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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study


The world is constantly changing from time to time. As the result of the

current globalization era, English becomes the worlds major means of


communication. It is widely adopted for communication among two speakers
whose native languages are different from each other where one or both speakers
are using it as a second language. In other words, English is as international
language. The people over the world use it for their communication. Many source
of knowledge use on English. Therefore it has important role in improving of
knowledge: economic, educational, culture, and environmental. This is source
used by most of the school in Indonesia to reach understanding (Pantow, 2007:
22).
Moreover, thus a bulk of global information is all delivered in English.
Therefore, to be able to fulfill the worlds various demands, everyone must master
English. It is the foremost key to survive in the global era. Otherwise, those
human resources with no good English abilities will absolutely left behind. So,
English is needed to be taught at school to cope with the world challenge, so that
the students will be able to face it with English.
English is developed and used by most people in Indonesia, but they do not
use it in daily life. In Indonesia, English is taught as one of the compulsory
subjects that are given from elementary school to university level. In junior high
school and senior high school English is one of last subject that must be passed by
the students in the last examination. It provides that English has important role in

education in Indonesia. It shows that the students have to master English well in
order to pass the examination and improve their English skill.
In fact, in Indonesia English has already been taught at elementary school
since 1994 as a local subject for 4th, 5th, and 6th grades (Suyanto, 2008: 4-5).
It is shows that our government has a special attention to develop
English earlier. So, the contribution of many sides is totally necessary. One of the
most important contributions is from teacher, a people who have a special
obligation to guide and educate the young generations. Nowadays, every student
learns English at school. Unfortunately, the result of learning shows that the goal
of it is not yet perfectly achieved. After conducting observation, the researcher
found some facts related to this problem. The facts include the problems in
teaching and the difficulties encountered by students. Teaching process is
conducted as if it was only the routine to end up the syllabus. The use of media
and the application of various teaching strategies become so lacking.
Through teachers role, the bright future is on teachers hand. The
creativities from the teacher are totally necessary, when they taught, because every
child has their own uniqueness. When teacher is able to create a joyful learning
automatically the teaching and learning process will run smoothly.
When the students learn a language, there are four skills that students need
to master for communication. When the students learn our native language, we
usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write. These
are called the four language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing).
The importance of English language throughout the world in education,
business, government and social situations continues to grow, despite the
understand able desire of people to preserve their own native language. For
Indonesian students, English is a foreign language. One of the skills that must be
learned is reading. Reading is a very important skill that students need to master

as early as possible. However, the process of mastering reading is actually very


complex and this is clearly shown by the large number of students who are
not

skilled

in reading. Reading is important in English teaching. Teaching

reading is to make easy the student to study other skills. Because, reading books
or others, the students will get new knowledge and they can share it to others after
they read and understand.
Based on the observation and interview result to the student, students
reading ability especially in SMP N 1 Jambon at the eight grades was not good.
There are many factors influence it, those are: The students read the English text
slowly, the students motivation is low, when the students read English text, they
feel difficult to understand the text, less pronunciation, fluency and vocabulary.
Students usually are bored while they are reading. This phenomenon is probably
happened because in the text there are many new vocabularies, language features
and generic structure. Students usually feel lazy to open the dictionary in
searching difficult words, understanding grammar used and organizing generic
structure.
Learning strategies, according to Weinstein and Mayer have learning
facilitation as a goal and are intentional on the part of the learner. The goal of
strategy use is to affect the learners motivational of affective state, or the way in
wich the learner selects, acquires, organize, or intergrates new knowledge
(OMalley, 1990: 43). A teacher must prepare the material to be taught. Beside
that teacher think teaching strategy in accordance with the material presented.
Directed Reading Thinking Activity is a teaching strategy that allows the
guides the students through the process of making predictions based on the
information that the text has provided them. The Directed Reading Thinking
Activity as a strategy to help students develop the ability to determine a purpose

of reading in order to extract, comprehend, and make decisions based on


information gained from reading. (Stauffer, 1976: 116). The teacher asks
questions about the text, the students answer them, and then develop predictions
about the text. As the students move through the text, their predictions are
changed and modified according to the new information that is provided from the
text.
The key step in a Directed Reading/Thinking Activity is developing purposes
for reading. Purposes or questions represent the directional and motivating
influences that get readers started and produce the vigor and potency and push to
carry them through to the end.
Finally, the facts above inspire the researcher to write a thesis entitled
Improving Students Reading Skill on Descriptive Text Trough Directed Reading
Thinking Activity (DRTA) Method at Second Grade SMPN 1 Jambon in Lesson
Year 2012-2013.

II

Statement of problems
Based on the background stated above, the researcher formulates the research
question as follows:
How can Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) method improve the
students Reading ability in SMPN 1 Jambon Ponorogo?

III

Purpose of study
To know Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) method improves the
students Reading ability in SMPN 1 Jambon Ponorogo.

