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Introduction to

Dynamics
a.k.a. Spinning & Shaking

Prof. Nicholas Zabaras


Warwick Centre for Predictive Modelling
University of Warwick
Coventry CV4 7AL
United Kingdom
Email: nzabaras@gmail.com
URL: http://www.zabaras.com/

January 29, 2015


Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Outline
Course Web Site
Recommended textbooks

Homework
Course Coverage
This (review) Lecture:

Kinematics of a Particle (Chapter 12) Engr. Mechanics,


Dynamics, R. C. Hibbeler, 13th Edition)
Kinematics of Particles (Chapters 11 and 12),
Mechanics of Materials, Dynamics, F. Beer, E.R.
Johnston, et al. (6th Edt)
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

HomeHoneowork
Course Web Site,
Lectures & Homework
The course web site is
http://www.zabaras.com/Courses/Dynamics/Dynamics.html

The web site will include lecture notes, homework, and


course announcements. Visit this link often for useful
information.
Homework problems are assigned on the course web site
related to each lecture.
Solution to the homework is not mandatory but highly
recommended. We consider these homework activities an
essential part of the course.
Solution to a homework set will be provided on the course
web site.
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Recommended Textbooks
Vector Mechanics for Engineers, F. Beer,
Textbook
E.R. Johnston and
R. Cornwell, 10th
Edition.
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, A.
Bedford and W. Fowler (course pack)
Engineering Mechanics, Dynamics, R. C.
Hibbeler, 13th Edition
Notes: Our Lectures and Lecture slides will closely follow the textbooks by Beer et al. and
Hibbeler.
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Office Hours
Office
Hours
Office Hours :
4:30 6:30 pm on Mondays (during the duration of the
lectures)

Location
Building: Eng.
Room: 408B (close to the Chemistry bldg.)

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Attendance
Attendance
We will work with the hope that no lecture is waste of
your valuable time.
We recommend that you download and study the
lecture notes from the web before attending so you can
maximize your understanding of the class material.
Even with 300+ students, we encourage your questions,
in class or during office hrs.
Out of respect for each other, if you come to class you
come to learn. Not allowed in class: Phones on, reading
papers, bla bla with each other, playing computer
games, etc.
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Course Coverage
coverage
Course
Kinematics of a particle (Hibbeler, Chapter 12)
Force and acceleration (Hibbeler, Chapter 13)
Work and energy relations (Hibbeler, Chapter 14, B&F Chapter
15)
Impulse and Momentum (Hibbeler, Chapter 15)

Kinematics of a rigid bodies in planar motion (Hibbeler, Chapter 16,


B&F Chapter 17)
Force and acceleration of rigid bodies (Hibbeler, Chapter 17)
Work and energy relations of rigid bodies (Hibbeler, Chapter 18)
Impulse and Momentum of rigid bodies (Hibbeler, Chapter 19)
Vibrations (Hibbeler, Chapter 22, B&F Chapter 21)
Notes
1.
Several lecture notes provide review of things you should know from elementary physics. They are
essential part of the course but will be discussed briefly.
2.
The lecture notes follow closely the three recommended textbooks (thus you dont need to
purchase them).
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Introduction
Dynamics includes:

- Kinematics is used to relate displacement, velocity, acceleration,


and time without reference to the cause of motion.
- Kinetics is used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to
determine the forces required to produce a given motion.
Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as
it moves along a straight line.
Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as
it moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Introduction to Dynamics
Statics:
Study
bodies at rest
Areas
ofofmechanics
(section12.1)

F 0
F 0
M 0
x

Dynamics: Study of bodies in motion


Kinematics, is a study the geometry of the motion

s, v, a
Kinetics, is a study of forces F that cause the
motion
F ma
F ma
M I
x

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration


Particle moving along a straight line is
said to be in rectilinear motion.
Position coordinate of a particle is
defined by positive or negative distance
of particle from a fixed origin on the line.
The motion of a particle is known if the
position coordinate for particle is known
for every value of time t. Motion of the
particle may be expressed in the form of
a function, e.g.,
x 6t 2 t 3

or in the form of a graph x vs. t.

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10

Frame of Reference
Frame of reference is a place or object that you
assume is fixed
observations of how objects move are
defined in relation to that frame of
reference.

