Components

Polar & Cylindrical Components

68

When position vector of particle P is given by

its rectangular components,

r xi y j zk

Velocity vector,

dx dy dz

v i j k xi y j zk

dt

dt

dt

vx i v y j vz k

Acceleration vector,

d 2 x d 2 y d 2 z

a 2 i 2 j 2 k xi y j zk

dt

dt

dt

ax i a y j az k

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

69

Rectangular components particularly effective

when component accelerations can be integrated

independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,

a x x 0

a y y g

x0 y0 z0 0

a z z 0

v x 0 , v y 0 , v z 0 0

v x v x 0

x v x 0 t

v y v y gt

0

y v y y 12 gt 2

0

vz 0

z0

Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.

Motion of projectile could be replaced by two

independent rectilinear motions.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

70

Example Problem

The position of a particle is described by rA= {2t i +(t2-1) j} ft. where t is

in seconds.

Determine the position of the point and the speed at 2 seconds.

rA 2(2)i (22 1) j 4i 3 j

drA

vA

2i 2t j 2i 4 j

dt

speed

v A 2 4 4.47 ft/s

2

71

Acceleration

Acceleration is the first time

derivative of v

dv

a

ax i a y j az k

dt

Where

ax x x

ay y y

az z z

Magnitude of acceleration

a

ax ay az

2

the path

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

72

Example Problem

At any instant the horizontal postition of the weather

balloon is defined by x = (8t) ft, where t is in second . If

the equation of the path is y=x2/10 determine the distance

of the balloon from A, the magnitude and direction of the

velocity and the acceleration when t=2sec.

Position

x 8(2) 16 ft

y (16) 2 /10 25.6 ft

x=8t

Velocity

d

x x (8t ) 8ft/s

dt

d

y y ( x 2 /10) 2 xx /10 2(16)(8) /10 25.6 ft/s

dt

tan 1

y

25.6

tan 1

72.6o

x

8

Acceleration

d

(8) 0 ft/s

dt

d

a y y (2 xx /10) 2( x) x /10 2 x( x) /10 12.8ft/s 2

dt

ax x

a tan 1

ay

ax

tan 1

12.8

90o

0

73

Example

r 0.5sin(2t )i 0.5cos(2t ) j 0.2tk

( rad 180o )

acceleration

r(0.75) 0.5sin(1.5)i 0.5cos(1.5) j 0.2(0.75)k

r (0.499) 2 (0.0354) 2 (0.15) 2 0.522 m

0.15

0.499 0.0354

ur

i

j

k 0.955i 0.0678j-0.287k

0.522

0.522

0.522

cos 1 (0.955) 17.2o

define similar eqs for v and a

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

74

Motion of a Projectile

Projectile: a body that is given an initial velocity and then

follows a path determined by gravitational acceleration

and air resistance.

Trajectory path followed by a projectile

75

Notice that the horizontal motion is in no way affected by the vertical motion.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

76

Projectile

77

Vertical velocity decreases at a constant rate

due to the influence of gravity.

of velocity are independent.

constant rate due to the influence

of gravity.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

78

Horizontal Motion

Acceleration : ax= 0

() v v0 ac t

vx (v0 ) x

1 2

() x x0 v0t ac t

2

() v v 0 2ac ( s s0 )

2

x x0 (v0 ) x t

vx (v0 ) x

Equal distance covered in equal time intervals

( x x0 )

vx

t

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

79

Vertical Motion

ac= -g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2

( ) v v0 act

1

( ) y y0 v0t act 2

2

( ) v v 0 2ac ( s s0 )

2

v y (v0 ) y gt

1

y y0 (v0 ) y t gt 2

2

2

v v0

2 g ( y y0 )

Distance increases in each time interval

80

Projectile Motion

Assumptions:

(1) free-fall acceleration

(2) neglect air resistance

Choosing the y direction as positive upward:

ax = 0;

ay = - g (a constant)

Take x0= y0 = 0 at t = 0

Initial velocity v0 makes an

y

angle 0 with the horizontal

v0

v0 x v0 cos0

v0 y v0 sin0

81

Maximum Height

At the peak of its trajectory, vy = 0.