IV

Significant of the Study


It gives some signficance and constribution for helping English teacher, the

writer, the students, and another researcher as follows:


a.

English teacher

Hopefully this research can help to guide in teaching reading to students and
motivate them in learning reading.
b.

The students
Hopefully the result of this study will make the students more interesting in
teaching reading.

c.

The researcher
The researcher gets new knowledge and experience in teaching reading by
Directed Reading Thinking activity Method.

d.

Other researchers
The result of the research can be used as a reference or can be input in
observing another problem in English Reading by DRTA.

Scope and limitation


a. Scope
The scope of this study is teaching reading by using strategies, for
example: guided reading procedure, think pair share, and DRTA.
b. Limitation
The limitation of this study is teaching reading by using DRTA to improve
the students reading in descriptive text at the eight grade of SMPN 1
Jambon in academic year 2012/2013.

VI Definition of key term :


To make easier in understanding this research, the researcher defined
the key terms as follows:
DRTA
: Directed Reading Thinking Activity is an instructional
framework that views reading as a problem solving

process best accomplished in a social context (Stauffer,


1969).
: Is the ability to draw meaning from the printed page and

Reading

interpret this information appropiately (Grabe and


Stoller, 2002 : 9).
Descriptive text :

is a text to describe a person or a thing (Larson,


1984: 23).

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES

In this chapter, the writer wants to discuss some theories related to the topic
of the study. The discussion is presented in three main parts i.e. definition of
reading, text, descriptive text, Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA).
I. Theory of Reading
A. Definition of Reading
According to Cahyono (2010: 43) Reading is the most important activity
in any language class. Reading is not only a source of information and pleasure
activity but it also a means of consolidating and extending ones knowledge of
the language. Reading is the ability of an individual to recognize a visual form
associate the form with a sound or meaning acquired in the past and the basic
of past experience, understand and interpret its meaning. Reading can stimulate
the imagination. With reading, the students select the cast, set the stage, and
direct the action. Reading also develops verbal skills. Reading requires and

develops verbal skills, it is inextricably linked with speech and writing.


Students skills in searching main idea from the descriptive text almost cannot
be predicted, besides reading can improve students skill to widen the insight,
reading also the way to add many vocabularies in our mind.
Reading is receptive skill in understanding the words in written form. It is
believed that understanding the purpose of someone is not only in spoken form
but also in reading. Reading is the next step in writing because through it
students can comprehend what someone wants to talk something. According
to Nunan (1991: 70), reading is a dynamic process in which the text
elements interact with other factors outside the text, in this case most
particularly with the readers knowledge of content of the text.
Reading is a developmental, interactive, and global process involving
learned

skills. The

process

specifically

incorporates an

individuals

linguistic knowledge. It can be both positively and negatively influenced


by non linguistic internal and external variables of factors. It means that
reading is regarded as complex activity that involves various activities,
such as knowing each symbol and analyzing the words into a meaning.
Reading is a very important skill that students need to master as early as
possible. However, the process of mastering reading is actually very complex
and this is clearly shown by the large number of students who are not
skilled

in reading. The students need good reading skills for acquiring

knowledge and learning new information. Reading is a complex cognitive


process and mastery of all aspects of reading is crucial for academic success
and achievement.
Based on the definitions above, reading is a process when the students
get information from the writer. From the reading activity, the students

can identify and recognize the message through each word that builds the
content of the text.
Reading knowledge is broadened and well-informed by reading.
Reading is really crucial our knowledge is usually broadened and informed by
reading activities, and the activity of reading can be found in the internet,
book, etc.
Students should practice their reading more and more, so that their
reading ability and their reading experience will be improved. They may find
difficulty and frustrating, but if they keep practicing, they will have a
good sense of English and will help them to grasp the total meaning of the
words. Another thing should be remembered in reading that students should not
open a dictionary too often because it will slow down their reading rate
and can make them bored. If they find new words, they should try to
guess the meanings by trying to find out any clue words according to the
context in the passages.
B. Types of Reading
Depending on the purposes of reading it also can be classified into two
types of activities, intensive and extensive reading.
1. Intensive reading
According to Nunan (2003: 71) intensive reading involves a short reading
passage followed by textbook activities to develop comprehension and a
particular reading skill. Intensive reading means reading shorter texts to
extract specific information. This activity is likely more to emphasize the
accuracy activity involving reading for detail. The process of scanning takes a
more prominent role here than skimming. Reader is trying to absorb all
the information given.
2. Extensive reading

According to Nunan (2003: 72) Extensive reading plays a keyrole in topdown approach to reading. Extensive reading can be contrasted with Intensive
reading. Extensive reading means reading many books (or longer segments of
text) without a focus on classroom exercise that may test comprehension skill.
Reader deals with a longer text as a whole, which requires the ability to
understand the component part and their contribution the overall meaning,
usually for ones own pleasure. This is a fluency activity, mainly involving
global understanding. Example: Reading a newspaper, article,short story or
novel.
C. The Aim of Reading
The aim of Reading is looking for and getting information from
books, references,

texts or others.

