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The shooting, Newton and p-version, hierarchical finite element methods are applied to study geometrically nonlinear
periodic vibrations of elastic and isotropic, beams and plates. Thin and thick or first-order shear deformation
theories are followed.

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www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

by the nite element and shooting methods

P. Ribeiro

IDMEC/DEMEGI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Doutor Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

Received 10 March 2004; accepted 12 March 2004

Available online 20 May 2004

Abstract

The shooting, Newton and p-version, hierarchical nite element methods are applied to study geometrically nonlinear periodic vibrations of elastic and isotropic, beams and plates. Thin and thick or rst-order shear deformation

theories are followed. One of the main goals of the work presented is to demonstrate that the methods suggested are

highly adequate to analyse the periodic, forced non-linear dynamics of beam and plate structures. An additional

purpose is to investigate the dierences in the predictions of non-linear motions when thin and thick, either beam

or plate theories are followed. To this ends response curves are derived, dening both stable and unstable solutions and

the characteristics of the motions are investigated using time plots, phase planes and Fourier spectra.

2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Non-linear vibrations; Periodic; Shooting; Thin; Thick; Beam; Plate

1. Introduction

A multi-degree of freedom linear system is characterised by a set of frequency response functions (FRFs),

where each FRF relates the amplitude and phase of the

response of a determined degree of freedom to a harmonic excitation in the same or other degree of freedom.

In linear systems, the response is linearly proportional to

the amplitude of the excitation, thus, each FRF does not

depend on the excitations amplitude and is a unique

property of the system. Therefore, the FRFs provide a

powerful way of understanding the dynamics of a linear

structure [1].

When large displacements arise and the system becomes geometrically non-linear, the steady-state response is not proportional to the amplitude of the

excitation. The designation frequency response function could still be used to entitle a function that relates

the response of a non-linear structural system to a cer-

E-mail address: pmleal@fe.up.pt (P. Ribeiro).

analysis. However, not only the response is a non-linear

function of the excitation amplitude, but also dierent

steady-state solutions are possible for the same frequency and amplitude of excitation, depending on the

initial conditions. Other signicant points are, of course,

that in a non-linear system harmonic excitations can

cause periodic but non-harmonic, quasi-periodic or chaotic responses [2], and that the superposition principle

does not hold.

It is, nevertheless, still valuable to know how the nonlinear structure responds to harmonic excitations, and

dierent methods have been implemented to numerically

predict these responses. Due to the reasons explained

above, the relations between the steady-state response

and the harmonic excitations will henceforth be designated simply as response functions in non-linear systems.

Finite element methods are often used in non-linear

structural dynamics. In what the spatial model of elemental structures like beams and plates is concerned, the

elements are many times derived following the so-called

thin and thick, or rst-order shear deformation (FOSD),

0045-7949/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2004.03.037

1414

of validity of these theories published, but they are most

usually in the linear vibrations realm, although some

works are also in non-linear free vibrations, as for

example reference [4].

When periodic solutions are sought, the nite element equations of motion can be solved in the frequency

domain by the harmonic balance method [2] (HBM) or

by the incremental harmonic balance method [5], which

is similar to the HBM plus a NewtonRaphson procedure [6]. In the HBM the time solution is written in the

form of a truncated Fourier series, and the coecients of

the same harmonic components are compared. In this

way, non-linear algebraic equations in the space variables and frequency are obtained. For a damped system

with n degrees of freedom, the harmonic balance method

requires the solution of 2nk or 2nk 1 non-linear algebraic equations, where k is the number of harmonics

used. If multi-modal and multi-frequency motions

occur, then the number of equations to solve can become

quite large [4,710], and it is cumbersome to derive the

frequency domain equations of motion. Moreover, if

the correct number and type of harmonics is not used, the

harmonic balance solution leads to incorrect data.

The numerical integration of the equations of motion

in the time domain using methods like nite dierences

or Newmarks method [11] is quite popular amongst

nite element users. Unlike the HBM, time domain

numerical integration schemes allow one to analyse nonperiodic motions. However, convergence to a steadystate solution may take a very long time, particularly if

damping is small. Moreover, to nd periodic solutions

by numerical integration, one chooses an initial condition and integrates the system of equations until convergence is achieved. With this approach it may be

dicult to ascertain that a steady-state condition was

reached, and which condition was reached when multiple solutions exist. Thus, these methods are not per se

recommendable to construct the response curves.