From

v y v0 y gt voy gt 0

Substituting into:

t1

v0 y

g

1

y v0 y t gt 2

2

h ymax

v02y

2g

82

Projection Angle

The optimal angle of projection is dependent on the

goal of the activity.

For maximal height the optimal angle is 90o.

For maximal distance the optimal angle is 45o.

83

84

10 degrees

30 degrees

40 degrees

45 degrees

85

10 degrees

30 degrees

40 degrees

45 degrees

60 degrees

86

10 degrees

30 degrees

40 degrees

45 degrees

60 degrees

75 degrees

optimal = 45 degrees

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

87

A ball is given an initial velocity of V0 = 37 m/s at an angle of = 53.1.

Find the position of the ball, and the magnitude and direction of its

velocity, when t = 2.00 s.

Find the time when the ball reaches the highest point of its flight, and

find its height h at this point

v0x = v0 cos 0 = (37.0 m/s) cos 53.1 = 22.2 m/s

v0y = v0 sin 0 = (37.0 m/s) sin 53.1= 29.6 m/s

a)

position

x = v0xt = (22.2 m/s)(2.00 s) = 44.4 m

y = v0yt - gt2

= (29.6 m/s)(2.00 s) (9.80 m/s2)(2.00 s)2

= 39.6 m

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

88

Velocity

vx = v0x = 22.2 m/s

vy = v0y gt = 29.6 m/s (9.80 m/s2)(2.00 s) = 10.0 m/s

v vx2 v y2

22.2 m / s

(10.0 m / s ) 2

24.3 m / s

10.0 m / s

arctan

arctan 0.450 24.2

22.2 m / s

89

b) Find the time when the ball reaches the highest

point of its flight, and find its height H at this point.

v y 0 v0 y gt1

v0 y

29.6 m / s

t1

3.02 s

2

g 9.80 m / s

1

H v0 y t1 gt12

2

1

(29.6 m / s)(3.02 s) (9.80 m / s 2 )(3.02 s) 2

2

44.7 m

90

c) Find the horizontal range R, (e.g. the horizontal

distance from the starting point to the point at which

the ball hits the ground.)

1

1

2

y 0 v0 y t2 gt2 t2 (v0 y gt2 )

2

2

t2 0 and t2

2v0 y

g

2(29.6 m / s )

6.04 s

2

9.80 m / s

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

91

Example Problem

A ball is traveling at 25 m/s drive off of the

edge of a cliff 50 m high. Where does it

land?

Horizontally

25 m/s

x = x0 + (v0)x t

Initial

Conditions

x = 25 *3.19 = 79.8 m

Vertically

vx = 25 m/s

v = v0-gt

vy0 = 0 m/s

y = y0 + v0t + 1/2gt2 .

a =- 9.8 m/s2

v2 = v02 - 2g(y-y0).

t=0

y0 = 0 m

y =- 50 m

x0 =0 m

79.8 m

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

92

Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference.

All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed

reference frame are moving frames of reference.

Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to

B with respect to the moving frame Axyz and

rB rA rB

Differentiating twice,

vB v A vB

a B a A aB

vB

aB

velocity of B relative to A.

acceleration of B relative

to A.

motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to

moving reference frame attached to A.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

93

Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of

particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.

Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of

tangential and normal components.

respect to the same origin, Det et et and

D is the angle between them.

Det 2 sinD 2

Det

sinD 2

lim

lim

en en

D 0 D

D 0 D 2

det

en

d

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

94

the particle acceleration may be written as

a

but

de dv

de d ds

dv dv

et v t et v t

dt dt

dt dt

d ds dt

det

en

d

d ds

ds

v

dt

After substituting,

dv v 2

a et en

dt

dv

at

dt

an

v2

change of speed and normal component reflects

change of direction.

Tangential component may be positive or

negative. Normal component always points

toward center of path curvature.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

95

Relations for tangential and normal acceleration

also apply for particle moving along space curve.

dv v 2

a et en

dt

dv

at

dt

an

v2

vectors is called the osculating plane.