In Reading,

the students have

to

understand the idea, the context, and the meaning of the texts in the
passage. Anderson (2011: 10), states the following aims of reading:
1. Reading for Details of Facts
The students read the text to get or know the inversion that have been done
by the writer or solve the problems of the writer.
2. Reading for the main Idea
The students read the text (books) to know why is the topic is
good or interesting, then the problems on the passage, and make
summaries of the passage.
3. Reading for the Sequence or Organization.
The students read the text to know what is happening in each part of the
passage in every episode and solving the problems of the text.
4. Reading to Classify
Students read the text to classify some information or actions of the
writer in the text or paragraph.
5. Reading to Inference

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The students read the text in order to find out the solutions from the
actions or idea in the text.
6. Reading to Compare
The students read to compare the plot of the text or content whether
having similarity with the readers or even contrast.
Based on explanation above, it can be assumed that the aims of reading
are to get detail information of text, classify some information or actions of
the writer in the text of paragraph, and compare the plot of the text or
content whether having similarity with him or even contrast etc.
D. Teaching Reading
The word teaching is often defined as giving an experience to the students
that have not gotten before. According to Cahyono (2011: 57) reading is a
procces of translating graphemic string into spoken words in the beginning of
learning to read. It can also be defined as helping students in doing their
activities in classroom especially in their lesson. Teaching English as foreign
language especially reading is not as easy activity as teaching English as first
and second language. For teaching reading, the teachers and the students have
to know about the rules used in teaching reading especially to improve
students reading skill in the descriptive text. Reading is an interactive process
that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. The
text presents letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs that encode meaning.
The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to determine what that
meaning is. Most of the students and the teachers think of reading as a simple,
passive process that involves reading words in a linear fashion and
internalizing their meaning one at a time. But reading is actually a very

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complex process that requires a great deal of active participation on the part of
the reader.
Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain
information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's ideas
or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance
knowledge of the language being read.
According Cahyono (2011: 68) there are some categories of teaching
reading for students: before reading (pre-reading), during reading (while
reading), and after reading (post reading).
1. Pre-reading activity.
According to Cahyono (2011: 68) pre reading activities are instructional
activities carried out before student conduct the real reading activities. In pre
reading activities, activations is concerned with students background
knowledge, objective of reading class, learning activities, and motivating
students. The purpose of pre-reading activities is to motivate the students to
want to read the assignment and to prepare them to be able to read it. In pre
reading, there are some ways that can be used by the teacher to stimulate the
student, likes brainstorming before they read the text, guessing a picture related
with the text, or others.
2. While reading
According to Cahyono (2011: 69) while reading activitiesare the activities
that a reader does while reading takes place. To maximize reader interaction to
a text, reader should be guided during reading activities. Reading activity is a
main activity in class. In this activity the teacher usually ask to the student to
read the text, while the student read it, sometime the teacher correcting about
the pronunciation of word, or the meaning of word. In main activity the

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students also ask to the task. It can be given before reading the text or after
reading the text.
3. Post reading
According to Cahyono (2011: 70) Post reading is a final in teaching
reading. Post reading activities are the activities conducted by a reader after
reading. In this activity sometimes the teacher also ask the students to do task.
Only for reviewing the lesson at that day. The task is not only the question base
on the text but also retelling the text, summarizing the text and others. The
purpose of post reading is to make clear that the student understand about the
lesson that given by the teacher.
II.

Text
According to Anderson (2003: 2), text is pieces of spoken or written
language that are created for a particular purpose. When we speak or write,
we create texts. When we listen, read or view texts, we interpret them in
meaning. A good piece of text requires the creator to make the right choices
from the language system. It is about words, sentences, processes, and
features. These choices will reflect our purpose and our context. It will be
created a good text if the writer makes the right choice from the language
system.
According to Marsudiono (2011 :56) genre or types of text can be
categorized into two, they are story genre and factual genre.
A. Story genre
1. Recount.
It is a piece of text that retells past events. Its purpose is to retell a series
of events, usually in the order they occurred.
2. Spoof
It is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with
unpredictible and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share
the story.

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3. Narrative
It is a text containing story. It can be in the front of folktale, fable,
legend, short story,fairy tale, myth, etc. The main function of this text is to
entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experince in different ways.
4. Anecdote
Anecdote is a text wich retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or
imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.
B. Factual Genre
1. Proccedure text
It is a piece of text that tells how to do something. Its purpose is to
instruct someone on how something can be done
2. News item
It is a text which reports important events to the readers. The social
function is to inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are
considered newsworthy or important.
3. Descriptive text
It is a piece of text that describe something, sound, feeling, taste, size,
shape, color, etc. It can be both phsical and process description.
4. Report
It is a piece of text that presents information about a subject. The purpose
is to classify, describe or to present information about a subject.
5. Explanation
It tells how or why something occurs. Explanation texts can be spoken or
written and the purpose is to tell each step of the process (the how) and to
give reason (the way).
6. Analytical Exposition
It is one of the genre which presents argument. The purpose is to
persuade the readers that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.
7. Hortatory Exposition text
The purpose is to persuade the readers that something should or should
not be the case.
8. Discussion

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It gives for and against, the positive and negative, or the good and bad
points. It can be in oral or written form. The purpose of a discussion is to
present differing opinions on a subject to the reader or listener.
9. Review
It is an evaluation, such as movie review, book review, etc. The purpose
is to critique an art work or event for a public audience.
III.