The shooting method [1215] is a time domain technique of great potential to analyse non-linear periodic

motions and to dene response curves. Unlike in the

HBM, the original number of equations to be solved does

not depend on the number of harmonics present in the

motions Fourier spectrum. Naturally, as a time domain

procedure, the best time step to use depends on the motions Fourier spectrum, but this time step can be easily,

or automatically, changed. Moreover, the shooting

method gives as a by-product the monodromy matrix,

the eigenvalues of which dene the solutions stability.

In this paper, an algorithm based on the shooting

method is applied to solve nite element equations of

motion and study geometrically non-linear vibrations of

beams and plates. It is intended to demonstrate that

these methods constitute a valuable tool to study periodic motions of structures, and therefore to dene the

response curves of elastic continua. Elastic and isotropic, thin and thick, beams and plates are analysed. Another primary goal of the paper is to examine the

domain of validity of the thin beam and plate theories

in periodic, forced non-linear vibrations.

2. Equations of motion, shooting and Newton methods

Following the rst-order shear deformation theory

(FOSDT), as in [4], the displacement components along

the x and y directions, u, v, are functions of the midsurface membrane translations u0 , v0 and of the rotations of the normal to the midsurface about the x- and

y-axis. The latter are denoted by h0x and h0y . Still according to the FOSDT, the transverse displacement w does

not depend on the coordinate z, on the axis normal to

the plane xy. Hence, the displacements are given by:

ux; y; z; t u0 x; y; t zh0y x; y; t;

vx; y; z; t v0 x; y; t zh0x x; y; t;

wx; y; z; t w0 x; y; t:

known assumptions can be implemented:

hy w0;x ;

hx w0;y :

In the case of a beam, only Eqs. (1), (3) and (4) apply,

dropping the y argument.

To employ some discretisation procedure, like the

nite element or the Galerkin method, one considers

that the actual displacements are functions of spatial

functionsthe shape functions fN x; ygT and of time

dependent generalised displacements fqtg:

8 0

9

u x; y; t >

>

>

>

> 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

< v x; y; t >

=

w0 x; y; t

>

>

>

0

> hy x; y; t >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

: 0

;

hx x; y; t

2 u

T

fN x; yg

6

6

0

6

6

0

6

6

4

0

0

8

9

qu t >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

< qv t >

=

qw t :

>

>

>

> qh t >

>

>

>

y

>

>

>

>

:

;

qhx t

0

u

fN x; yg

0

T

fN w x; yg

fN hy x; yg

0

fN hx x; yg

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

respectively, if the vectors or matrices are connected

with the membrane displacements along x or y, with the

displacement along z or with one of the rotations. For

thin structures it is possible to discard the terms connected with hx and hy in Eq. (6).

The equations of motion can be derived by the

principle of virtual work, Hamiltons principle, or other

[3]. For geometrically non-linear problems and if

damping is included, they are of the form

_

Mfqtg Cfqtg

Kfqtg KNLfqtg

fqtg fP tg;

K the linear stiness matrix and [KNL] the non-linear

stiness matrix. The latter matrix depends on the generalised transverse displacements fqtg. The dot over a

variable indicates dierentiation with respect to time.

Considering stiness proportional damping, the equations of motion of thin structures are of the form [9,10]:

9

2

38

Mu

< qu t =

0

0

4 0

Mv

0 5 qv t

0

0

Mw : qw t ;

9

2

38

0

0

< q_ u t =

K1u

K1v

0 5 q_ v t

a4 0

0

0

K1b : q_ w t ;

9

2

38

0

K2

< qu t =

K1u

5 qv t

K1v

K2

4 0

K3 K3 K1b K4 : qw t ;

8

9

< Pu t =

8

Pv t :

: P t ;

w

In the former equation, matrices of type K1 are linear

stiness matrices, and K2 , K3 and K4 are non-linear

stiness matrices. fP tg represents a vector of generalised external forces and a represents the loss factor.

The subscript b denotes bending.

