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Department of Physics

8.02

Spring 2012

SOLUTIONS Exam One Equation Sheet

Please Remove this Tear Sheet from Your Exam

qq

F12 ke 1 2 2 r12 , force by 1 on 2

r12

F qE

q

q

E(r ) ke 2 r ke 3 r

r

r

N

qi

E(r ) ke 3 (r ri )

i 1 r ri

dq

dq(r r)

E(r ) ke 2 r ke

3

r

r r

source

source

qenc

E

dA

closedsurface

B

VAB VB VA E ds

Electric Dipole

N

p qi ri

i 1

p r

V (r ) V ( ) k e 2

r

Gradient

E V

V

V

V

Ey

Ex

Ez

y

x

z

V

Er

for spherical and cylindrical

r

symmetry

1 V

E

for cylindrical symmetry

r

q

V (r) V () ke

r

N

q

V (r ) V ( ) k e i

i 1 r ri

V (r ) V ( ) k e

source

dq

r r

all pairs

ke

1

4 0

9 109 N m 2 C2

1) The area of a circle of radius r is

r 2 . Its circumference is 2 r .

U qV

qV K 0

U stored ke

Constants

qi q j

rij

; U () 0

radius r is 4 r 2 . Its volume is

(4 / 3) r 3 .

3) The area of the sides of a cylinder

of radius r and height h is 2 rh .

Its volume is r 2 h .

In this problem you are asked to answer 5 questions, each worth 5 points. You do not

have to show your work; in most cases you may simply circle the chosen answer.

Question 1 (5 points) Two small objects each with a net charge of Q exert a force

We replace one of the objects with another whose net charge is 4Q , and we move

the Q and 4Q charges to be 3 times as far apart as they were:

a) F1 F / 9

b) F1 F / 3

c) F1 4 F / 9 correct

d) F1 4 F / 3

e) None of the above.

Question 2 (5 points)

Three infinite sheets of charge lying in the yz -plane are shown in the sketch. The sheet

on the right at x d is positively charged with charge per unit area of , the sheet in

the middle at x 0 is positively charged with charge per unit area of 4 , and the sheet

on the left at x d is negatively charged with charge per unit area of .

What is the electric field at the point P in the region x d ?

a) zero.

b) E i .

c) E i .

d)

e)

f)

g)

0

2

i

E

0

2

E

0

4

i

E

0

4

E

0

. correct

i .

.

i .

Question 3 (5 points)

We have two electric dipoles. Each dipole consists of two equal and opposite point

charges at the ends of an insulating rod of length d . The dipoles sit along the x -axis a

distance r apart, oriented at right angles to each other as shown below. Their separation

r d . You may take d to be small but not zero.

a) will feel a force to the left and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise.

b) will feel a force to the left and a torque trying to make it rotate counterclockwise.

c) will feel a force to the left and no torque.

d) will feel a force to the right and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise.

e) will feel a force to the right and a torque trying to make it rotate counterclockwise.

f) will feel a force to the right and no torque.

g) will feel no force and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise. correct

Although we counted this answer as correct, in fact the correct answer is that it will feel a

force upward and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise. If you gave the proper

sense of rotation and had some indication that you thought the force was upward, and did

not receive credit, we will give you credit for that answer.

h) will feel no force and a torque trying to make it rotate counterclockwise.

i) will feel no force and no torque.

Question 4 (5 points)

A thin rod extends along the x -axis from x l / 2 to x l / 2 . The rod carries a

uniformly distributed positive charge Q . Consider a point P lying in the z 0 plane

with coordinates ( x , y,0) . Which of the following expressions describes the electric

potential difference V ( P) V () , between infinity and the point P ?

a)

b)

xl /2

ke Q

(( x x)i yj) dx

V ( P ) V ( )

l xl /2 (( x x) 2 y 2 )3/ 2

xl /2

kQ

(( x x)i yj) dx

V ( P ) V ( ) e

l xl /2 (( x x) 2 y 2 )1/2

xl / 2

c)

V ( P ) V ( )

keQ

( x x) dx

l x l / 2 (( x x) 2 y 2 )3/ 2

d)

V ( P ) V ()

k eQ x l / 2

( x x ) dx

l x l / 2 (( x x )2 y 2 )1/ 2

e)

k eQ x l / 2

dx

V ( P ) V ()

l x l / 2 (( x x )2 y 2 )3/ 2

f)

k eQ x l / 2

dx

V ( P ) V ()

correct

l x l / 2 (( x x )2 y 2 )1/ 2

Question 5 (5 points)

closed surface (i.e., a surface that

surrounds a volume) are always chosen

to point out of the enclosed volume. A

closed imaginary surface is called a

Gaussian surface. The Gaussian surface

below is a cylinder. A positive charge is

located on the cylinder axis above the

Gaussian cylinder, as shown on the

figure to the right.

E dA through surface B and

surface B

a) The flux through surface B is positive and through the entire closed surface it

is positive.

b) The flux through B is positive and through the entire surface it is negative.

c) The flux through B is positive and through the entire surface it is zero. correct

d) The flux through B is negative and through the entire surface it is zero.

e) The flux through B is negative and through the entire surface it is negative.

f) The flux through B is negative and through the entire surface it is positive.

