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Latest Date stamped below.

University of Illinois Library

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or THE





AT the suggestion of two Members of your

Board, I have been induced to submit to

the Public the following observations on the

general characteristics and political economy
\ V\ou'.$51_
of Railways; which were written by me
merely and entirely from a conviction of
the excellent results which will attend their
formation. If I am fortunate enough to
_ remove any prejudices; correct errors; or
place the national importance of Railways

cj54m a fair and substantial basis, I shall then



have accomplished my wishes, and, I hope,

have affected a general good.
Living in the vicinity of the projected
extension of your line to Knightsbridge, and
feeling strongly the advantages which would
accrue to the western portion of the metro
polis, if a terminus, to the two great roads
from the western and northern parts of Eng
land, were formed there, I have taken great

interest in the promotion of that under

taking; and, although you have been foiled
in the attempt to accomplish it during the
present session of Parliament by a frivolous
attention to the letter, rather than the spirit,
of the standing orders, I trust, and have
no doubt, you will ultimately succeed, and
with advantages even superior to what you
would have secured at present.
I am, Gentlemen,
Your most obedient Servant,
March 1837.

&c. &c.

IT has been said, that the man who rst promul

gates a great and important truth, or presents to
the world a new discovery in the sciences, does

not deserve greater honour and rewards than he

who, coming after the originator, shall so loudly
and clearly reiterate and set it forth, put it into so
many shapes, and shew it under such various
lights, as to succeed in impressing 0n the public
mind the nature of its results, and in bringing
about the universal adoption of it.
Whoever will reect, even for a moment, on the

length of time which has usually elapsed between

the statement of some of the greatest truths, the
most important inventions, and the general acknow
ledgment of their value by the world ;whoever
will call to mind the jeers and the taunts with which
such announcements have ever been met by a large
portion of the community, and the vast improve
ments which have resulted when universally re
ceived, (improvements which, but for the reiteration

of the original discoverythe re-urging of its im
portancehad, possibly, never been effected, or, at

all events, had been postponed to a remote period,)

will fully agree with this position.
Ignorance; existing interests which might for
a time be interfered with; and the desire, unfor

tunately, so often displayed, to keep down the

waters to ones own level, instead of endeavour

ing to rise with them,to stem the advance of

the on-rushing tide of intelligence and power; all
concur to produce the difculty to which we
have alluded. Gallileo asserted that our world
revolved about the sun, and he was imprisoned
and persecuted. Harvey described the circula
tion of the blood, and his house was red by
the mob. He who rst applied the powers of the
steam-engine to combat with the waves, was laughed
at as a madman ; and the originator of the plan for
lighting our streets with gas, died, it is said, a

pauper in a foreign land.

We must not, however, multiply instances in
support of the assertion, but proceed at once to

our immediate purpose; namely, a consideration

of the effects which will probably-which, in fact,
must result to commerce, to agriculture, and to

science, by the general introduction of Railways,

under proper direction, throughout the kingdom;
and to speak of some few of the advantages which
must accrue therefrom to every individual of the
community at large,whether agriculturist or ma

nufacturerwhether peer or peasant.

It is a sub

ject in which every one is interested ; as, from the

establishment of Railways, either good or evil must

result to all; and we hope, by thus bringing this
momentous modern application of scientic know
ledge to the purposes of life, before the eyes of our
fellows; by re-urging its advantages, and setting it
in a clearer light, if we may be so fortunate, than

it is usually seen under; to aid in obtaining for the

principle a general acknowledgment of its excel
lence, and in rendering all who look beyond the
passing hour, and are really anxious for the pro
sperity of their country, interested in the adoption
of it.
Some, we have no doubt, will say that the ob

servations with which we have commenced this

Essayand which are introduced as an excuse
for entering on the subjectwill not apply in the
instance before us; that the advantages of Rail
ways are already thoroughly understood by all,
and their value universally admitted; and allude to

the eagerness with which shares in all the projected

lines were bought up, and the sums, in addition to
their original cost, which in so many instances have
been, and are now, given to obtain them.
conclusion, however, we deny.


The public, unfor

tunately, have thought but little on the matter, and

the strife for shares, up to this period, has been
conned to one class of persons with hardly but
one motivespeculation. Previous to the esta


blishment of the Railway from Liverpool to Man

chester, various political circumstances had con
curred to induce the retention of much capital
the country was unsettled, and public condence
shaken. When the agitation had somewhat sub
sided, capitalists eagerly sought employment for
their money, and the projects for Railways offering
at the time ready means, they immediately entered
into them. The card turned up well; the price of
shares was speedily raised, either by natural or

articial causes, and much money was made by the

original holders. Many more were, therefore, in
duced to speculate, thinking nothing of the ultimate
advantage, or otherwise, of the undertakingcaring

only for a rise in the price of shares, of which they

might avail themselves; and up to this moment,
it is to be feared, the same motive, in the greater.
number of instances, is the prevailing one. This,
however, is not the description of support which
should be given to works promising national, nay,

universal advantages of such vast importance, as

these must do to every thinking mind. Those who
have bought shares merely to sell again, will pre
sently be anxious to apply their money to other
and, perhaps, more immediately protable schemes;
the shares will come into the market, possibly at a
reduced price, and, unless means be taken to rouse

the public attention, these undertakings, on the

success of which, we feel convinced, depends so

much the future prosperity of Englandher power


to retain the superiority that her improved ma

chinery has, to this time, given her over the
foreignerwill be numbered by the multitude with
the South Sea scheme, the Mexican Mines, and

other bubbles of past time; and the mighty ad

vance which they would enable us to make, the

improvement that would be effected, through their

means, in the condition of every individual of the
state, will be for a time prevented.
True, it would be so only for a time; for if this

age be not sufficiently awakened to comprehend

the advantage of such improved means of commu
nication as Railways afford, and to aid the con
templated stride onwards, it will, most surely, rea

soning from analogy, be effected by the next. Let,

then, the English public now think seriously on
the matter, and resolve whether the advance of
civilisation shall be made by them, or left for future
generationswhether after-ages, when they exult

in their prosperity; speak of their populous, and

afuent towns; and glory in the universal spread
of education, and the dominion of intellect; shall

say, all this we owe to the genius of the nine

teenth century ; or that, pointing to other and

more ourishing countries, they shall exclaim,
but for the strength of prejudice and the want of
foresight on the part of our forefathers, thus might
we have been.
To dilate on the importance of good roads and
efcient means of communication with the various

parts of a country ; to shew, in fact, that on their

excellence depends the degree of afuence and

power to which a nation mayattainwould appear
at rst sight to be supererogatory, so plainly is the
truth apparent to all who have thought upon the

The experience, however, of every day,

shews, that we may enjoy, during a life-time, the

advantages which result from certain institutions or

arrangements, and never stop to inquire what those

institutions and arrangements are; indeed, that we

may owe our comfort to the carrying out of a cer

tain principle, ; and yet, not knowing what that
principle is, may strongly combat against a further
and efficacious extension of it.