Perception of motion depends on the observers


frame of reference.
We usually use the earth as the frame of
reference.
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11

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration


Consider particle which occupies
position P at time t and P at t+Dt,
Dx
Average velocity
Dt
Dx

lim
Instantaneous velocity
Dt 0 Dt

Instantaneous velocity may be positive


or negative. Magnitude of velocity is
referred to as particle speed.
From the definition of a derivative,
Dx dx
v lim

dt
Dt 0 Dt

e.g. x 6t 2 t 3
,
dx
v
12t 3t 2
dt
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

12

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration


Consider particle with velocity v at time t
and v at t+Dt,
Dv
Instantaneous acceleration a lim
Dt 0 Dt
Instantaneous acceleration may be:
- positive: increasing positive velocity
or decreasing negative velocity
- negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
From the definition of a derivative,
Dv dv d 2 x
a lim

2
dt dt
Dt 0 Dt
e.g. v 12t 3t 2
a

dv
12 6t
dt

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

13

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration


Consider particle with motion given by
x 6t 2 t 3
dx
v
12t 3t 2
dt
dv d 2 x
a
2 12 6t
dt dt

at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2

at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0
at t = 4 s, x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2
at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = -36 m/s, a = 24 m/s2
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

14

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

15

Motion 11
Motion

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

16

Motion 22
Motion

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17

Motion 33
Motion

slowing

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18

Motion 44
Motion

bottom
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19

Motion 55
Motion

speeding
up
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20

Motion 66
Motion

Still
rising

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21

Motion 77
Motion

top

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22

Velocity Acceleration
1

Velocity Acceleration
5

2
6
3
7
4
bottom

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23

Determination of the Motion of a Particle


Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.
Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration
experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position
requires two successive integrations.
Three classes of motion may be defined for:
- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

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24

Determination of the Motion of a Particle


Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):
v t
t
dv
a f t
dv f t dt
dv f t dt

dt
v
0
dx
vt
dt

x t

dx vt dt

vt v0 f t dt
0

dx vt dt

x0

xt x0 vt dt

Acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x):


v

dx
dx
or dt
dt
v

v dv f x dx

a
v x

dv
dv
or a v f x
dt
dx
x

v dv f x dx

v0

x0

1 v x 2
2

12 v02

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

f x dx
x0

25

Determination of the Motion of a Particle


Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):
dv
a f v
dt

dv
dt
f v

v t

dv
f v t
v0

dv
v a f v
dx
xt x0

v t

v dv
dx
f v

v t

t
dv
f v dt
0
v0

x t

v t

v dv
dx f v
v0
x0

v dv
f v
v0

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26

Relation involving x, v, & a (no time t)


Position x
Velocity

dx
v
dt

Acceleration

dv
dt

dx
dt
v

dt

dv
a

dx dv

v
a

adx vdv
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

27

Example of applying a dx = v dv
A car starts from rest and moves along a straight line with an
acceleration of a = ( 3 x -1/3 ) m/s2. where x is in meters. Determine the
cars acceleration when t = 4 s.
Rest t = 0 , v = 0
1

x 3 dx 3dt

adx vdv
s

3x
0

1
3

dx vdv
0

2
3
1 2
3
(3) x v
2
2

v 3x

1
3

1
dx
v
3x 3
dt

x
0

1
3

dx 3dt
0

3 23
x 3t
2

x (2t )

3
2

3
2

9
2

x(4) (2 4) 2

a (4) 3 2

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

9
2

1
3

3
2 2

m / s2
28

Example Problem
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
Solve for t at which velocity equals
zero (time for maximum elevation) and
evaluate corresponding altitude.

Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity


from window 20 m above ground.

Solve for t at which altitude equals


zero (time for ground impact) and
evaluate corresponding velocity.