Descriptive text
According to Marsudiono (2011: 75), a descriptive text is a text which

lists the characteristics of something. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a


particular person, place, or thing. A descriptive text is usually used to create
and to develop the characteristics of a person and why he or she is so special
that the reader can create a vivid picture of the character.
The purpose of the descriptive text is that description is used in all form
of reading not only to tell a vivid impression of a person, but also to describe a
persons achievement in the report.
Descriptive text is also usually used to develop an aspect of someones
reading, for example, to create or to describe a thing. A description should be
so unique that a description of one thing should be different from a description
of another thing (Priyanto, 2009). In order word, a descriptive text is not used
to generalize. All different readers should be able to show the same thing being
described in the text. Relational process is much applied to show identifications
of the thing being described, while material process is used to show what the
thing does. Because descriptive texts show the attributes of the thing, most
clauses use adjectives.
The Genre of Descriptive Text
Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant

To describe a particular person, place and thing.


Identification : identifies phenomenon to be described.
Description : describes parts, qualities, characteristic.
Focus on specific participants.

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Lexicogramatical
Feature

Use of attributive and identifying processes.


Frequent use of ephitets and classifiers in nominal

groups.
Use of simple present tense.
Dok.Final Bahasa Inggris Agustus 2003 Page 49

IV.

DRTA Strategy
A. Definition of DRTA
In the 21st century, students will have access to more information than

any other students before them. They must learn to locate, assess, and use this
information wisely. Today students not only read the words on the page and
understand them, but they must also think critically about the information they
are reading. One of the strongest ways you can help student learn what it
means to become actively engaged the pieces literature they are reading is to
scaffold students reading via the Directed Reading Thinking Acrivity (DRTA)
that delvelop by stauffer
Directed Reading/Thinking Activity is a teaching strategy that allows the
guides the students through the process of making predictions based on the
information that the text has provided them. The teacher asks questions about
the text, the students answer them, and then develop predictions about the text.
As the students move through the text, their predictions are changed and
modified according to the new information that is provided from the text.So,
Directed Reading Thinking Activity ( DRTA ) is an important strategy because
it actively teaches students the skill of comprehension. This strategy relies on
the teacher actively modeling the art of reading for her students.
To use the DRTA, teachers give students a text selection and ask them to
read the title, a few sampled lines of text, and examine the pictures to develop
hypotheses about the text. Students generate hypotheses as they read from the
text and from their own experiential backgrounds.

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Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get


students to make inference while reading. The role of the teacher is to guide
students through a selection in order for them to formulate question for
themselves, make predictions, and validate or reject the predictions. The
strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models
and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy
independently. The final instructional objective is that students be able to
independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections.
The Directed Reading Thinking Activity engages students in a step by
step proccess that guides them through informational text. It is designed to
move students through the proccess of reading text. Question are asked and
answered, and predictions are made and tested throughout the reading.
Additionally, new question

and prediction are formulated as the student

progresses through the text. While the teache guides the process, the students
determines the purpose for reading. To introduce the strategy, the teacher gives
examples of how to make predictions. A preview of the section to be read is
given by having the students read the title and make predictions. Independent
thinking is encouraged as knowledge from previous lessons is incorporated into
the predictions. All the student predictions should be recorded by the teacher,
even those that will later proveto be inaccurate. Misconception are clarified by
the reader through interaction. The DRTA proccess encourages student to be
active and thoughful readers, enhancing their comprehension.
Based explained above, the researcher conclude the DRTA strategy
involves readers in the process of predicting, reading, proving about the text

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material through the use of open-ended question. To the make successful of the
DRTA strategy the teacher must be know how using DRTA.
B. Using DRTA strategy.
The Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a strategy that guides
students in asking question about a text, making predictions, and then reading
to confirm or refuse their prediction. The DRTA process encourages student to
be active and thoughtful readers. The basic DRTA involves the teacher working
as they read a short story or selection, pausing at teacher selected stopping
points to think and predict.
At each stopping point, the teacher focuses the discussion of the text on
predictions the student make. In using the DRTA, the teacher does not ask
specific factual question of student. The teachers role is to guide the students
thinking as they make predictions. The further into a text the students read, the
more accurate their predictions usually become. The teacher listens and notes
the students use of the authors clues the meaning and their general knowledge
of stories and genres as they discus their ideas.
The other essential strategy teachers want to develop with the DRTA is
the students use of text information to either revise to confirm predictions.
Many time as teachers begin this process students engage in predicting with
eagerness. Asking for the reasons for their particular predictions leads them to
a deeper engagement with a text. Some students have difficulty adjusting
predictions to the actual content of the text they e reading. Af the students are
not making good inferences and connecting different segment of the text the
teacher may need to ask them to reread a section and locate information that
will inform their predictions and help them movw forward with the authors
meaning.
C. The advantages and disadvantages of DRTA