If it were not so,

how would it be possible that men could be found

to oppose the improvement of roads, and the in
creased facility of communication.
Roads, says Mr. MCulloch,* have been
denominated national veins and arteries, and the

latter are not more indispensable to the existence

of individuals, than improved communications are

to a healthy state of the public economy. A sys
tem of good roads is the foundation of a countrys
civilisation ; and, without it, the resources and
energies of a nation, both moral and physical,
would remain latent and useless. If there were no
roads, no means of crossing rivers, a journey to a
distant part of England might occupy six months;
and, if the traveller wished to carry with him any
* Dictionary of Commerce.

sorts of goods, certainly could not be effected at
all. The rst stream he met would probably force
him some miles out of his way before he could nd
a ford; and after a days journey, in what he con
ceived to be the right direction, he would often dis
cover that he was then much further from his desti

nation than he was when he started in the morning.

If a country, however rich and extensive, were

divided into various small portions, the inhabitants

of which were without the means of intercourse

with each other, all would probably be poor and

miserable; they would be condemned to toil during
their whole lives for a scanty subsistence, and, in
many cases, would be unable to exist at all.

In one district the soil would be found to furnish

abundant crops of wheat, or other necessary of life,
but would offer no material to be used as fuel or

fashioned into implements, while another would

abound in coal or the metals, and yet not produce,
after the most toilsome labour, sufficient food to

maintain a scanty population. Establish, however,

means of communication between these several

districts, and an alteration, surprising and admir

able, is immediately effected. The inhabitants of
the rst portion, nding that they can obtain ring
and implements from their neighbours, devote their
whole time to the cultivation of those productions
of the earth, for which their soil is particularly
suited: the population of the latter, ceasing their

vain endeavours to force corn from the barren


ground, apply their energies in manufacturing the

iron or raising the coal with which their country
abounds: and the superuities of each being ex
changed for those of the otherthe labour of all
being directed into the most protable channels
thriving and populous towns spring up in the place
ofthe straggling and struggling villages. Competence

gives leisure; leisure induces inquiry; and inquiry,

knowledge: an impetus is given to the progress of
mind by emulation, which ever springs up where
numbers are congregated, and all are beneted.
Again: We know very well, that if an indivi
dual applies himself wholly to the manufacture of
any particular article, he quickly becomes expert,
discovers various processes by which to shorten the
labour, and is able to produce that on which he is

employedwe will say, for example, a pair of shoes

much better, and at a less cost, than if he had

been engaged during the whole of his life in dig

ging the earth, making shoes, fashioning a nail, and

half a dozen other occupations, alternately. Instead

of being so long occupied in making a pair of shoes
as to need half a bushel of corn to maintain him
during the operation, and by which, of course, the
price to be charged for them would be regulated, he
might need only a quarter of a bushel; and, although
the cost of the shoes might thus be lessened nearly
one half, he would be just as well paid as before,
andthe community, of course, be beneted; as

each individual would then be able to obtain a pair


of shoes for half the quantity of corn which was

necessary before, and the moiety, therefore, would

remain to support other manufacturers during their

labour. The condition of the shoemaker himself
will, in fact, be improved; for experience shews,

that every process which tends to lessen the cost of

production, increases the consumption, and he will,
therefore, be even more constantly employed than

he was before, and may continue to increase in

expertness, and still further to lessen the cost.
When books were written by hand (this is an often
quoted instance, but not the less powerful), they

cost immense sums, as a long time was occupied in

the operation, and during the whole of this period,
the transcribers were, of course, to be maintained.

Printing was invented; copies were multiplied; and

the cost was lessened, we will say, to a hundredth

The number of persons, however, who then

bought books was not multiplied merely a hundred

times, but a hundred times a hundred times; and

when, by the application of ingenuity and the

powers of steam, this cost was again lessened, a

still greater increase in the proportion borne by the

number of books purchased to the diminution in the
cost of their production was observable, and the
same effect has resulted, and must result, in every
like instance.
Returning, however, to our artisan: in the con

ned district ofwhich we have spoken, shoes would

not be required in sufcient numbers to occupy the

whole of a makers time, and the saving in the
cost of production and the increased excellence of
workmanship to which we have alluded, would
never be brought about.

Now, the communication

opened with the neighbouring town presents to him

another set of customers; he applies himself, there

fore, wholly to the one pursuit, acquires these faci

lities, and, being able, at the second district, to sell

his goods for less than those who have them not,
nds ready purchasers; while the inhabitants of
the rst district, with the money which they have
saved in the purchase of their shoes, because of the
ready communication which is established with
their neighbours, are able to employ some other
manufacturer, perhaps at the second district, who
would, in the same manner, acquire superior skill,
and, in his particular department, likewise lessen
the cost of production; so that, again, all would

be beneted indenitely.

Leaving assumption, however, there is not, per

haps, a single country, certainly not a single district,
which does not depend entirely on others for the
greater part of its supplies. In Great Britain, we
owe more than half of that which we enjoy, to our

intercourse with foreigners. For tea, sugar, coffee,

wine, cotton, tobacco, and silk, which we could not

possibly obtain on the spot (at all events, without

a great sacrice), we exchange our surplus pro
duce in those branches of manufactures in which
our command of coal and of improved machinery

has given us a superiority.

It is, therefore, only

uttering a truism when we say, that those nations

or districts will be the most abundantly and cheaply

supplied with every thing that is useful or desirable,

who establish the most direct means of communica

tion, and eject the most perfect intercourse, at the

least expense, with their various neighbours.
The comparative ease with which a body oat
ing in water may be moved, appears to have been
known from the remotest times; and seas and rivers

have therefore formed the earliest high roads for

the transport of heavy goods to stations whence
could be brought back materials for the support of
life, or for the employment of human skill. The
oldest civilised nations, according to the best
accounts, were those that arose on the coast of

the Mediterranean Sea, which appears from the

smoothness of its surface, and the numerous islands
with which it is studded, to have been well calcu

lated for the encouragement of the small degree of

skill in navigation then possessed. Egypt, which
was perhaps the rst country where either agri
culture or manufactures were carried to any degree
of perfection, was situated on the borders of the
River Nile, and probably owes her early advance
ment to the means of inland communication
afforded by the numerous canals which connected
the principal villages. The Nile, says Rollin)
* Ancient History, 8vo. edit. 1830, Vol. I. p. 4.


brought fertility every where with its salutary

streams; united cities one with the other, and the
Mediterranean with the Red Sea; maintained trade
at home and abroad; and fortied the kingdom

against the enemy.