NOTE: YOU MUST SHOW WORK in order to get any credit for this problem. Make

it clear to us that you understand what you are doing (use a few words!).

Three charges equal to Q , 2Q , and

Q are placed on the vertices of an

equilateral triangle with sides a, as shown

in the sketch. The point P is at the

origin. Note that sin(60o) 3 / 2 and

o

cos(60 ) 1 / 2 .

N

q

E(r ) ke i 3 (r ri )

i 1 r ri

N

Q

q

2Q

12Q

ke 2

E x (r ) ke i 3 ( x xi ) ke

a

a

(0

/

2)

(0

/

2)

0

3

3

a/2

a

a/2

i 1 r ri

qi

Q

4Q

( 3a / 2) 0 0 ke 2

E y (r ) ke 3 ( y yi ) ke

3

3a

i 1 r ri

3a / 2

N

q

Q

2Q

V (r ) V ( ) k e i k e

a/2 a/2

i 1 r ri

k 2Q 1 1

e

a

3

3a / 2

(d) Suppose you now move a point charge with charge 5Q from infinity to point P

in the above problem. How much work does it take you to do this?

10Q 2

1

U 5Q V (r ) V () ke

1

a

3

(e) What is the dipole moment vector of the original set of three charges?

N

N

p qi ri px qi xi Q(a / 2) 2Q(a / 2) 0 3Qa / 2

i 1

N

i 1

p y qi yi Q( 3a / 2) 0 0 3Qa / 2

i 1

(f) Suppose the original three charges were glued to a wooden equilateral triangle

which was free to rotate about its center, and then that triangle was placed in a

counterclockwise or clockwise?

The negative z component of the torque means that the triangle will rotate

clockwise.

NOTE: YOU MUST SHOW WORK in order to get any credit for this problem. Make

it clear to us that you understand what you are doing (use a few words!).

A very thin disk of radius R is positively charged with uniform charge per unit area .

Consider a point P lying a distance x 0 from the center of the disk along the axis of

symmetry of the disk.

Integration formulas you may find useful:

dr

r

2

c

2 3/2

( x r )

( x r 2 )1/2

r dr

1

( x2 r 2 )3/2 ( x 2 r2 )1/2 c

x2

r dr

( x 2 r 2 )1/ 2 c

r 2 )1/2

dr

2

2 1/2

( x2 r 2 )1/2 ln r ( x r ) c

(x

a) What is the electric potential difference V (P) V ( ) ? Hint: you may find the

integration area element da 2 r dr useful.

V (r ) V ( ) k e

source

dq

da

2 r dr

r dr

ke

2 ke 2

ke

2

2

2

2

r r

( x r 2 )3/2

x r

x r

source

source

V (r ) V () 2 ke ( x 2 r 2 )1/2 c 2 ke ( x 2 R 2 )1/2 x

0

b) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric field at the point P ?

E V x

d

x

2 ke ( x 2 R 2 )1/2 x 2 ke x 2

1

2 1/2

dx

(x R )

c) Find an expression for the direction and magnitude of the electric field when

x R ?

E 2 ke 2

1 x 2 ke x

x

2 1/2

2 o

(x R )

d) How does your result in part c) compare to the electric field of a uniformly

charged infinite plane with charge per area ? Explain your reasoning.

It is the same, as we would expect, because we are close to the disk and it looks

infinite if you are very close.

NOTE: YOU MUST SHOW WORK in order to get any credit for this problem. Make

it clear to us that you understand what you are doing (use a few words!).

A very long solid cylinder of radius R1 carries a non-uniform volume charge density

by a thin negatively charged cylindrical shell of radius R2 with uniform charge per area

0 as shown in the figure. The electric field is zero for r R2 . You may assume the

cylinders are infinite.

a) Find an expression for the charge per area in terms of C , R1 , and R2 as

needed.

R1

qenc

1

E dA

Eoutside 2 rL 0 2 R2 L 2 r Ldr r

o

o

closedsurface

0

R1

3

1

R

1

2 R2 L 2 r 2 Ldr C 0 2 R2 L 2 LC 1 0

o

o

3

0

R13

C

3R2

b) Find a vector expression for the electric field in the regions (i) 0 r R1 and (ii)

R1 r R2 . For each region clearly show your choice of Gaussian surface.

r

1 r

1

1

r3

2

2 r Ldr r 2 r Ldr C CL 2

o 0

3

o 0

o

1 r2

For r < R1 , E C r

o 3

R

1 R1

1

R13

1 1

2

o

o

o 0

3

1 R3

For R 2 r >R1 , E C 1 r

o 3r

r R1 . What is the speed of the object when it reaches r R2 ? Express your

answers in terms of r , C , Q , M , R1 , and R2 as needed.

The energy difference is

R2

B

R3 R

1 R3

1

QVAB Q VB VA Q E ds Q C 1 dr QC 1 ln 1 0

3r

3

R2

o

A

R1 o

This is a decrease in energy, which has gone into kinetic energy, that is

R3 R

1

1

MV 2 QC 1 ln 2 with the implied expression for V

2

3

o

R1

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