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Generally in every learning strategy have some advantages that make the
learning strategy is better than others and also some disadvantages that make
the learningis the lack effective. Its so in Directed Reading Thinking activity
(DRTA) strategy. There are some advantages and disadvantages of Directed
Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) strategy.
There are some reasons for using Directed Reading Thinking Activity
(DRTA) strategy in reading class:
1. It encourages students to be active and thoughtful readers.
The process of predicting, reading, and proving make the students are not
passive in reading class. They use their mind to be more aware about the
2.

3.

topic given may be known yet by the students.


It activates students prior knowledge.
It will appear prior knowledge by predicting about the topic. New
information will add the students knowledge.
It teaches students to monitor their understanding of the text as they are
reading. The students understand the content of the text step by step.
It began from activating prior knowledge, then predicting what they
will learn about the topic and the last is proving. From that step, the

4.

students will practice how to understand the text accurately.


It helps students strengthen reading and critical thinking skills.
Reading skill is not passive skill. The readers must think about the topic

accurately.
The Disadvantages of DRTA strategy :
1. Only useful if students have read or heard the text being used.
2. Classroom management may become a problem.
Therefore, the advantages of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)
strategy are this activity can be easily adapted for a variety of subject and reading
levels. This strategy help strengthen reading and critical thinking skill. As the
teacher guides the process, the DRTA teaches students to determine the purpose
for reading and make adjustments to what the students think will come next based

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on the text. A key to sucessful use of the DRTA strategy is that no one has read a
text or read a head of the others. If a students has read material before, ask the
students to become an observer to make notes on the other students prediction and
the ways they verify or change their ideas, based on what is unfolding text.
D. Teaching Reading using Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)
strategy.
1. Procedure of Teaching Reading using DRTA
The procedural steps of DRTA will give the systematic process of
teaching reading. Leu (1987: 222), states that the first phase of a DRTA
consists of three procedural steps, repeated as students read and discuss a
selection, those are:
a. Predicting
During this first step, students are asked to predict outcomes and model
their inferential reasoning for others. At the beginning of a text
descriptive, questions like the following might be used.
1) What is the suitable story for this title? Why?
2) What do you think about main idea in the next paragraph?
3) What does the next paragraph tell us about?
Each student is expected to form a prediction and support it with
a reasonable explanation. Teachers should encourage different prediction as
long as a student can justify them logically.
b. Reading
Students are asked to read silently upto a predetermined point in the
text and check their predictions. Directions like the following might be given.
Now that you have all told me what you think this story is going to be about,
who will be in it, and where it will take place, I want you to read and see if
you were correct.
c. Proving

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During this third step, students are asked to draw conclusions and
to model their reasoning process for others. In a discussion, students evaluate
2.

the available evidence in relation to their predictions.


Goals of teaching reading using DRTA strategy
The Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is an explicit teaching
strategy that focuses students on the purpose for reading. This procedure
focuses on reading as a thinking pocess. Its intent is to teach students to make
predictions throughout reading. The purpose of this teacher guided reading of
the text is to help students think actively and become personally engaged in the
reading. Good readers make predictions and verify or refuse them as they read.
A prediction is a process used by readers to combain their knowledge
with textual information to generate a hypotesis about what will happen text.
Prediction is a way focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a
particular text to confirm or expand understanding. Thus, the goal of teaching
reading using DRTA strategy to build critical awareness of the readers role and
responsibility in interacting with the text.
Based explanations above the researcher conclude goal of teaching
reading using Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) strategy are to help
students :
a. Determine the purpose for reading
b. Use prediction when reading text
c. Make decision based on reading

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the researcher will explain some research method used
includes research design, subject and setting of research, and research procedure.

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I.

Research Design.
The design of this study is Classroom Action Research (CAR). Classroom
Action Research is an effective media in improving the quality of English
teachers performance in instruction as well as students achievement in learning
English in classroom. Research in English learning is a scientific activity that
aims at investigating the rules that work in the process of English learning.
According to Kemmis and Mc. Taggart in Kunandar (2008, 43), action
research is a form of collective, self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants
in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own
social or educational practices, as well as their understanding of these practices
and situations in which these practices are carried out.
Classroom Action Research activities involve repeated cycles, each cycle
consist of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The result of one cycle is
used to determine the need for the following cycle, until the problems get solved
by the strategy. For the classroom action research the researcher uses the cycle of
Kemmis & Mc.Taggart in Wiriaatmadja (2005).