Rivers thus offering a ready

means of communication, it is upon their banks

that industry rst begins to exert and improve
itself; and experience shews, that it is usually a

long time before these improvements extend to the

interior of a country. Hamburgh is situated on
the Elbe; Munich, on the Iser; St. Petersburgh,
on theNeva; Paris, on the Seine; and London, on
the Thames; and it is not too much to say, that,

but for the means of communication afforded by

their rivers, not one of these cities could have

attained its present importance.

Now the immediate necessity for roads, or other
means of communication, being admittedthe fact
being apparent, that many articles which would be
of the greatest value in one place may possess none

in the spot where they are produced, and, therefore,

that all contrivances which will enable them to be
conveyed from one to the other are instrumental
in conferring value upon these articleswe will de

vote a few words to shew, that every improvement

which can be made in the means of communication,

whereby the cost of carriage and the time occupied

in the transit may be lessened, must benet the
whole community, and is therefore a thing to be

desired : although, perhaps, what has been said has

already made this clear.

We will suppose that an individual has cultivated

a piece of ground, and has produced, over and

above what he required to maintain himself and
family during the process, a bushel of corn, which,
we will imagine, he values at a days labour; and
this is to go towards the support of a manufacturer,

in return for some article which that individual

needs. Before he can dispose of this surplus, how
ever, he must convey it to the neighbouring town,

and must add to its price, when he reaches a

market, whatever it has cost him to convey it there.

In other words, he must be supported during the

~ journey; and, if the means of communication be

bad, may have eaten half his corn before he reaches

his destination, so that he would have less to sell,

and must therefore charge more for it, to the mani

fest injury not merely of the manufacturer, for
whose support it was intended, but of the agricul
turist himself; for the cost of wrought goods, de
pending, as it must do, on the cost of the necessaries

of life, he of course would have more to pay for

those things which he bought of the manufacturer
in return.

In some instances, the cost of conveyance forms

the greater part of the price of an article. Coal,
which is a commodity of such importance to the
community, that any reduction in the price would
be desirable, may be bought at the pits mouth for

a comparative trie; and sh, were it not for the

expense of carriage, might be rendered generally

available-as food, to an extent that would effect

surprising changes in the economy of society.

Some articles, such as milk, choice fruits, or ve

getables, which must be quickly used, are not pro_

duced at all, unless facilities of communication

and sale can be secured.

Again, too, it may be shewn, that every dis~

covery and improvement in manufactures which
permits tools and implements to be made at a less
cost than heretoforeevery arrangement by which
the expense of carriage is lessenedextends culti
vation to inferior lands, and increases, in a great

degree, the surplus produce which supports and

gives encouragement to workmen and manufac
turers. Without searching deeply into the science
of political economy, we may perhaps be able to
render this somewhat clear.

If we apply the same

amount of labour and capital to soils of various

degrees of fertility, a successively decreasing pro
duce will be yielded, and it is clear that a limit to
cultivation would at length be discovered; that is,

that certain lands would be found to afford no

interest for the capital expended. For example,
on a particular tract of land, fty labourers are

employed, who consume, during their operations,

'fty quarters of corn, and require fty more for
the purchase of implements and clothing. We will
suppose the ground produces, beyond the hundred

quarters expended upon it, a surplus of twenty

quarters. To send this crop to market, however,

might cost the value of the surplus; and, as thus
the farmer would not be able to obtain from the
land an interest for the capital expended, it would
be suffered to remain untilled, and this is the case in

regard to nearly half of the land in England.

prove, however, the means


of communication ;

lessen the cost of conveying the produce to market;

and, as the tillage of the land would then, in

most instances, afford a surplus produce in propor

tion to the amount of the diminution in the cost of
conveying it to market, much of the ground would
be taken into cultivation ; a much larger population
might be supported; and the limit to the accumula
of manufacturing
the country
fartherin back?[6
Improvements in the means of conducting in
ternal intercourse give to a nation, therefore, the

same advantages, in regard to the production of

wealth, as would be brought about by an improved
skill in the application of labour, or an increased
fertility in the soil. The possession or non-posses
sion of these facilities constitute a difference, equal,
in kind, to that which exists between a barren and

a fertile country: and the value of this difference

must surely be understood by all persons.
Until within a few years, comparatively, there
* See, on this point, SMITns Wealth of Nations;"
Tormsns On the Production of Wealth, 81c.


were no canals in England, few roads of any
excellence, and the means of communication were

consequently extremely limited.

One cannot, in

deed, read of the mode of travelling which prevailed

even a hundred years agothe amazing time
occupied in performing a journey, and the diffi
culties that were met with on the roads, without

feelings of surprise ; or avoid those of pleasure when

we contemplate the amazingimprovement that has
since been effected.
In Robertsons Rural Recollections, it is

stated (p. 39) that in 1678, a coach was started,

drawn by six horses, to run between Edinburgh

and Glasgow (a distance of forty-four miles), with

a pledge that it should perform the journey there
and back in six days,- and even so late as the
middle of the last century, the same distance occu
pied three days.
In 1703, when Prince George of Denmark went
from Windsor to Petworth to meet Charles III.

of Spain, it appears that the journey, which is a

distance of about forty miles, occupied fourteen
hours, although those who travelled it did not get

out, save when they were overturned or stuck fast

in the mire, until they reached their destination.

We were thrown but once, indeed, in going,

says the relator; but his Highnesss body coach

would have suffered very much, if the nimble boors
of Sussex had not frequently poised it, or supported
it with their shoulders, from Godalming almost to

Petworth. The last nine miles of the way cost us
six hours to conquer them. *
In 1739, in the way to Glasgow from London,
there was no turnpike road further than Grantham,
about a hundred miles, and at that time goods
were transported from one part of the country to
another by means of pack-horses who travelled
thirty or forty in a ganguj" Even at the close
of the last century, indeed, all light goods were
conveyed from place to place, when the dis
tance was not great, on horseback; when it was

considerable, carts were employed; and in this

case, it is said, the carrier, for his journey from

Selkirk to Edinburgh (thirty-eight miles), required

seven days.
The precise date when stage-coaches were rst
established is not Well known; probably, however,
it was not before the reign of Charles I. ; and it was
many years after that period before any general
communication took place between the inhabitants
of widely separated districts, the roads being bad,
and the time occupied long. So important a mat
ter, indeed, was a journey deemed, that travellers,
before starting, were wont, and with prudence too,
to make their Wills, and arrange all their affairs.