If rst-order transverse shear is considered, we have [4]

9

2

38

>

>

Mu

0

0

0

0

t

q

>

>

u

>

>

>

>

>

6 0

7

0

0

0 7< qv t >

Mv

=

6

6 0

0

Mw

0

0 7

6

7> qw t >

>

4 0

0 5>

0

0

MRy

>

> qhy t >

>

>

>

:

qhx t ;

0

0

0

0

MRx

2

3

0

0

0

0

K1u

6 0

7

0

0

0

K1v

6

7

7

K

K

0

0

K

6

1c

1c

1c

6

7

4 0

5

K1b

0

K1c K1b K1c

K1b

K3

0

0

K1c

1b K1c

8

8

9 2

9

qu t >

0

0

K2 0 0 > qu t >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

0

K2 0 0 7

< qv t >

= 6

6 0

7< qv t =

6

7

qw t 6 K3 K3 K4 0 0 7 qw t

>

>

>

>

>

> 4 0

>

0

0

0 0 5>

>

>

: qhy t >

: qhy t >

;

;

qhx t

qhx t

0

0

0

0 0

8

9

Pu t >

>

>

>

>

< Pv t >

=

Pw t ;

9

>

>

>

> Mhy t >

>

:

;

Mhx t

1415

K1c is a linear stiness matrix due to shear, and fMhy g

and fMhx g are externally applied moments. The other

symbols are common with the ones of Eq. (8).

The methods of solution suggested in this paper

should be applicable to equations of motion obtained

using any spatial discretisation procedure; but the pversion, hierarchical nite element method, which has

the major advantage of requiring fewer degrees of freedom than the h-version of the FEM [4,9,10], will be used

in the numerical applications.

The vector of generalised external forces, fP tg, is

an explicit function of time; thus, the systems analysed

are non-autonomous. Harmonic excitations of the

following form:

fP tg fP g cosxt

10

are considered. In Eq. (10), fP g is the vector of amplitudes of the external forces, with period Te 2p=x,

where x is the frequency of excitation. The shooting

method [1215] is applied to nd T -periodic responses,

where T is a multiple of Te , of the system of n secondorder dierential equations of motion (7). First this is

transformed into the following system of 2n rst-order

dierential equations:

_

M

0

M

yt

_

qt

0

M aK

0

P t

0

KNL

yt

qt

11

y0

q0

yT

qT

f0g:

12

problem. Although not an essential step, the period can

be normalised to unity, by means of transformation

s t=T , so that the integration time interval is [0,1].

The system of dierential equations (11) then becomes

0

M

M

aK

_

ys

_

qs

0

T

P

M

0

0

KNL

ys

qs

:

13

Consider the 2n phase space vector fX sg

fys; qsg. Assigning an initial condition fsg to fX sg

and rewriting (13) in a simplied manner, the following

initial value problem is obtained:

1416

fX 0g fsg;

fX_ sg T M1 ff g KfX sg;

fX g; fsg 2 R2n :

14

frfsg; xg, dened as

frfsg; xg fX fsg; x; 0g fX fsg; x; 1g

15

must be evaluated at s 1.

ofsg

Dierentiating both sides of Eq. (14) and the vector of

initial conditions with respect to fsg, we have

o ofX g

o

ofX g

;

os ofsg

ofX g

ofsg

ofX 0g

I; fX g; fsg 2 R2n :

ofsg

24

is close to zero.

frfsg; xg f0g:

16

starts from the vector of initial conditions fsg at s 0

and arrives at the same location at s 1.

To apply the shooting algorithm an initial value is

required for fsg0 . For the rst two points, the initial

conditions are dened as

0

0

;

17

fsg0

sq

where fsq g0 is the solution of the linear problem

K x2 Mfsq g0 fP g:

18

periodic solutions, represented by the subscripts i and

i 1:

fsg0i1 fsg0i Dfsg0i1 ;

Dfsg0i1 fsg0i fsg0i1 d:

19

frequency

xi1 xi dxi xi1 :

20

allows one to describe fairly complex response curves,

and to nd stable and unstable solutions.

After dening a predictor, Newtons method is applied to nd the solution of (16). Thus, fsg is corrected

by using the following equation:

fsgv1 fsgv Dfsgv ;

21

Thus, matrix W fsg; x; 1 is the outcome of the following initial value problem:

W_ AW ;

W fsg; k; 0 I;

25

where matrix A is

As; fsg; k

o

T M1 ff g KfX sg:

ofX g

26

the periodic solution. In this work matrix A was analytically computed, with the help of a symbolic manipulator, and then stored in Fortran format.

Integrating (14) and (25) one calculates W fsg; x; 1

and fX fsg; x; 1g. A fourth order RungeKutta or

other method [16] may be used with this purpose. Then,

the system of equations (22) is solved and fsg is updated.