Figure 1 : The Classroom Action Research Model Kemmis and McTaggart

II.

Setting and Subject of Research

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The research will be conducted at SMPN 1 Jambon Ponorogo. The school is


located at Watu Gong street, Krebet, Jambon,Ponorogo. The school has regular
classes covering all grades (seventh grade, eighth grade, and ninth grade).
The subject of this research is one of eighth grade at SMPN 1 Jambon.
Because the most of the students get difficulties as they learn reading. This
research is conducted on November 2013.
III.

Research Procedure
A. Doing Preliminary Study (reconnaissance)
It represents early reflection about previous learning to identify and analyze
problems. In this step, the researcher will obtain data by giving thought and
identified the causation of worst of process and study result. In order to get

23

the data, researcher will use research instruments; there are observation, test,
and questionnaire.
B. Identifying and Analyzing Problems as The Preparation
The result in this step will be used as references to create action planning.
The problem in this research is the students have difficulty in reading ability
such as: The students feel difficult to understand the text, less pronunciation,
fluency and vocabulary.
C. Implementating the Research
The research will be done by the researcher with the step below:
1. Planning
Planning is a step to prepare the classroom instructional strategy to be
developed in the study to solve the instructional problems. The instructional
strategy has been selected based on the belief that the strategy can
theoretically solve the problems. The strategy becomes the focus of the
study, to be prepared, to be tried out, to be revised, to be tried again until it
proves effective to solve the problems. The instructional strategy has to be
elaborated into a detailed scenario of instruction provided with all necessary
instructional media and assessment instruments. In planning there are
several activities as follows:
a. The Steps of Direct Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)
1) Develop readiness for the reading selection. Try to anticipate
deficiencies in prior knowledge of the content and then shore
them

up

information.

by

introducing

vocabulary, providing

factual

24

2) Asking the students to read to a key point and then stop. They
are then to form predictions about how the story will end. These
predictions may be generated individually or by collaborative
group.
3) Permitting the students to read the reminder of the story for the
purpose of testing their predictions.
4) Leading a discussion focusing on the predictions students have
made.
5) Providing extension or reinforcement activities. These can take
many

forms

and

could

focus

on

word

recognition,

comprehension, or personal responses to content.


b. Arranging The Lesson Plan
The researcher arranges lesson plan to make easy, teaching
learning process with DRTA method. Action research planning that
will be done by the researcher as follows:
1) The researcher will make lesson plan according to syllabus.
2) The researcher will choose subject material to teaching reading.
3) The researcher will prepare some descriptive texts.
4) The researcher will learn the use of DRTA method.
5) The researcher will make test.
c. Determining The Criteria of Success
In this study, the writer determines the criterias of success as
follows:
1) Affective, the students study actively to find good ideas. The
minimum result of percentages is 70%.

25

2) Psychomotor, the students are actively involved in their team


during learning process of reading text. If the students of SMP N
1 Jambon have reached the students percentage 75% it means
that implementation of DRTA method to improve students
reading skill has been successful because the students are active.
3) Cognitive, the students are able to improve their reading skill in
answering the questions. Minimum score of the study is 70. If
70 of all students can reach this score, it means that students
reading skill through DRTA method is successful.
d. Preparing the Research Instrument
1) Research Instrument
Instrument can call the way of obtaining data in activity of
research. There are many methods can be used to collect data.
There are some component researchers, which the researcher is
used namely; observation check list, test, and questionnaire of
the action research and the details as follow:

a) Observation
Observation is as an important tool to collect data in
classroom action research. It is used to control and observe. The
focus of observation from classroom activity can be categorized
into general and specific. General observation from classroom
activity will notice the subjectivity of researchers suggestion
and the specific observation is about the things that have been

26

agreed in planning. The result of data will help the school for
further development (Wiriaatmadja, 2005: 250).
Observation is the activity to get information about
teaching and learning process in the classroom action research
and it is as a process to collect the data by monitoring the
students activities, especially in improving students reading
skill in descriptive text through DRTA strategy. To measure the
students activeness the researcher consider Yuliz Setyaningsih
as the collaborator. He gives a checklist () in every students
activity during the teaching and learning process in the
classroom.
b) Questionnaire
According to Wiriaatmadja (2005: 249) it is one of method
in collecting data to complete the observation and interview. List
of questions is arranged by researcher and all of the questions
are able to give a feedback about the students attitude, the
completeness of students media, cooperating with teacher, and
students comment about the thing that the teacher wants to
know.
The questionnaire consists of 10 questions. It is to know
the students interest, difficulty, understanding, and motivation
in learning English. The students only give checklist () in the
column based on their respond about the activity in the
classroom.