In 1763, the journey from London to Edinburgh,

about four hundred miles, which is now regularly
1* Annals of Queen Anne," Vol. II., Appendix, No. 3,
as quoted in Results of Machinery.
1 CLELAN D's Statistical Account of Glasgow.


performed in less than forty-four hours, occupied,

it is said, from twelve to sixteen days.
In 1783, the letters sent from Bath on Monday
night were not delivered in London until the after
noon or evening of the following Wednesday; and
nearly the same time was occupied in their trans
mission from London to Birmingham. In the be
ginning of the present century, the difficulty of
communication between one district and another

in the Highlands of Scotland was almost insuper

able; and the people being cut off from inter
course with others, were in a state of destitution

and moral degradation. Since then much money

has been spent in making roads and bridges, and
the result has been gratifying in the highest de
gree : the entire habits of the people are changed;
and the country prodigiously advanced in civilisa
tion and renement.
At the present moment there is no country,

perhaps, which is so well provided with roads and

canals for internal communication as England is;
and to this circumstance we may, in great part,
attribute her present supereminent position in the
scale of nations. Were it not so, indeed, the great
inland manufacturing towns, with which the face of

the country is studded,-the main sources of her

wealth, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield,
and Leeds,-could not exist; in fact, would never

have attained any consequence. According to a

Report of a Committee of the House of Lords,


which sat on Turnpike Roads in 1829,* the total

length of the different paved streets and turnpike
roads in England and Wales amounted, at that
time, to nearly 20,000 miles, and that of the cross

roads and other highways to 95,000 miles. Since

then, many extensions have been made and new
roads constructed, so that the present length may
be estimated as even much greater. A hundred
different canals, too, intersect the country in all
parts; and great and glorious have been the results
to England and to Englishmen.
Inquire into the condition of our ancestors a
century agothe accommodations possessed by

them, their food and clothing; and then compare

their condition with that enjoyed at present by the
meanest and poorest persons amongst us. Why,
you will nd that they now possess comforts and
luxuries which were formerly beyond the reach of
nobles; and nearly all this improvement which is
to be observed, may be ascribed to the increased
- facilities of intercommunication. Look into the
humblest cottage at the present time, and the
chances are that you will nd a table made of
wood which was grown in America; tea which
was picked in China; and sugar cultivated in the

West Indies; a knife which was made at Sheffield;

a teapot from Birmingham; and a dish, by the

side of it, which came from Staffordshire; and
MCULLoens Dictionary of Commerce."

yet to obtain all these (through the excellence
of the means of communication, which allows each

article to be manufactured in the situation where

there are the greatest facilities for its production),

requires the expense of so little labour on the part

of the individual desiring them, that, as we have

said, they are possessed by the meanest among us.

This facility of communication, however, to
gether with the improved condition which it has so
mainly brought about, has not been obtained with
out great difficulty, but is the result of a series of
laborious efforts made at different times during a
number of years; and in spite of a continued and

powerful opposition on the part of those few who

thought they would, individually, be injured by the
improvement,and, as a matter of course, cared

rather for their own good than for that of the

world at largenotwithstanding that it was after

wards clearly apparent, as each step was gained,
that those who fancied they would suffer by it were
in reality much beneted.
Stow tells us,r that in the year 1580, the river

Lea, in Hertfordshire, was repaired and made na

vigable for the advantage of the community; but

that the farmers and maltsters in the parish of En

eld and thereabouts were greatly angered, and
attempted, by making breaches, to let out the
water, asserting that, as the carriage of malt and

at Survey of London.

Strype's edition, 1720.

B. I. p. 48.

grain to London would be made cheaper than
could be afforded by land-carriage, their interest
was thereby interfered with.
In 1673 it was clearly shewn (at least so
thought the writer) that the country would be
entirely ruined; unless the multitude of stage
coaches and caravans, then traVelling on the roads,

were all or most of them suppressed, especially

those within forty or fty miles of London.ale The

inns on the road, says the pamphlet alluded to,
will all be ruined if this be not done, inasmuch

when persons travel so quickly to their journeys

end they will need no refreshment on the road.
The breed of good horses will be destroyed, for
none who are able to travel so conveniently from
place to place will keep saddle horses; and again,
that as fewer clothes are worn outless property
wasted in travelling by the new method than by
the old one, trade will be dreadfully injured, and
100,000 persons totally deprived of bread.


merous petitions, too, from various parts of the

country, were presented to Parliament, urging this

same necessity, but fortunately without effect; and
it cannot be necessary now (if what we have written
be as clear as we would wish it to be) to shew how
it was, that directly the reverse of all that which

* The Grand Concern of England Explained," printed in

1673. Reprinted in The Harleian Miscellany," Vol. VIII.
p. 547.

was prophesied actually followed; that fresh mar
kets were opened, more horses kept, and more
persons were protably employed.
Hardly eighty years ago, some of the counties
in the neighbourhood of London petitioned Par
liament against the extension of the turnpike-roads
into the more distant counties. They conceived,
with the same shortsightedness which even now

that these

remoter parts,

as labour

was cheaper there, would be able to sell their

produce for less in the London markets than
themselves, and would thereby ruin them. Instead
of this, however, that which was to be expected,

reasoning on theprinciples of political economy,

actually took place; fresh markets were opened
for their produce, their rents have risen, and the

cultivation of the land has been improved since

that period.*6
When Steam Boats were rst established, to

run between London and Margate, the coach pro

prietors on the road petitioned the legislature
against them, as likely to lead to their ruin. A
short time, however, soon shewed them that their
fears were idle. Instead of injury they derived
advantage from their introduction: Margate be
came a place of general resort; and the number of
coaches on the road was considerably increased.
For two or three hundred years, then, the
Sivu'rn's Wealth of Nations, p. 202.

wisest amongst our forefathers have laboured to
facilitate communication between the various parts
of a country. They have drained fens, levelled
hills, thrown bridges over rivers, and lled up
valleys, in the face of a continued and resolute
opposition. Shall we thenwho justly boast of
our advancement in science; our improvement of
the arts (an advancement, and an improvement,
too, which but for their labours we could not have

made), shall we do less .9 or have we actually pro

gressed sofar, that our ways do not need mending?
Surely not: nor will we suppose, that those who
now laugh at and ridicule the petitions against the
stage coaches, and against the extension of the
turnpike roads, will oppose increased facilities for
the transit of those coaches; or, indeed, will fail to

assist in the application of our present scientic

knowledge to render greater the usefulness of
roads and promote rapid intercourse.
We think that no demonstration can be needed
to prove, that a wheel will roll over a smooth bar
of iron much easier than it will move on a loose
stony road; to say so, indeedas a road increases
in goodness in proportion as it is hard and smooth
is only asserting that a good road is better than
a bad one.

A Railway (for so, we know, a road,

provided with two bars of iron for this purpose,

would be called) is merely an improved road; and
the step from Macadamised ways to Railways is
not so great, as it is from the roads in which

Prince George stuck fast in 1703 (see page 22) to

the Macadamised roads of our times.