Determine:
velocity and elevation above ground at
time t,
highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
time when ball will hit the ground and
corresponding velocity.
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29

Example Problem
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
dv
a 9.81 m s 2
dt
v t
t
vt v0 9.81t
dv 9.81 dt
v0

vt 10

dy
v 10 9.81t
dt
y t
t
dy 10 9.81t dt
y0

m
m
9.81 2 t
s
s

y t y0 10t 12 9.81t 2

m
m
yt 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2
s
s

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30

Example Problem
Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and
evaluate corresponding altitude.
vt 10

m
m
9.81 2 t 0
s
s

t 1.019 s

m
m
y t 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2
s
s
m

m
y 20 m 10 1.019 s 4.905 2 1.019 s 2
s

y 25.1 m
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31

Example Problem
Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
m
m
yt 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2 0
s
s
t 1.243 s meaningles s
t 3.28 s

vt 10

m
m
9.81 2 t
s
s

v3.28 s 10

m
m
9.81 2 3.28 s
s
s
v 22.2

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

m
s
32

Example Problem
SOLUTION:
a kv

Brake mechanism used to reduce gun


recoil consists of piston attached to
barrel moving in fixed cylinder filled
with oil. As barrel recoils with initial
velocity v0, piston moves and oil is
forced through orifices in piston,
causing piston and cylinder to
decelerate at rate proportional to their
velocity.

Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find


v(t).
Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).

Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find


v(x).

Determine v(t), x(t), and a(x).


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Example Problem
SOLUTION:

Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find


v(t).
v t
t
dv
dv
a
kv
k dt

dt
v v
0
0

ln

vt
kt
v0

vt v0 e kt

Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).


dx
vt
v0 e kt
dt
t
x t
t
1

kt
xt v0 e kt
dx v0 e dt
k
0
0
0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

v
xt 0 1 e kt
k
34

Example Problem
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).
dv
a v kv
dx

dv k dx

v0

dv k dx

v v0 kx

v v0 kx
a k v0 kx

Alternatively,
with

v
xt 0 1 e kt
k

kt
kt vt

v
t

v
e
or
e

and
0
v0
v0 vt
1

x
t

then
k
v0
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

v v0 kx
35

Uniform Rectilinear Motion


For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is
zero and the velocity is constant.
dx
v constant
dt
x

x0

dx v dt
x x0 vt
x x0 vt

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Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion


For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the
acceleration of the particle is constant.
dv
a constant
dt

v0

dv a dt

v v0 at

v v0 at
dx
v0 at
dt

x0

dx v0 at dt

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

dv
v a constant
dx

v0

x0

v dv a dx

1
2

v 2 v02 ax x0

v 2 v02 2a x x0
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Velocity as a Function of Time


ac

dv
dt

dv ac dt
v

dv a dt
c

vo

v v0 act
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Position as a Function of Time


dx
v
v0 act
dt
x

dx (v

so

act )dt

1 2
x x0 v0t act
2
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Velocity as a Function of Position


v dv ac dx
v

v dv a

v0

dx

s0

1 2 1 2
v v0 ac ( x x0 )
2
2

v v 2ac ( x x0 )
2

2
0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Example of Constant Acceleration: Free Fall


We throw two balls at the top of a cliff of height H. Ball A is thrown with
an initial speed v0 downwards and ball B with the same speed upwards
(as shown).
The speed of the two balls when they hit the ground are vA and vB
respectively. Which of the following is true:
(a)

vA < vB

(b) vA = vB

A
v0

v0

(c) vA > vB

B
H

vA

vB

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Example of Constant Acceleration: Free Fall


Intuition should tell you that v = v0
We can prove this:

v 2 v02 2( g ) H H 0

This looks just like ball B was


thrown down with speed v0, so
the speed at the bottom should
be the same as that of ball A!!

B
v0

v = v0
H

y=0
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Example of Constant Acceleration: Free Fall


We can also just use the equation directly:

A
B

A
v0

v 2 v02 2( g ) 0 H

v v 2( g ) 0 H
2

v0

2
0

same !!

y=H

y=0

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43

Summary
Time dependent acceleration

x(t )
dx
v
dt
dv d 2 x
a
2
dt dt

adx vdv

Constant acceleration

v v0 act
1 2
x x0 v0t act
2

v v 2ac ( x x0 )
2

2
0

This applies to a freely falling object:

a g 9.81 m / s 2 32.2 ft / s 2

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44

Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion


For particles moving along the same line,
time should be recorded from the same
starting instant and displacements should be
measured from the same origin in the same
direction.

x B x A relative position of B
with respect to A
xB x A xB A

xB

v B v A relative velocity of B
with respect to A
vB v A vB A
vB

a B a A relative acceleration of
B with respect to A
aB a A aB A
aB

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45

Relative Motion
A

160 km/h

180 km/h

VA VB VA/B
VA/B VA - VB 160 180 20 km / h

VB VA VB/A
VB/A VB - VA 180 160 20 km / h
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46