27

The result of the questionnaire is able to use to support the


observation in the classroom and become a tool for evaluating
and reflecting about the teaching and learning process in reading
descriptive text by using DRTA strategy.
c) Test
To measure the students capability and to know whether
the new method is successful or not, researcher makes a test.
According to Arikunto (2002: 127), Test is some of questions or
exercises to measure an individual or groups skill, intelligence
knowledge and ability. Researcher uses writing test to know the
students ability and understanding of reading text in each cycle.
The method of test in this research is used to know how
far the improving of students reading skill after using new
strategy. The implementation of DRTA method applied in lesson
in order the students quickly accept this method and to
improving students reading skill.

2. Acting
Acting is the second step after the planning step to implement the
instructional strategy that has been planned. At this step, the researcher has
mastered the instructional scenario before starting the implementation in
class. The researcher at this step is not in the process of learning how to
implement the plan, or in the process of improving the quality of teachers
performance, but in the process of actually trying out the strategy to test

28

how much the strategy can solve the classroom problems. The researcher is
recommended to collaborate with one of the teachers or collaborator of the
same subjects. The Collaborators observe the implementation of the plan to
see how much the strategy can solve the classroom problems.

IV.

Data Classification
The data are classified in two kinds, namely quantitative and qualitative

data. The quantitative data are taken from the students tests in each cycle and the
qualitative data are taken from the result of observation and questionnaire form.
A. Data Presentation
1. Qualitative Data
In this research, the data is taken from the result of observation and
questionnaire. It is described in qualitative way. Observation data is
presented by discussing them and data of questionnaire will be
accounted and presented in table.
2. Quantitative Data
The data of the students test in each cycle are put into table and
calculated in quantitative data analysis
3. Reflecting
Reflecting is the process of analyzing data to determine how far the
data collected have shown the success of the strategy in solving the
problem. Reflecting also shows what factors support the success of the
strategy or what other problems may occur during the implementation
process. The discussion on data analysis is done under the reflection
stage. It represents step to process get data obtained at the time of
conducting observation.

29

The criteria of success to measure the effectiveness of the strategy are


also decided. The criteria of success are derived from the problems to
be solved through this study and some other instructional goals to be
achieved through the implementation of this strategy. The criteria of
success when achieved become the strength of the strategy that will
attract other teachers to use the strategy to solve the same problems.
B. Data Analysis
1. Observation
The researcher will use the observation check list to know the
students behavior in the class. The researcher will use it as the measurement
of students affective and psychomotor aspects.
The researcher in analyzing the observation uses the formula below:
Here the researcher defines that if the second year students of SMPN 1
Amount of obtained score 100
The percentage of complete=
Jambon reach the percentage
criteria
score
75%, it means that
All of of
aspect
maximal
improving students competence in reading using DRTA has been successful
because the students are active.
2. Questionnaire
The researcher will classify the students answer of questionnaire form
then she/ he will know the exact number of the students answer to the given
in the questionnaire sheets. From these data, the researcher will know
The students opinion about DRTA, and reading. The result of
questionnaire is the reflection whether the students enjoy writing or not.
The result of this instrument can be formulated as follows:
3.

Test
Total Score group of students score is as follows:
The level100
Maximum
A. Excellent
: 85-100
B. Good
: 70-84
C. Medium
: 55-69
D. Less
: 40-54
E. Fail
: 00-39

30

CHAPTER IV
FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This chapter describes about the classroom action research that had been done by
the researcher in SMP N 1 Jambon of 2013/2014 academic year. Data collected through
classroom action research are described in detail as follows:
I. Finding
The research was started on November 26th until December 5th 2013. It was carried
out in SMP N 1 Jambon. It consisted of two cycles and it was conducted in four meetings.
There were two meetings in the first cycle and the second cycle consisted of two
meetings. The details are as follows:
A. Cycle 1
1. Plan 1
The researcher made plan to apply Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)
Strategy in classroom action research with the following steps:
1) The researcher made lesson plan 1.
2) The researcher prepared descriptive text.
3) The researcher prepared observation check list, questionnaire and test.
2. Action 1
First meeting
On November 26th, 2013
Day

: Tuesday

Time

: 07.00 a.m 08.20 a.m

Theme

: Raharjo

31

Steps

In the first meeting, the researcher had been accompanied by an English


teacher (Mr. Indarso) as the first collaborator. The researcher gave greeting to the
class and introduced herself to the students and explained about the purposes of
her coming to their class. After that, the researcher asked them to use the ready
name badges, the researcher checked the attendance list by calling the students
name one by one, in this way the researcher would know who attended into the
class and who did not. In this meeting, the researcher used English purely. The
students were demanded to try speaking English by opening their dictionaries.
They might speak Indonesian, but they had to try speaking English. If they felt too
difficult, she helped them by using sentences approach, or other examples.
The researcher distributed first questionnaire that consisted of the
students' opinion about their experience and gave time to the students to fulfill it.
My friend as a collaborator helped me to distribute questionnaire to the students.
The students fulfilled questionnaire was calm down, then they submitted first
questionnaire to the researcher.
Afterthat, the researcher introduced about Directed Reading Thinking
Activity (DRTA) Strategy. After introducing about the strategy, the researcher told
the students that the material that would be discussed was about reading, the
researcher explains of the steps of DRTA and then the researcher tried to apply it.
First, the researcher gave the example of picture to stimulate the content of the
text. The students asked to predict outcomes and model their

inferential

reasoning for the others students. Then, the researcher gave an example of
descriptive text. The researcher asked one of students to read the title of the text