Nor can it be necessary, at this period, to speak

of the amazing power to be gained by the use of

steam; for we have so many years used it in such
numerous waysto battle with the waves, and to

stamp a button; to calculate proportions, and to

drain vast mines; to forge an anchor, and to point
a pinthat this, at least, must be comprehended

by all. The superiority, then, of a Railway over

a common road, we must suppose, will be uni
versally admitted by those who will think upon the
matter; and the only arguments which have been
used to shew why they should not be supported
and urged into effect by the great body of the
peopleby those whose interest it is to increase
by every means in their power the facility of com
municationare those same absurd and individual
objections which were stated one hundred years

ago, in opposition to earlier improvements, and in

spite of which they nevertheless went on. It is,
therefore, only needed, that the public mind should
be once thoroughly awakened to the right bearing
of the question ; and experience shews, that it

would be held fast and acted on until the principle

were fully carried out.
From an early period Railways of wood have
been used, to facilitate the transport of coals and

metals from the mine to the vessels by which they

were to be conveyed to their destination; and even

an iron Railway was used for that purpose at
Colebrook Dale, as early as 176'73'e

In 1805,

steam power seems to have been rst applied on

Railways, for the transport of passengers and goods

from Darlington to Stockton; and at that time the

maximum of speed attained was about eight miles
an hour.

It was not, however, till 1830,j~ when a

trial of several locomotive engineswas made on

the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (that proud

specimen of modern power and skill), that the in
credible speed of transport which might be attained
on Railways, and the vast advantages which would
result to society from their introduction, rst glim
mered even on the scientic world. Before the
construction of that stupendous work, the transit
of goods from Manchester to Liverpool (which is
the port whence is shipped a large portion of the
goods made at Manchester, and from which, in
return, that town receives the raw materials to be

worked upon) occupied by canal about thirty-six

hours. By means of the Railway the time is
lessened to one hour and three quarters, and
the cost reduced, both for passengers and goods,
nearly 50 per cent.; in consequence of which, in
the carriage of cotton alone, 20,000l. annually have
been saved to the manufacturersj Garden pro
* HEBERTS Practical Treatise on Railroads, p. 8.
f History of Steam Engine, by Dr. LARDNER.
1 It may be mentioned, as a striking proof of the increased
traffic which takes place when facility of communication is

duce and milk, which before had no market, are

now, by means of the Railway, cheaply and quickly

transported to places where they are needed, and
become of value; and new sources of wealth and

incitements to industry are thus opened to the

poor inhabitants of the interior of the country.
Coal-pits have been sunk; manufactories established
on the line; and much inferior land (in conse

quence of the facility of transport for the produce,

and the case, too, with which manure can be

obtained) has been taken into cultivation: even

Chat-Moss, a wild and dreary bog, through which,
for some distance, the Manchester Railway passes,
and where, before, nothing had been grown, now

presents patches of wheat and comfortable resi

secured, that, notwithstanding the amount of goods daily
transported on this Railway, the quantity sent by the Canals
between the two towns has considerably augmented. A con
rmation of the inference which may be drawn from past ex
perience; that existing interests have, in reality, little to fear.

In regard to the increase in the number of passengers pro

duced by the facilities afforded by Railways, Dr. Lardner has
taken some pains to shew, that it has been fourfold; and that

this is owing more to the saving of time than the saving of

money. We ourselves believe that the increase will be found
to be much greater than this.

* Chat-Moss was formerly let for about ls. 6d. per acre
(peat only was obtained from it); it now lets for 30s. The value
of land in the neighbourhood of the Railway is said to have
doubled since its construction. The same effect has taken

place on the Darlington road.

When the Company wished to

If the true criterion of distance be time,and

who can doubt it ?-the port of Liverpool and the

manufacturing town of Manchester are now hardly
other than one place; and we will mention a cir

cumstance which occurred not long since, to shew

the immediate convenience and advantage of the
Railway to the inhabitants individually, independ
ently of the great benets which all derive from
improvements tending to lessen the cost of pro
duction. A gentleman went to Liverpool in the
morning, purchased, and took back with him to
Manchester, 150 tons of cotton, which he sold, and

afterwards obtained an offer for a similar quantity.

He went again; and, actually, that same evening
delivered the second quantity in Manchester,

having travelled 120 miles in four separate jour

nies, and bought, sold, and delivered, 30 miles off,

at two distinct deliveries, 300 tons of goods, in

about 12 hours.* The occurrence is perfectly
astounding; and, had it been hinted at fty years
ago, would have been deemed impossible.


even now, one can hardly contemplate the passage

of a ponderous locomotive engine, dragging after it

form a second line, in consequence of the increased trafc, they
were compelled to pay 50 per cent more for land than they did
for the rst portion : and on the line of the intended Manchester
and Leeds road, it appears, from the Railway Magazine (1835)
the occupiers of land have voluntarily proposed to pay an in
creased rent, if it be established.

* Railway Magazine," March 1836.


fuel, water, and a vast train of carriages lled with
passengers, for thirty miles, in little more than an
hour, (which has occurred, and is constantly oc

curring), without mingled emotions of surprise and

admiration. The magic carpet and the ying
horse of the Arabian tales must cease to excite
One way in which the rapidity of conveyance
thus gained increases the power of a country, has
been forcibly pointed out by Mr. Babbage, and
deserves mention. He says, On the Manchester
Railway, for example, above half a million of per
sons travel annually; and, supposing each person
to save only one hour in the time of transit be
tween the two towns, a saving of 500,000 hours, or

50,000 working-days of ten hours each, is e'ected.

Now this is equivalent to an addition to the actual

power of the country of one hundred and sixty

seven men, without increasing the quantity of food

consumed; and it should also be remarked, that

the time of the class of men here specied, is far

more valuable than that of mere labourers.*
Now, although this great rapidity of transport
has been attained, this surprising alteration in the
relative distance of places made, the art of transit
by steam is in its very infancy; each year, each
month, in fact, surprising improvements in the
i" Economy of Machinery," page 306; In the conveyance
of letters, too, the importance of this increased rapidity and

certainty is also very great.

engines are effected; and if it be the character of

the true philosopher to hope all things not im

possible, and to believe all things not unreason
able,* we may, without fear of laughter, look

forward to the time (if prejudice and individual

interest, be not allowed to interfere) when our
ordinary rate of travelling will be, Eclipse-like, a.
mile a minute, and expresses be transmitted With

Men double that rapidityxl'

We said just now, that, by the means of Rail
ways, farmers would be able readily to obtain ma
nure; and the subject is of so much importance, as

to demand a few words more. Every one is aware

that two portions of land of a different nature may
be each naturally barren and protless; but that,

if a part of the soil from one be exchanged for

some of that of the other, they may both become

rich and fertile.

The best land is that, indeed, in

which various soils, regulated, of course, by cir

cumstances, are intimately mixed and blended;

and it may be safely said, that there are few lands
4" Sir John Herschels Discourse on the Study of Natural
Philosophy, page 8.
1 The means of communicating intelligence by telegraphs
was regarded with astonishment, at the time of its rst applica
tion; but it is presumed and expected that this mode will be

soon superseded and surpassed, by an invention which is now

in a course of experiment and trial. It is likely to be fully

developed at the next meeting of The Scientic Association
at Liverpool, in the ensuing September.

which may not be rendered fertile and productive.