Example
The passenger aircraft B is flying east with velocity vB = 800 km/h. A
jet is traveling south with velocity vA = 1200 km/h. What velocity does
A appear to a passenger in B ?
y

v B 800 i

Solution

vA B

v A 1200 j

VA

VB VA B

1200 j 800 i v A B
VA B 800 i 1200 j
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

47

Example
A/ B

Absolute value
:

8002 12002
1442 km / h

The direction ofVA B


y

VB 800 i

tan

800
1200

33.7 West of
South

vA B

VA 1200 j
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Example
A train travels at a constant speed of 60 mi/
h and crosses over a road. If the automobile
A is traveling at 45 mi /h along the road

determine the magnitude and direction of


the velocity of the train relative to the
automobile.
VT VA VT/A

T 60 mi/h
A 45 mi/h

60 i (45 cos 45o i 45 sin 45o j) VT/A


VT/A { 28.2 i - 31.8 j} mi/h

T / A (28.2) 2 (31.8) 2 42.5 mi/h


(T / A ) y

31.8
tan

(T / A ) x 28.2

48.5o

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Example
At the instant shown, the car at A is traveling at 10 m/s around
the curve while increasing its speed at 2 m/s2. The car at B is
traveling at 18.5 m/s along the straightway and increasing its
speed at 5 m/s2. Determine the relative velocity and relative
acceleration of A with respect to B at this instant

VA VB VA/B

10 cos 45i -10 sin 45 j 18.5 i VA/B


VA/B { -11.42 i 7.07 j} m/s

a A a B a A/B
(10) 2
(10) 2
a A {2 cos 45 i 2 sin 45 jcos 45 i sin45 j }
100
100
aB 5 i
o

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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.

Substitute initial position and


constant velocity of elevator into
equation for uniform rectilinear
motion.
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level Write equation for relative position of
in elevator shaft with initial velocity
ball with respect to elevator and
solve for zero relative position, i.e.,
of 18 m/s. At same instant, openimpact.
platform elevator passes 5 m level
moving upward at 2 m/s.
Substitute impact time into equation
for position of elevator and relative
Determine (a) when and where ball
velocity of ball with respect to
hits elevator and (b) relative velocity
elevator.

of ball and elevator at contact.

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51

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.

v B v0 at 18

m
m
9.81 2 t
s
s

m
m
y B y0 v0t 12 at 2 12 m 18 t 4.905 2 t 2
s
s
Substitute initial position and constant velocity of
elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear
motion.

vE 2

m
s

m
y E y0 v E t 5 m 2 t
s
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

52

Sample Problem
Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

yB

12 18t 4.905t 2 5 2t 0

t 0.39 s meaningles s
t 3.65 s
Substitute impact time into equations for position of
elevator and relative velocity of ball with respect to
elevator.

y E 5 23.65

y E 12.3 m

v B E 18 9.81t 2
16 9.813.65

v B E 19.81
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

m
s
53

Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two


Particles
The motion of one particle
will depend on the
corresponding motion of
another particle
Inextensible cords
connection

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

Position
How to establish the position
coordinate
Reference from a fixed point
(O) or fixed datum.
Measures along each
inclined plane in the
direction of motion
Has positive sense from C
to A and from D to B.

Establish a total cord length


equation

s A lCD sB lT

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55

Velocity
Velocity is the time derivative
of the position
From the total cord length
equation

s A lCD sB lT
s A sB lT lCD const
Velocity

ds A dsB

0 or B A
dt
dt

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56

Acceleration
Acceleration is the time
derivative of the velocity
From the velocity equation

B A

Acceleration

d B d A

dt
dt

aB a A

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57

Example Problem
Position coordinate
2 sB h s A l

2 sB s A l h const.

Velocity

2 B A
Acceleration

1
B A
2

2 aB a A
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58

Example Problem
Position coordinate

2 s2B (h sA sB )l h3hs AConst


l
Velocity

2 B A

Acceleration

2 aB a A
Positive signs, why?

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59

Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion


Position of a particle may depend on position of
one or more other particles.
Position of block B depends on position of block A.
Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum
of lengths of segments must be constant.
x A 2 x B constant (one degree of freedom)

Positions of three blocks are dependent.