When Dfsg is suciently small and frg is close to zero,

convergence to a periodic solution has been achieved. At

this stage, one can dene a new predictor using Eqs. (19)

and (20) and proceed to the following point on the

curve.

The monodromy matrix W fsg; k; 1 is a by-product

of the shooting technique. As discussed, for example, by

Nayfeh and Balachandram [12] and by Seydel [13], the

complex eigenvalues of this matrix are the Floquet

multipliers and if a Floquet multiplier has norm greater

than one, then the solution is unstable. It is recalled that

the Floquet multipliers can leave the unit circle in three

ways. First through +1, resulting in a transcritical, a

symmetry-breaking or in a cyclic fold bifurcation. Second, through )1, resulting in a period-doubling bifurcation. Finally, two complex conjugate Floquet

multipliers can leave the unit circle, resulting in a secondary Hopf bifurcation.

the linear system of equations

J sv ; xDfsgv frfsgv ; xg:

22

to fsg, which may be written as

ofrg

J fsgv ; x

fsgv ; x

ofsg

I W fsgv ; x; 1:

23

3.1. Beams

A clampedclamped beam, Fig. 1, with properties

given in Tables 13 is studied rst, following thin beam

theory. The meaning of the symbols used in those tables

is the following: hthickness, bwidth, Llength, X

area of the transverse cross section, Isecond moment

y

F

x

Table 1

Thin beams geometric properties

h (mm)

b (mm)

L (mm)

X (m2 )

I 1=12bh3

(m4 )

20

406

4 105

1.333(3) 101

Table 2

Thin beams material properties

E (N/m2 )

Material

Aluminium 7075-T6

10

7.172 10

q (kg/m3 )

2800

0.33

mass density and mPoissons ratio. A large number of

shape functions is employed in the HFEM model uti-

1417

beams theory, the model is an accurate one [9].

In Fig. 2, in order to demonstrate the validity of the

procedure followed, the computed maximum displacement amplitudes of the beams middle point are compared with the ones experimentally measured [17]. A

point harmonic force of amplitude 0.134 N was applied

at the middle of the beam. Five transverse shape functions were used in the p-version nite element. In the

gure, the vertical axis gives the values of the maximum

displacement attained during a period of vibration, w,

divided by the thickness h and the horizontal axis gives

the a dimensional frequency. The agreement between

the computed and experimental values is fairly good.

In the analysis of this beam, it was veried that the

maximum amplitude of vibration, where a turning point

occurs, depends heavily on the loss factor considered.

The results shown on Fig. 2 are for an undamped beam.

In order to ascertain the dierences in the dynamic

behaviour that occur due to a change in the vibration

amplitude, Fig. 3a, displays the response of the same

beam to a transverse point harmonic force with amplitude 2 N, again applied at the middle of the beam.

Twelve longitudinal and eight transverse shape functions

were now employed and damping is again neglected.

Unstable solutions were now found, and super-harmonic resonances are more visible. In fact, two short

peaks due to super-harmonic resonances of order 3 and

5 appear before the main resonance; the rst peak close

to x=x1 0:2 and the second near 0.33. They are easily

visible in logarithmic scale, which is not shown for the

Table 3

Beams linear natural frequencies (rad/s)

Thickness

Theory

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

h 2L=406

h L=20

Thin

FOSDT

396.605

3960.63

1093.26

10698.3

2143.26

20441.8

3543.31

32990.9

5375.22

39162.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

Fig. 2. Transverse displacement of the beam at x 0: (s) numerical and (j) experimental.

1418

ninth harmonics are now present in the motions Fourier

spectrum. It is important to notice that the seventh

harmonic is quite signicant and is greater than the third

and the fth. However, since the fth harmonic is rather

small, one would be tempted to erroneously neglect the

seventh if the HBM was employed instead of the

shooting method.

sake of conciseness. Fig. 3b and c shows the time domain responses along three cycles of vibration and the

respective frequency spectrum of solutions close to

0:3782x1 . From these gures it becomes evident that the

third harmonic is present in the motions.