Now, the chief prevention to this desirable state,

is the expense of transporting manure, which, in
the greater number of instances, would swallow up
the prot to be derived from the land, and it there
fore remains untilled. It need hardly be said, that
by the general introduction of Railways, which
lessen so materially the cost of carriage, all this
(in addition to that which the cost of transport for
the produce at this time renders useless) would be
brought into cultivation ; * and it is probable that,
in a few years, there would not be an acre of waste
land in England, which would then, doubtless,

admit a doubling of the population, and render

emigration unnecessary, at all events for many
There is one other point, in regard to the
supply of food, that we must not forget to mention.
The greater portion of the Cattle sold in the London
markets is now driven from very distant parts of
the country, at a great expense, and to the ma

nifest injury of the animals. It has been asserted

by farmers of Norfolk, that the loss of weight which
takes place on the journey, the food required on
the road, wages of drovers, and occasional deaths,

render the expense equal to three guineas for every

bullock sent to market. By means of the Rail

See, for information on this head, The Advantages of

Railways to Agriculture, by C. W. Johnson.

ways, however, this great waste of property, toge
ther with the large amount of suffering entailed
lupon the cattle, would be prevented; for they

might then be slaughtered in the country, and

dispatched at once to the London markets:*
whereby, too, a further saving would be effected;
for it is now necessary that the skins, horns, and

other parts available for manufacturing purposes,

should again be carried back to various parts of the
country to be converted; whereas the cost of this

transit would then of course be saved.

At this moment there are in England, it is
computed, about 1500 miles of Railway in progress
in various directions; by means of which,-al

though it is to be wished, perhaps, that, in the rst

instance, the different lines had been arranged
more advantageously in relation one to another,-
a wonderfully increased facility of communication

will be effected. Among the most important of

these must be regarded the great lines connect
ing the metropolis with Birmingham, and, through
4* Mr. W. Warner, a farmer, said, before a Committee of
the House of Commons, when examined on this point, that if
the London and Birmingham Railway had been made many
years ago, it would have saved him fty pounds a-year in the
transport of lambs, alone.

It may be mentioned, while on this point, that when the

cattle are killed in the heated and diseased state consequent
on a long journey, the meat quickly becomes tainted ,- so that
much food is wasted in London every day, for which, of course,

the consumer of that which is not wasted pays.

Birmingham, with Liverpool and Manchester; with
the Midland Counties; with Bristol; and with
Southampton ; and the important line, although of

triing extent, which will unite the greater num

ber of these with the Thames, and with one
another, known as the Birmingham, Bristol, and

Thames Junction.

We know little of the direct

ors of these various lines; we know not at all

whether the undertakings be conducted econo

mically and wisely(to these points let the share
holders and the public look)but this we do know,
that, if properly managed, not only Will they
render all that permanent service to the country
which, we have

attempted to

shew, Railways

must ever yield, but they will afford an abundant

return for the capital invested. The journey to
Liverpool will occupy, even in the present state
of locomotive science, hardly ten hours! to
Bristol, ve hours; and to Southampton, three


The union effected between the Liverpool

and Southampton lines, by means of the Thames

Junction Railway, will open a communication be
tween the interior of England and France; and
shoals of our countrymen, who are now deterred

by the expense from visiting foreign countries, will

then be induced to travel, and So to correct old

prejudices, and enlarge their ideas. Another line,

which is projected, to pass through South Wales,
\and thus to afford a speedy communication with
Ireland, will open, if carried into execution, new

markets for Irish produce and English manufactures ;
while it will enable us at the same time to obtain
in the metropolis cheap coals from South Wales:
as we should also from Staffordshire.*
When we begin to speak of the advantages
which will result to society from the vast improve
ment in the means of transit afforded by Railways,
they present themselves in such numbers, and in
such widely different situations, that we hardly
know which to mention rst, and which to omit

altogether-the power of quickly concentrating a

military force, and the probability, therefore, that

they would lead to the reduction of the standing

army; or, the improved health of the inhabitants of
our island, by affording ready means for obtaining
change of air. Among other advantages of steam
transport, it has been urged by some, that the
million of horses said to be now employed in
Great Britain to convey travellers, will be no
longer needed, and that the land which was neces
sary for their support would then produce corn for

Analogy, however, leads us to believe, that

no reduction in the number of horses now main

* The public are not generally aware, that Railways are not
conned to the trafc carried on by the companies by whom they
were constructed; but, like turnpike-roads, are open to any
individual who may choose to start a locomotive engine, and pay
such tolls as are determined on by the Act of Parliament. This

will, of course, prevent overcharge on the part of the original

company.See the various Railway Acts.

tained would take place: and, indeed, experience

gives strength to the inference ; for, between Man

chester and Liverpool, although there is now no
direct coach, the increased number of travellers

has rendered so many more coaches necessary on

the cross roads, and for short distances on the

line, that more horses are employed there at

this time than were so formerly.
Independently, too, of the great improvements
which will be brought about when a perfect system
of these roads shall be established throughout the
country, one can hardly estimate the immediate
good which will be done by the mere operation
of constructing themthe employment afforded
to labourers; the circulation of so much capital

as they will necessarily put into motion; and

the impetus given to scientic investigations and
We must not, however, elaborate on any of
* The amount of capital estimated to be necessary for the

completion of the Railways at present projected, is so large

(perhaps fty millions), that some have feared lest so great a

change of investment should produce serious commercial incon~

venience. This, however, is very improbable. Dr. Lardner
has stated (History of the Steam Engine, p. 359), that the
accumulation of capital in this country is so great, that the

difculty, probably, will be greater to nd suitable investments

than to meet engagements.

In Manchester alone, he says, the

annual increment on capital is no less than three millions; and

every inquiry we have made tends to shew that even a much

larger sum might have been stated with safety; so that, when


these pointswe must not shew how much talent

will be developed by the demand for it, which the
construction of Railways will insure, nor dilate

(although we should do so right willingly) upon

the architectural embellishment to the country which
they may be made to afford, or we should run the
risk of fatiguing our readers, weighty and interest
ing as the subject is. To say nothing of the means
of decoration afforded by the viaducts, bridges,
approaches, and depots appertaining to Railways
themselves, a great improvement would be effected
in our domestic architecture, as we should, in

many cases, be able to use stonethe cost of

transport being lessened, places now remote being
brought togetherinstead of brick. There is,
however, one point in connexion with Railways
one resultto which we have not alluded, but

which, from its all-involving importance, demands

from us, before concluding, a separate notice.
We speak of the amazing improvement which will
necessarily be brought about in the habits and morals
of the rural populationthe cultivation of taste,
and the diffusion of knowledge, through the general
intercommunication which will then take place.
Whilst population, says Dr. Lardner, exists in
detached and independent masses, incapable of

transfusion amongst each other, their dormant

we remember, too, that the capital for these undertakings will

be required only in small portions, and at distant periods of

time, little fear need be entertained on this head.

affinities are never called into action, and the most

precious qualities of each are never imparted to

the other.