Normal to the osculating plane is found from

eb et en

en principal normal

eb binormal

Acceleration has no component along binormal.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

96

Radius of curvature ()

For the Circular motion :

() = radius of the circle

For y = f(x):

1 (dy / dx) 2 3/2

d 2 y / dx 2

97

Example Problem

Find the radius of curvature

of the parabolic path in the

figure at x = 150 ft.

y

1 2

x 200

200

dy / dx

d 2 y / dx 2

1

x

100

1

100

1 (dy / dx) 2

d 2 y / dx 2

3/2

1 2

x

1

100

1

100

3/2

585.9 ft

x 150

98

Example Problem

A skier travels with a constant

speed of 20 ft/s along the parabolic

path shown. Determine the velocity

at x = 150 ft.

y

1 2

x 200

200

1

dy / dx

x

100

1

dy / dx

x x 150 1.5

100

150 20 ft/s

99

Special case

1- Straight

lineamotion

n 0

a at

2- Constant speed

curve motion

(centripetal

acceleration)

2

a an

at 0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

100

When particle position is given in polar coordinates,

it is convenient to express velocity and acceleration

with components parallel and perpendicular to OP.

The particle velocity vector is

r rer

der

e

d

der dr

dr

d

d

v rer er r

er r

e

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

r er r e

de

er

d

der der d d

e

dt

d dt

dt

de de d

d

er

dt

d dt

dt

d

d dr

a er r

e

dt dt

dt

d 2 r dr der dr d

d 2

d de

2 er

e r 2 e r

dt dt dt dt

dt dt

dt

dt

r r 2 er r 2r e

101

When particle position is given in cylindrical

coordinates, it is convenient to express the

velocity and acceleration

vectors using the unit

vectors eR , e , and k .

Position vector,

r R e R z k

Velocity vector,

dr

v

R eR R e z k

dt

Acceleration vector,

dv

R eR R 2 R e z k

a

R

dt

102

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Calculate tangential and normal

components of acceleration.

Determine acceleration magnitude

and direction with respect to tangent

to curve.

A motorist is traveling on curved

section of highway at 60 mph. The

motorist applies brakes causing a

constant deceleration rate.

has been reduced to 45 mph,

determine the acceleration of the

automobile immediately after the

brakes are applied.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

103

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Calculate tangential and normal components of

acceleration.

at

an

60 mph 88 ft/s

45 mph 66 ft/s

Dv 66 88 ft s

ft

2.75 2

Dt

8s

s

v2

88ft s

2500 ft

3.10

ft

s2

with respect to tangent to curve.

at2

tan

an2

1 an

at

2.75 3.10

tan

1 3.10

2.75

a 4.14

ft

s2

48.4

104

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Evaluate time t for = 30o.

defined by = 0.15t2 where is in

radians and t in seconds. Collar B

slides along the arm such that r =

0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is in meters.

After the arm has rotated through

30o, determine (a) the total velocity

of the collar, (b) the total

acceleration of the collar, and (c)

the relative acceleration of the collar

with respect to the arm.

positions, and first and second

derivatives at time t.

Calculate velocity and

acceleration in cylindrical

coordinates.

Evaluate acceleration with respect

to arm.

105

Sample Problem

SOLUTION:

Evaluate time t for = 30o.

0.15 t 2

30 0.524 rad

t 1.869 s

first and second derivatives at time t.

r 0.9 0.12 t 2 0.481 m

r 0.24 t 0.449 m s

r 0.24 m s 2

0.30 t 0.561 rad s

0.30 rad s 2

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

106

Sample Problem

Calculate velocity and acceleration.

vr r 0.449 m s

v r 0.481m 0.561rad s 0.270 m s

v

tan 1

v vr2 v2

vr

v 0.524 m s

ar r r 2

31.0

0.391m s 2

a r 2r

0.359 m s 2

a ar2 a2

a

tan 1

ar

a 0.531m s

42.6

107

Sample Problem

Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.

Motion of collar with respect to arm is

rectilinear and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA r 0.240 m s 2

108

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