Fig. 3d shows the time series and the its coecients of

Fourier, when the excitation frequency is 970 rad/s and

the vibration amplitude is around three times the

3.5

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

Adimensional

amplitude

w

h

0.50

0.4

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.3

0.20

0.25

0.10

0.2

0.0

t+T

-0.10

t+3T

t+2T

0.15

-0.20

0.1

-0.30

0.05

-0.40

Harmonics

0

-0.50

10

Adimensional

amplitude

0.50

0.4

w

h

0.40

0.30

0.35

0.3

0.20

0.25

0.10

0.2

0.00

-0.10

t+T

t+3T 0.15

t+2T

-0.20

0.1

-0.30

0.05

-0.40

0

0

-0.50

3.00

4.00

w

h

3.00

-4.00

10

1.50

0.00

-3.00

2.00

1.00

-2.00

Adimensional

amplitude

2.50

2.00

-1.00

Harmonics

t+T

t+2T

t+3T

1.00

0.50

Harmonics

0.00

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Fig. 3. (a) Maximum transverse displacement at x 0 in function of excitation frequency: (d) stable solutions and (r) unstable

solutions. Displacement in function of time and Fourier series at (b) 0:3530x1 (140 rad/s), (c) 0:3782x1 (150 rad/s) and (d) 2:446x1

(970 rad/s).

1.2

1419

w/h

secondary branch

0.8

Bifurcation

0.6

0.4

Super-harmonic

0.2

0

0.2

1.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

w/h

0.8

Bifurcation

0.6

secondary branch

Super-harmonic

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Fig. 4. Maximum transverse displacement at x 0 in function of excitation frequency: (a) thin beam theory and (b) thick beam theory.

compared in Fig. 4, where a beam with similar properties to the one studied before, except the thickness that

is now h L=20, is analysed. The natural frequencies of

this beam, were computed using FOSDT and are given

in Table 3. A 2000 N point force is applied transversely

at the middle of the beam. Following any of the theories, one nds a typical main resonance, of the rst

mode, and a, also typical, super-harmonic resonance

again of the rst mode. Not so commonly found, are the

turning point that occurs in the super-harmonic branch

and the branch of solutions that bifurcates from the

main branch. The latter was found by reducing d in

Eq. (19).

The bifurcation from the main branch is a consequence of a 1:5 internal resonance, where the rst and

third modes become coupled. The presence of these

modes was veried by plotting the shapes of the beam at

dierent instants along the vibration period (not shown).

It is curious to realise that, as one proceeds in the secondary branch of solutions, at a certain stage the maximum amplitude displacement at x 0 barely changes,

as if it were locked. However, the smaller amplitude

waves connected to the fth harmonic, increase steadily.

Fig. 5 shows some time and phase plots of motions

before and after the bifurcation.

also due to due to an internal resonance and coupling

between modes, again the rst and the third mode (Fig.

6). The number of loops in the phase planeFig. 6bis

quite large, because the rst mode is linked with a superharmonic of order 3 and the third mode is associated

with a super-harmonic of order 15 (that gives a 1:5

internal resonance between super-harmonics). The

shooting and Newton methods accommodated this

reach dynamics rather easily, and, in the rst place, the

p-version nite element model allowed one to accurately

consider large order modes.

The thin beam theory predicts the main branch of

this L=h 20 beam quite reasonably, although we

should point out that the rst linear natural frequency is

3960.63 rad/s according to the thick beam theory whilst

the thin beam theory gives 4025.54 rad/s (1.64% relative

error).

Quantitatively, a quite larger dierence stems from

applying one or the other theory in what the bifurcation

and the turning points are concerned. This is natural,

since those points are due to modal interaction with

higher order modes, and, as is well known, higher order

theories provide better predictions of higher order

modes. For example the thick beam theory indicates

that the third linear natural frequency is 20441.8 rad/s,

1420

0.8

w/ h

=1.1160 1

2 w

5

0.6

0.4

0.2

w/ h

-0.2

-0.25 -1

-0.75

-0.4

0.25

0.75

-3

-0.6

-5

-0.8

=1.1362 1

1

2 w

w/ h

6

0.5

4

2

w/ h

-1

-2 0

-0.5

-0.5

0.5

-4

-6

-1

-8

2 w

0.8

w/ h

=1.2427 1

15

0.6

10

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.75

-0.25

-5

w/ h

0.25

0.75

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-10

-15

Fig. 5. Transverse displacement at x 0 for points of main (x 1:1160x1 ) and of secondary branch (x 1:1362x1 and 1:2427x1 )

of the response curve portrayed in Fig. 4, thin beam theory.

error: 6.4%).

Regarding the numerical procedure, because the thin

beam theory results in a lighter model, its computational

cost is much lower, not only due to the reduced number

of degrees of freedom, but also because the time step

employed in the RungeKutta method may be larger

than in the thick beam model.