We have, accordingly, observed, that

the advancement of civilisation, and the promotion

of intercourse between distant masses of people,
have ever gone on with contemporaneous progress,
each appearing, occasionally, to be the cause or
the consequence of the other. The result, then,
of the universal communication which Railways
must bring about, even in a moral and philosophical
point of view, will be of the most admirable nature.

Knowledge will be disseminated; the concentration

of intellect and power, now only exhibited in the
metropolis, will be spread abroad indenitely, and
the moral condition of our species be immeasurably

If our views, then, be correct, Railways claim

earnest support alike from the manufacturer and

the agriculturistthe man of science, the man of

capital, and the philanthropist; and would do so,

if no other country in the world yet knew their


This, however, we must remember, is

not the case.

Railways are in progress in nearly

all the civilised countries of the globe,in France,

in Belgium, in Germany, in Russia, and in India.

In America, indeed, more than 3000 miles have
been constructed; and although, so far as excel

lence and effectiveness are regarded, they may not

it History of the Steam Engine," p. 234.

be compared with those which have been formed in
England, the rapidity with which all this has been
carried into execution demands our admiration. To
retain our pre-eminent position, then, as manufac
turers for the worlda position which our improved
machinery has principally enabled us to maintain
so long, in spite of our enormous debt*requires
that we should double our endeavours to increase
the facilities of communication throughout the
country; and, even if it were probable that Rail

ways would a'ord but a small return for capital

expended, instead of a very large one, as expe
rience and calm inquiry assure us they ultimately
willyf we would strongly and sincerely urge
every individual of the society to lend his utmost
aid in establishing and increasing their effective
ness; feeling assured that he would thereby assist,
not merely to maintain the prosperity of his coun
try, but greatly to increase it.
* The cotton of India is conveyed by British ships round
half our planet, to be woven by British skill in the factories of
Lancashire. It is again set in motion by British capital, and,
transported to the plains whereon it grew, is repurchased at a

cheaper price than that at which their coarser machinery enables

them to manufacture it themselves.Economy of Machinery,
ut supra.

1 The shareholders in the Manchester and Liverpool Rail

way have received ten per cent annually, notwithstanding the

enormous outlay required; and 1001. shares now (1837) sell

for 230l. To the shareholders of the Stockton and Darlington
line the usual return has been eight per cent.

Whether, in some cases, Government should
not be called on to assist in their construction, is

a question on which, although deserving of the

most serious consideration, we will not now enter.

Certainly, however, no wise or prudent Government

would throw any unnecessary impediment in the
way of their formation, or increase the enormous

expenses which, even under favourable circum

stances, are incurred in obtaining an Act of Par
liament, by any opposition on account of mere
technical objections, or the inuence of individuals'E
We must, however, now conclude this brief paper.

Although much too feeble for the importance of

its subject, it has been written in all sincerity of
purpose, and with a full conviction of the amazing
advantages that must result to the whole popu
lation of the kingdom, by the increased facility of
communication which will be obtained if a perfect
* It may not be out of place here, to allude to the course

oftentimes pursued by those individuals who have property

likely to be required for a projected improvement, with a view
to enhance the value of their assent, and so to extort a greater
price for their land; and one cannot observe without regret,
that the higher the rank-or inuence of the proprietor, the more
exorbitant, usually, is the demand, because of the greater
power his wealth, rank, and consequent inuence, give him to

enforce the demand.

Every individual should be paid liberally

for that which he is compelled to sell; but surely it is beneath

the character of a gentleman to use his position in society,

and his power through its inuence, as a means to extort



system of Railways be established throughout the

country. The anticipation alone, of such a con
summation, lls us with delight: nor, indeed, can

we contemplate unmoved the glorious prospect

Which will be opened to the world. if merely the
vast and important works now in progress(works
with which the useless Egyptian pyramids, or the
justly vaunted remnants of old Romes magni
cence, will not be able to endure comparison)
be carried into execution. The length of our
lives, so far as regards the power of acquiring in
formation and disseminating knowledge, will be
doubled; and we may be justied in looking for
the arrival of a time, when the whole world will
have become as one great familyspeaking one

language, governed in unity and harmony by like

laws, and adoring one G01).



Llrl' > "Y

umvrasnr 0rd ILLINOIS



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coxnuc'rnn BY
I: now in the course of publication, in QUARTERLY PARTS, price Six Shillings
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THE rst division of this work comprises Mechanics of Fluids and

Hydraulic Architecture, descriptive and constructive, as connected with the
profession of the civil engineer, and other persons engaged in the erection of
extensive and delicate works of public and private utility.
The second division is assigned to Constructive Mechanics and Machinery,
practically considered, in connexion with the domestic concerns of society, and
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l. The MECHANICS or FLurns, or Hydrodynamics, comprise those truths
which explain the, peculiarities of equilibrium and motion among uid bodies,
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laborious avocations.

3. The second division of the Gallery of Practical Science, 'which will
comprise constructive mechanics and machinery, accompanied by descriptive
and graphic illustrations, and classed with immediate reference to the general
principles which regulate the use of machinery, in the various processes which

it may have been contrived to effect, offers to the public a work of decided
superiority over mere description, though arranged in alphabetical order, as
works on mechanical science have hitherto been compiled.

By the plan we pursue, the different powers or forces employed in giving

motion to machinery, whether that power be human strength, the force of
brute beasts, or of wind, water, or steam, together with the forces which retard
or circumscribe its action, whether friction, rigidity, or resistance, will receive

ample scientic illustration. And in the descriptive and constructive matter

which we shall introduce, respecting the various methods of engaging and
disengaging machinery,of accumulating or regulating power,increasing
or diminishing velocity,converting motion from one piece of mechanism to
that of another,-in the saving of time in natural opera_tions,in exerting
force for above human power, and on the contrary, in accomplishing operations
too delicate for human toucb,-in economizing materials,-in registering and
identifying with mathematical accuracy, as in copying, casting, moulding,
turning, stamping, punching, the elongation or contraction of designs,we

shall unfold a vast treasure, which concerns not merely those who may be
employed in erecting extensive and difcult works, of public utility or of
private speculation, but we shall place at the disposal of practical men, a
repository of invaluable principles, originating in the unrivalled skill and
ability of ingenious men of all countries, who have devoted their talents and
fortunes to the construction ofmachinery, and the manufacturing commodities
which contribute to the utility, comfort, and luxuries of life, and give daily
bread to millions of our fellow men.
Such, in general, are the plan, construction, and contents of the Gallery of