2 x A 2 x B xC constant (two degrees of freedom)


For linearly related positions, similar relations hold
between velocities and accelerations.
dx
dx A
dx
2 B C 0 or 2v A 2v B vC 0
dt
dt
dt
dv
dv
dv
2 A 2 B C 0 or 2a A 2a B aC 0
dt
dt
dt
2

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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Define origin at upper horizontal surface
with positive displacement downward.

Collar A has uniformly accelerated


rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration
and time t to reach L.
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Calculate change of position at time t.

Pulley D is attached to a collar


which is pulled down at 3 in./s. At t
Block B motion is dependent on motions
= 0, collar A starts moving down
of collar A and pulley D. Write motion
from K with constant acceleration
relationship and solve for change of
and zero initial velocity. Knowing
block B position at time t.
that velocity of collar A is 12 in./s as
it passes L, determine the change in
elevation, velocity, and acceleration Differentiate motion relation twice to
develop equations for velocity and
of block B when block A is at L.
acceleration of block B.
Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

61

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.
Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear
motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach
L.

v 2A v A 02 2a A x A x A 0
2

in.
12 2a A 8 in.
s

aA 9

in.
s2

v A v A 0 a At
12

in.
in.
9 2t
s
s

t 1.333 s

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

62

Sample Problem
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Calculate change of position at time t.

x D x D 0 v D t
in.
x D x D 0 3 1.333 s 4 in.
s
Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
solve for change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,

x A 2 x D x B x A 0 2 x D 0 x B 0

x A x A 0 2xD xD 0 xB xB 0 0
8 in. 24 in. x B x B 0 0

x B x B 0 16 in.

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63

Sample Problem
Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.

x A 2 x D x B constant
v A 2v D v B 0
in. in.
12 2 3 v B 0
s s

v B 18

in.
s

a A 2a D a B 0
in.
9 2 vB 0
s

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

in.
a B 9 2
s

64

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration


Particle moving along a curve other than a straight
line is in curvilinear motion.
Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by
a vector between origin O of a fixed reference
frame and the position occupied by particle.

Consider particle which occupies position P

defined by r at time t and P defined by r at t +

Dt,
Dr dr
v lim

dt
Dt 0 Dt
instantaneous velocity (vector)
Ds ds

dt
Dt 0 Dt

v lim

instantaneous speed (scalar)


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Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider velocity v of particle at time t and

velocity v at t + Dt,

Dv dv

a lim

dt
Dt 0 Dt
instantaneous acceleration
(vector)

In general, acceleration vector is not


tangent to particle path and velocity vector.

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Derivatives of Vector Functions

Let Pu be a vector function of scalar variable u,

dP
DP
Pu Du Pu
lim
lim
du Du 0 Du Du 0
Du

Derivative of vector sum,

d P Q dP dQ

du
du du
Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,

d f P df
dP

P f
du
du
du
Derivative of scalar product and vector product,

d P Q dP dQ

Q P
du
du
du

d P Q dP
dQ

Q P
du
du
du
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Curvilinear Motion
We will investigate particle motion along a curved path
using three coordinate systems
Rectangular Components

Normal and Tangential Components


Polar & Cylindrical Components

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Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration


When position vector of particle P is given by
its rectangular components,

r xi y j zk
Velocity vector,

dx dy dz
v i j k xi y j zk
dt
dt
dt

vx i v y j vz k
Acceleration vector,

d 2 x d 2 y d 2 z
a 2 i 2 j 2 k xi y j zk
dt
dt
dt

ax i a y j az k
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Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration


Rectangular components particularly effective
when component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,

a x x 0

a y y g

with initial conditions,

x0 y0 z0 0

a z z 0

v x 0 , v y 0 , v z 0 0

Integrating twice yields

v x v x 0
x v x 0 t

v y v y gt
0

y v y y 12 gt 2
0

vz 0
z0

Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.


Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.
Motion of projectile could be replaced by two
independent rectilinear motions.
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Example Problem
The position of a particle is described by rA= {2t i +(t2-1) j} ft. where t is
in seconds.
Determine the position of the point and the speed at 2 seconds.

rA 2(2)i (22 1) j 4i 3 j

drA
vA
2i 2t j 2i 4 j
dt
speed

v A 2 4 4.47 ft/s
2

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Acceleration
Acceleration is the first time
derivative of v

dv
a
ax i a y j az k
dt
Where

ax x x
ay y y
az z z

Magnitude of acceleration
a

ax ay az
2

Direction is not tangent to


the path
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Example Problem
At any instant the horizontal postition of the weather
balloon is defined by x = (8t) ft, where t is in second . If
the equation of the path is y=x2/10 determine the distance
of the balloon from A, the magnitude and direction of the
velocity and the acceleration when t=2sec.
Position
x 8(2) 16 ft
y (16) 2 /10 25.6 ft

r (16) 2 (25.6) 2 30.2 ft

x=8t

Velocity
d
x x (8t ) 8ft/s
dt
d
y y ( x 2 /10) 2 xx /10 2(16)(8) /10 25.6 ft/s
dt

(8) 2 (25.6) 2 26.8 ft


tan 1

y
25.6
tan 1
72.6o
x
8

Acceleration
d
(8) 0 ft/s
dt
d
a y y (2 xx /10) 2( x) x /10 2 x( x) /10 12.8ft/s 2
dt
ax x

a (0) 2 (12.8) 2 12.8 ft/s 2


a tan 1

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

ay
ax

tan 1

12.8
90o
0
73

Example
r 0.5sin(2t )i 0.5cos(2t ) j 0.2tk

t in seconds, arguments in radians

( rad 180o )

At t = 0.75 s find location, velocity, and


acceleration
r(0.75) 0.5sin(1.5)i 0.5cos(1.5) j 0.2(0.75)k

r 0.499i 0.0354 j 0.15k


r (0.499) 2 (0.0354) 2 (0.15) 2 0.522 m

0.15
0.499 0.0354
ur
i
j
k 0.955i 0.0678j-0.287k
0.522
0.522
0.522
cos 1 (0.955) 17.2o

cos 1 (0.0678) 86.1o

cos 1 (0.287) 107 o

Take derivatives of r(t) w.r.t. time to


define similar eqs for v and a
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Motion of a Projectile
Projectile: a body that is given an initial velocity and then
follows a path determined by gravitational acceleration
and air resistance.
Trajectory path followed by a projectile

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75

Horizontal motion is uniform motion


Notice that the horizontal motion is in no way affected by the vertical motion.
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76

Projectile

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77

Horizontal and vertical components of velocity


Vertical velocity decreases at a constant rate
due to the influence of gravity.

Horizontal and vertical components


of velocity are independent.

Vertical velocity decreases at a


constant rate due to the influence
of gravity.
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Horizontal Motion
Acceleration : ax= 0

() v v0 ac t

vx (v0 ) x

1 2
() x x0 v0t ac t
2

() v v 0 2ac ( s s0 )
2

x x0 (v0 ) x t

vx (v0 ) x

Horizontal velocity remains constant


Equal distance covered in equal time intervals
( x x0 )
vx
t
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79

Vertical Motion
ac= -g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2

( ) v v0 act
1
( ) y y0 v0t act 2
2

( ) v v 0 2ac ( s s0 )
2

v y (v0 ) y gt
1
y y0 (v0 ) y t gt 2
2
2

v v0

2 g ( y y0 )

Equal increments of speed gained in equal increments of time


Distance increases in each time interval

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Projectile Motion
Assumptions:
(1) free-fall acceleration
(2) neglect air resistance
Choosing the y direction as positive upward:
ax = 0;
ay = - g (a constant)
Take x0= y0 = 0 at t = 0
Initial velocity v0 makes an
y
angle 0 with the horizontal

v0

v0 x v0 cos0

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

v0 y v0 sin0

81

Maximum Height
At the peak of its trajectory, vy = 0.
From

v y v0 y gt voy gt 0

Time t1 to reach the peak


Substituting into:

t1

v0 y
g

1
y v0 y t gt 2
2

h ymax

v02y
2g

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82

Projection Angle
The optimal angle of projection is dependent on the
goal of the activity.
For maximal height the optimal angle is 90o.
For maximal distance the optimal angle is 45o.