3.2. Plates

The properties of the rst plate analyseda quadrangular steel plate with all edges immovable and

clamped (Plate 1)are given in Table 4. The letter a

designates the plates width. The rst ve linear natural

frequencies of the plate are given in Table 5. A p-version,

hierarchical nite element with three out-of-plane and

six in-plane shape functions was employed to carry out

the computations, as in [10].

uniform harmonic, distributed force of 4000 N/m2 . Due

to damping, which is taken into account by means of a

loss factor equal to 0.001, the maximum vibration

amplitude is less than 1.6 h. The displacement of the

middle point of the plate along one cycle and the

respective Fourier spectrum are shown as well, for some

frequencies of excitation. As with the beams, higher

harmonics appear.

In order to investigate the inuence of the rotatory

inertia and of the shear deformation, fully clamped

square steel plates with 500 mm width and two dierentthicknesses h 5 mm (Plate 2) and h 50 mm

(Plate 3)were investigated. The thick plate p-version

element employed had 3 out-of-plane, 5 membrane and

5 rotational shape functions (element with 59 DOF,

after condensation, i.e. 118 phase space co-ordinates).

Obviously, in the thin plate model there are no rotational generalised coordinates, therefore the number of

DOF is only 9 (18 phase space coordinates).

.

2 w

a) / 1= 0.3416

2 w

20

w/h

-2 0

0.2

-0.35

0.4

-5

-10

-6

-15

-8

-20

0.25

w ( x) 0.2

0.3

0.05

0.25

d) / 1= 0.3510

0.15

0.25

0.1

0.2

0.05

0

0.15

0.05

L

2

L

2

-0.1

-0.05

0.1

-0.15

-4

c) / 1= 0.3416

0.35

w/h

w ( x)

b) / 1= 0.3510

10

-0.2

15

-0.4

1421

-0.15

L

2

L

2

-0.2

Fig. 6. Phase plots (a,b) and deformed shapes (c,d) for excitation frequencies x=x1 0:3416 and 0.3510, super-harmonic branch,

thick beam theory.

Table 4

Geometric and material properties of Plate 1

a (mm)

500

h (mm)

2.0833

E (N/m2 )

Material

10

21.0 10

Steel

q (kg/m3 )

7800

0.3

Table 5

Linear natural frequencies of Plate 1 (rad/s)

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

470.866

960.588

960.588

1416.54

1724.31

and 3, due to distributed excitation forces with the

amplitudes indicated in the gures legends. Plate 2 is

thin (h=a 0:01). Therefore, the dierence between the

values of the rst linear frequency calculated using thin

plate (1130.2187 rad/s) and thick plate theory (1129.0358

rad/s) is very small (0.1%). The non-linear response does

not dier very much as well, except when higher order

modes are excited, which is not the case of the results

given in Fig. 8.

Since Plate 3 is already a thick plate (h=a 0:1), the

dierence between the values of the rst linear frequency

calculated when neglecting transverse shear and rotatory

inertia (11302.187 rad/s) and when they are considered

(10307.041 rad/s) is signicant (9.7%). For amplitudes of

vibration larger then approximately 0.25 the plates

thickness, the non-linear response is also signicantly

solutions stability.

4. Conclusions

The feasibility of the nite element, shooting and

Newton methods in the determination of non-linear

periodic motions of either thin or thick, beams or plates

was demonstrated. The fact that motions with any

number of harmonics can be analysed, as long as the

time step employed in the integration of the dierential

equations of motion is small enough, is a very important

property. The procedures employed allowed namely to

derive response curves of non-linear structures, including the denition of internal and super-harmonic resonances, and the computation of stable and unstable

1422

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

/ 1

0.2

0

0

0.8

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

t+T

0.3

0.2

-0.4

0.1

-0.6

Harmonics

0

-0.8

0.8

0.6

10

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.2

0.4

-0.2

t+T

-0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-0.6

Harmonics

-0.8

-1

0.6

0.4

0.2

t+T

-0.8

-1

10

Harmonics

1

10

Adimensional

amplitude

1.4

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

1.5

Adimensional

amplitude

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

1.2

0.5

0.8

0.6

0

-0.5

Adimensional amplitude

0.8

0.4

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0.6

0.2

1

0.8

1.5

Adimensional amplitude

0.7

0.4

-0.2

0.8

t+T

0.4

0.2

-1

-1.5

Harmonics

0

0

10

Fig. 7. (a) Transverse displacement at x 0, y 0 in function of frequency. Displacement in function of time and Fourier series at

(b) 0:2124x1 (100 rad/s), (c) 0:3398x1 (160 rad/s), (d) 0:4885x1 (230 rad/s) and (e) 1:380x1 (650 rad/s).

simple predictor used in the Newton method was quite

helpful in reducing convergence problems.