Practical Science,- in which it is designed to confer upon particular branches

of mechanics, systematic arrangement, and that chaste simplicity with which
induction never fails to invest human knowledge; and, in a word, where
calculations do not occur, to make scientic description go hand in hand with
geometrical construction ;yet, while we take nothing for granted which may
be deduced from a series of mathematical truths and scientic experiments, to
advance in this process no further than where practical results have been
attainable by practical men.
Constructed after this manner, every problem in the more scientic portions
of the volumes will be accompanied by a practical example; and in order
that nothing may be omitted which can render the subject intelligible to the

general reader, the most important formqu of a practical and general nature
are thrown into rules, in words at length; whereby all the arithmetical opera
tions required in the solution of the examples can be performed, without any
reference to the algebraic investigations. This we consider the surest way of

uniting precept with example, and supplying those desiderata which the rapid
progress of mechanical invention so imperatively demands. For, as Mr. Babbage
truly observes, it is the science of calculation, which becomes continually more
necessary at every step of our progress, and which must ultimately govern the
whole of the applications of science to the arts of life.
It is a work, says Dr. Birkbeck, in a letter to the Editor, 18th March,
1837, which will accomplish a great desideratum in practical science; for
although there occurs much mathematical investigation, there is nothing
which ought not to be easily understood and thoroughly known, by every
individual who attempts any practical pursuit connected with the subjects which
you have handled. Indeed, I consider this publication an admirable text-book
for engineers of every description ; and also peculiarly adapted for the libraries
and lecture-rooms of mechanics institutions.
London: Published by W. Enwnnns, l2, Ave-Maria Lane; Jonn WEALE,
Architectural Library, 59, High Holborn; J. WILLIAMB, Library of Arts, 10

Charles Street, Soho Square; and may be had of all Booksellers.


Nearly ready for publication, in 1 thick 4m. volume, illustrated withfrom 40 to 50 plates,


Railway Practice, by C. S. Brees, C. E.

It is intended to give, in this Work, a series of Original Designs and thorough
Practical Details of Construction, under different circumstances, for Tunnels,
Viaducts, Bridges, 850., in which a suitable and consistent eect will be studied,
which has not always been attended to in many Engineering Works of merit in

other respects.

These Designs will be in various styles of Architecture, and dif

ferent modes of execution.

There will also be a series of Examples, selected from Railways, and other exten
sive Works connected with the Science; together with much useful matter and
data; with a thorough review of every description of Works upon Railways, Canals,
8w. ; the whole forming a most useful volume, particularly at this moment, when
real working Plans, which these may answer for, are necessary in making correct
Estimates for projected Railways,likewise it being a class of art not yet illustrated.
Among the mass of Practical Information contained in this Work, the following
selection forms but a small portion :
Occupation Bridges in Embankments.Ditto in CuttingsDitto, ditto, Turnpike
Road BridgesBridges over Rivers, with various designs for Iron Rails and
Framing.Viaducts of several descriptionsRetaining Walls. Ornamental
Bridges. Culverts, Cuttings, and Embankments. Permanent Ways, Chairs,
Blocks, EcoCutting the Rock, Undersetting, &c.-Entrance to Railways, Etc. 81.0.
The most important Works on the Birmingham and Great Western Lines will be

given, by express permission; rendering this work by far the most useful on the

In the press, and very nearly readyA New Work on Practical Architecture,

By ALFRED Bsnrnonowsw, Ammrncr.

Shortly will be published, in one volume, 8vo., cloth, gold lettered, price ll. 14.,
and consisting of about 500 pages of closely printed letter-press, an entirely new
work, to be entitled,





Illustrated by wood-cuts, pointing out practical defects and their remedy, and
exhibiting improvements in construction. This Work will contain Specications
for the Erection and Repair of almost every description of Buildings ; with Obser
vations upon the Nature, Excellence, and Imperfections of various Materials and

Modes of Construction.
For a detailed account of this useful work, see Mr. Bartholomews Prospectus.
Names received until the day of publication at ll. 1s. 5 after which it will be raised
to ll. 5s.




Nearly ready, price 105. 6d.



Being a Practical and Scientic Treatise on the Construction of

, Articial Foundations for Buildings, Railways, <30.
With a comparative view of the application of Piling and Concreting to such
purpose 3 also an investigation of the'nature and Properties of the Materials

employed in securing the stability of Buildings.

To which is added, an Analysis

of the principal Legal Enactments affecting the operations of the Practical Builder;
illustrated by notes of cases occurring in actual practice.

Elegantly printed in one'oolumc 8110., illustrated with cuts.


Thefollowing classication of a few of the more important features of this work will a!
once exhibit its comprehensiveness as u manual to the Architectural Student and Engineer,
and as a work of useful and practical reference, of the highest importance to the successful
operations of the Practical Builder.
1st. On the consideration of the quality of the di'erent Strata of Earths, and of
the subsoil. 2nd. The construction, calculations, and use of the different varieties
of the Pile Driving Engine, and their effects in the operation. of Piling. 3rd. On
the varieties of Piling, and its application to specic Building purposes. 4th. On the
present use of Concrete, its nature, varieties, and application ; its employment in
important government establishments; valuable experiments relative thereto. 5th.
Comparative view of Piling and Concreting for foundations. 6th. 0n the manu
facture, quality, and employment of Brick, for foundations, &c. 7 th. On the

varieties and composition of Mortars and Limes.

8th. On the varieties of Building

Stone, and their employment in foundations. The various subjects comprised in

this work will be further illustrated by useful Tables and Memoranda, collected
together from numerous sources of acknowledged worth, and illustrated with
numerous Cuts.
The Building Act, divested of its legal technicalities, will also be explained,
accompanied by notes and illustrations of such points as are of doubtful import, or
as may appear to require further elucidations, arising from the obscurity with
which certain clauses are worded.

The Publisher feels much pleasure in announcing the above as an entirely original work,
of the greatest utility to the Engineer, the Architect, and the Practical Builder ,- Mr. Davy
being expressly authorised by the Master General of the Ordnance, to give in this work all
the experiments, and highly important results, made under the direction of the Board of

Ordnance at Woolwich.



Plan, Elevation, Section, and Parts at large, of the celebrated Wooden Bridge
across the DELAWARE, at Trenton, North America, 8s.
Plans, Elevations, and Sections of the curious Wooden Bridge at SCHAFFHAU
SEN, in Switzerland, built in 1760, by Ulric Grubenman, and destroyed by the
French in 1799; 19 inches by 29. 8s.
A View of the Upper SCHUYLKILL' Bridge at Philadelphia, span of the Arch
340 feet. 5a.6d.

In the Press,
For the use of Studpnts, Architects, and Reviewers; illustrated with plates, of

the Munich Gallery, 8w. &c., by Josnra GWILT, F.S.A., Author of several
valuable Works.





London: J. Rider, Print}; 14,,Bartholomew Close.




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Ga)llord Bros.

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