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83

Projection angle = 10 degrees

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84

Projection angle = 45 degrees


10 degrees
30 degrees
40 degrees
45 degrees

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85

Projection angle = 60 degrees


10 degrees
30 degrees
40 degrees
45 degrees
60 degrees

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86

Projection angle = 75 degrees


10 degrees
30 degrees
40 degrees
45 degrees
60 degrees
75 degrees

Angle that maximizes range


optimal = 45 degrees
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87

Example Problem 1/4


A ball is given an initial velocity of V0 = 37 m/s at an angle of = 53.1.
Find the position of the ball, and the magnitude and direction of its
velocity, when t = 2.00 s.
Find the time when the ball reaches the highest point of its flight, and
find its height h at this point

The initial velocity of the ball has components:


v0x = v0 cos 0 = (37.0 m/s) cos 53.1 = 22.2 m/s
v0y = v0 sin 0 = (37.0 m/s) sin 53.1= 29.6 m/s
a)
position
x = v0xt = (22.2 m/s)(2.00 s) = 44.4 m
y = v0yt - gt2
= (29.6 m/s)(2.00 s) (9.80 m/s2)(2.00 s)2
= 39.6 m
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88

Example Problem 2/4


Velocity
vx = v0x = 22.2 m/s
vy = v0y gt = 29.6 m/s (9.80 m/s2)(2.00 s) = 10.0 m/s

v vx2 v y2

22.2 m / s

(10.0 m / s ) 2

24.3 m / s
10.0 m / s
arctan
arctan 0.450 24.2
22.2 m / s

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89

Example Problem 3/4


b) Find the time when the ball reaches the highest
point of its flight, and find its height H at this point.
v y 0 v0 y gt1
v0 y

29.6 m / s
t1

3.02 s
2
g 9.80 m / s
1
H v0 y t1 gt12
2
1
(29.6 m / s)(3.02 s) (9.80 m / s 2 )(3.02 s) 2
2
44.7 m

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90

Example Problem 4/4


c) Find the horizontal range R, (e.g. the horizontal
distance from the starting point to the point at which
the ball hits the ground.)

1
1
2
y 0 v0 y t2 gt2 t2 (v0 y gt2 )
2
2

t2 0 and t2

2v0 y
g

2(29.6 m / s )

6.04 s
2
9.80 m / s

R v0 x t2 (22.2 m / s )(6.04 s ) 134 m


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91

Example Problem
A ball is traveling at 25 m/s drive off of the
edge of a cliff 50 m high. Where does it
land?
Horizontally

25 m/s

x = x0 + (v0)x t
Initial
Conditions

x = 25 *3.19 = 79.8 m

Vertically

vx = 25 m/s

v = v0-gt

vy0 = 0 m/s

y = y0 + v0t + 1/2gt2 .

a =- 9.8 m/s2

v2 = v02 - 2g(y-y0).

-50 = 0+0+1/2(-9.8)t2 t = 3.19 s

t=0

y0 = 0 m
y =- 50 m
x0 =0 m

79.8 m
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92

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation


Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference.
All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed
reference frame are moving frames of reference.
Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to

the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are rA and rB .

Vector rB A joining A and B defines the position of


B with respect to the moving frame Axyz and


rB rA rB

Differentiating twice,

vB v A vB

a B a A aB

vB

aB

velocity of B relative to A.
acceleration of B relative
to A.

Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining


motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to
moving reference frame attached to A.
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93

Tangential and Normal Components


Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of
particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.
Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of
tangential and normal components.

et and et are tangential unit vectors for the

particle path at P and P. When drawn with



respect to the same origin, Det et et and
D is the angle between them.

Det 2 sinD 2

Det
sinD 2

lim
lim
en en
D 0 D
D 0 D 2

det

en
d
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94

Tangential and Normal Components

With the velocity vector expressed as v vet


the particle acceleration may be written as

a
but

de dv
de d ds
dv dv
et v t et v t
dt dt
dt dt
d ds dt

det
en
d

d ds

ds
v
dt

After substituting,

dv v 2
a et en
dt

dv
at
dt

an

v2

Tangential component of acceleration reflects


change of speed and normal component reflects
change of direction.
Tangential component may be positive or
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
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95

Tangential and Normal Components


Relations for tangential and normal acceleration
also apply for particle moving along space curve.

dv v 2
a et en
dt

dv
at
dt

an

v2

Plane containing tangential and normal unit


vectors is called the osculating plane.
Normal to the osculating plane is found from


eb et en

en principal normal

eb binormal
Acceleration has no component along binormal.
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96