Naturally, because the fundamental frequency of

vibration was the parameter in the Newton method, it

would not be feasible to pass turning points where the

tendency of change in frequency would reverse from

increasing to decreasing, or vice-versa. Another draw-

domain methods based on the harmonic balance procedure, is that the shooting method is more demanding

in computational resources.

Even for thin structures, when modal coupling occurs

the thin and thick theories give dierent results. This

occurs because modal coupling brings higher order

modes into the denition of the motion. As a result,

1.50

wh

1.00

0.50

/ 1

0.00

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

Fig. 8. Response at the center of Plate 2, to a harmonic distributed force of 2000 N/m2 : (s) thick plate theory and (d) thin

plate theory.

1.25

wh

1

0.75

0.5

0.25

/ 1

0

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

Fig. 9. Response at the center of Plate 3, to a harmonic distributed force of 5 105 N/m2 . Thick plate theory: (s) unstable,

(d) stable and (m) thin plate theory, stable.

theories in the linear domain, may quite possibly require

that a thick theory is followed if their non-linear dynamic behaviour is to be accurately analysed.

Acknowledgement

The support from the Portuguese Science and

Technology Foundation, who nanced this work

under project POCTI 32641/99, FEDER, is gratefully

acknowledged.

References

[1] Ewins DJ. Modal testing: theory and practice. New York:

John Wiley & Sons; 1984.

1423

vibrating systems. Dordretch: Kluwer Academic; 1990.

[3] Petyt M. Introduction to nite element vibration analysis.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1990.

[4] Ribeiro P. A hierarchical nite element for geometrically

non-linear vibration of thick plates. Meccanica 2003;

38:11530.

[5] Cheung YK, Lau SL. Incremental time-space nite strip

method for non-linear structural vibrations. Earthquake

Eng Struct Dyn 1982;10:23953.

[6] Ferri AA. On the equivalence of the incremental harmonic

balance method and the harmonic balance-Newton Raphson method. J Appl Mech 1986;53:4557.

[7] Lewandowski R. Computational formulation for periodic

vibration of geometrically nonlinear structuresPart 1:

Theoretical background. Int J Solids Struct 1997;34(15):

192547.

[8] Lewandowski R. Computational formulation for periodic

vibration of geometrically nonlinear structuresPart 2:

Numerical strategy and examples. Int J Solids Struct

1997;34(15):194964.

[9] Ribeiro P, Petyt M. Non-linear vibration of beams with

internal resonance by the hierarchical nite element

method. J Sound Vib 1999;224(4):591624.

[10] Ribeiro P, Petyt M. Non-linear free vibration of isotropic

plates with internal resonance. Int J Non-linear Mech

2000;35(2):26378.

[11] Tamma KK, Kanapady R, Zhou X, Sha D. Recent

advances in computational structural dynamics algorithms.

In: Ferguson NS, Wolfe HF, Ferman MA, Rizzi SA,

editors. Proceedings of the7th International Conference

Structural Dynamics: Recent Advances. 2000. p. 73155.

[12] Nayfeh AH, Balachandram B. Applied nonlinear dynamics: analytical, computational, and experimental methods.

New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1995.

[13] Seydel R. From equilibrium to chaos. Pratical bifurcation and stability analysis. New York: Elsevier Science;

1988.

[14] Sundarajan P, Noah ST. Dynamics of forced nonlinear

systems using shooting/arc-length continuation method

application to rotor systems. Trans ASME J Vib Acoust

1999;119:920.

[15] Zheng T, Hasebe N. An ecient analysis of high order

dynamical system with local nonlinearity. Trans ASME J

Vib Acoust 1999;121:40816.

[16] Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, Flannery BP.

Numerical recipes in Fortran. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press; 1986.

[17] Wolfe H. An experimental investigation of nonlinear

behaviour of beams and plates excited to high levels of

dynamic response. PhD thesis, University of Southampton,

1995.

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