Radius of curvature ()
For the Circular motion :
() = radius of the circle
For y = f(x):
1 (dy / dx) 2 3/2

d 2 y / dx 2

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97

Example Problem
Find the radius of curvature
of the parabolic path in the
figure at x = 150 ft.
y

1 2
x 200
200

dy / dx
d 2 y / dx 2

1
x
100

1
100

1 (dy / dx) 2

d 2 y / dx 2

3/2

1 2
x
1
100

1
100

3/2

585.9 ft
x 150

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98

Example Problem
A skier travels with a constant
speed of 20 ft/s along the parabolic
path shown. Determine the velocity
at x = 150 ft.
y

1 2
x 200
200
1
dy / dx
x
100
1
dy / dx
x x 150 1.5
100

tan 1 1.5 56.3o

150 20 ft/s

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99

Special case
1- Straight
lineamotion
n 0

a at
2- Constant speed
curve motion
(centripetal
acceleration)

2
a an

at 0
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100

Radial and Transverse Components


When particle position is given in polar coordinates,
it is convenient to express velocity and acceleration
with components parallel and perpendicular to OP.
The particle velocity vector is

r rer

der
e
d

der dr
dr
d
d
v rer er r
er r
e
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

r er r e

de

er
d

der der d d

e
dt
d dt
dt

de de d
d

er
dt
d dt
dt

Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is

d
d dr
a er r
e
dt dt
dt

d 2 r dr der dr d
d 2
d de
2 er

e r 2 e r
dt dt dt dt
dt dt
dt
dt

r r 2 er r 2r e

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101

Radial and Transverse Components


When particle position is given in cylindrical
coordinates, it is convenient to express the
velocity and acceleration
vectors using the unit

vectors eR , e , and k .
Position vector,

r R e R z k

Velocity vector,

dr

v
R eR R e z k
dt

Acceleration vector,

dv

R eR R 2 R e z k
a
R
dt

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102

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Calculate tangential and normal
components of acceleration.
Determine acceleration magnitude
and direction with respect to tangent
to curve.
A motorist is traveling on curved
section of highway at 60 mph. The
motorist applies brakes causing a
constant deceleration rate.

Knowing that after 8 s the speed


has been reduced to 45 mph,
determine the acceleration of the
automobile immediately after the
brakes are applied.
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103

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
at
an

60 mph 88 ft/s
45 mph 66 ft/s

Dv 66 88 ft s
ft

2.75 2
Dt
8s
s
v2

88ft s

2500 ft

3.10

ft
s2

Determine acceleration magnitude and direction


with respect to tangent to curve.

at2

tan

an2

1 an

at

2.75 3.10

tan

1 3.10

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

2.75

a 4.14

ft
s2

48.4
104

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Evaluate time t for = 30o.

Rotation of the arm about O is


defined by = 0.15t2 where is in
radians and t in seconds. Collar B
slides along the arm such that r =
0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is in meters.
After the arm has rotated through
30o, determine (a) the total velocity
of the collar, (b) the total
acceleration of the collar, and (c)
the relative acceleration of the collar
with respect to the arm.

Evaluate radial and angular


positions, and first and second
derivatives at time t.
Calculate velocity and
acceleration in cylindrical
coordinates.
Evaluate acceleration with respect
to arm.

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105

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Evaluate time t for = 30o.
0.15 t 2
30 0.524 rad

t 1.869 s

Evaluate radial and angular positions, and


first and second derivatives at time t.
r 0.9 0.12 t 2 0.481 m
r 0.24 t 0.449 m s
r 0.24 m s 2

0.15 t 2 0.524 rad


0.30 t 0.561 rad s
0.30 rad s 2
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106

Sample Problem
Calculate velocity and acceleration.
vr r 0.449 m s
v r 0.481m 0.561rad s 0.270 m s
v
tan 1

v vr2 v2

vr

v 0.524 m s

ar r r 2

31.0

0.240 m s 2 0.481m 0.561rad s 2


0.391m s 2
a r 2r

0.481m 0.3 rad s 2 2 0.449 m s 0.561rad s


0.359 m s 2
a ar2 a2

a
tan 1

Introduction to Dynamics (N. Zabaras)

ar
a 0.531m s

42.6
107

Sample Problem
Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is
rectilinear and defined by coordinate r.
a B OA r 0.240 m s 2

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