32

then asked other students to predict the first paragraph. The students asked to
read silently up to a predetermined point in the text and check their predictions.
The students asked to draw conclusions and to model their reasoning process
for others. In a discussion, students evaluated the available evidence in relation to
their predictions.
After discussing the text, the students were involved to determine the
generic structure of the given text. The students were given an opportunity to ask
if the student found some difficulties or reinforced their understanding.
The researcher draw conclusion of the material taught, and gave
students time to ask the materials that they hadnt understand yet. There were two
students who asked about English. They stated that it was hard for them to
understand teachers English purely in the class, and they expected that the
teacher used Indonesian too. And then, the researcher reminded and motivated
students to have more English practice in the class. And the last, she made short
direct interview about DRTA strategy and descriptive text, Finally, she closed the
teaching and learning activities.
Second meeting
On November 28th, 2013
Day

: Thursday

Time

: 07.00 a.m. 08.20 a.m.

Theme

Steps

In the second meeting the researcher came into classroom. The


researcher greeted and asked students for praying. After praying, the researcher
checked the students attendance.

33

The researcher reviewed the material. Many students still remembered


about the last material, they replied the questions asked by the researcher. After
reviewing the material, the researcher explained about descriptive text again. The
researcher did question answer about descriptive text and the students did
interaction with the researcher. Afterwards, the researcher explained definition of
descriptive text, generic structure of descriptive text, and purposes of descriptive
text.
Furthermore, the researcher distributed test paper to the students. The
researcher gave instructions to the students to read and answer the question of
descriptive text. The researcher prepared and gave time to the students to answer
the question of descriptive text.
After the time was up, the students finished their task and submitted it
to the researcher. The last, the researcher summarized this material. The
researcher closed the teaching and learning process.

3. Observation I
Observation was done while acting was running. So, the researcher knew
the problems of the implementation of Directed Reading Thinking Activity
(DRTA) in teaching and learning process. In the cycle I, the researcher used
observation checklist I to know students activity.

34

Table 4.1
The result of Observation Checklist I
Category / score

Indicators

No

R
R/1

S
S/2

1 The students interaction with the


1
2

A/ 4

learning process.
3 The students ask the teacher about

lesson material.
4

O/3

teacher.
2 The students are active in teaching

The students can finish task on time.

5 The students give attention when the


5
6
7.

teacher explains lesson material.


6 The students are active in reading

learning.
7 The students are interested in

reading using DRTA Strategy


Total

Score

4
4

1
1

8
8

2
2

3
3

8
8

Note :
A : Always

= score 4

O : Often

= score 3

S : Sometimes

= score 2

R : Rarely

= score 1

Total score: (4 x 7) = 28
From the data above, the researcher concluded that the total score
{(8 + 3 + 8): 28} x 100% = 67.85%. From the data above, the researcher knew

35

some problems in teaching and learning process. The students sometimes


interacted with the teacher when teaching and learning process. Then, the students
sometimes asked to the teacher about lesson material because they were confused
about the material. Besides, the students sometimes finished task on time.
Sometimes, the students were interested in teaching reading using Directed
Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA).
a.

Data from the result of Questionnaire I


Questionnaire was one of techniques to get information from respondent by

giving some of written questions to respondent. By giving questionnaire to


students of class VIII A SMPN 1 Jambon, the researcher found the data that can
help to answer the problems in this research. To find out the questionnaire score,
the researcher used the way of counting as follow:
The sum question of questionnaire consisted of 10 items. In scoring the
questionnaire items, the researcher gave score of the answer 1 until 4. If the
students chose ( SS = score 4 ), chose ( S = score 3 ), chose ( TS = score 2 ), and
chose ( STS = score 1 ). When SS was really agree, S was agree, TS was disagree,
and STS was very disagree. (Score maximal has been taken from the sum of the
students, they are 20 students. The score maximal was 4, so 20 x 4 = 80).

Table 4.2
The result of the Questionnaire I
Question

Answer
SS
4

Answer
S
3

Answer
TS
2

Answer
STS 1

Total

Percentage

36

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

3
0
0
3
1
0
1
7
1
0

12
0
0
12
4
0
4
28
4
0

14
42
3
9
27
11
14
42
6
7
21
10
10
30
9
8
24
12
6
18
11
10
30
3
12
36
5
6
18
11
Total Percentage

6
22
12
20
18
24
22
6
10
22

0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
3

0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
3

60
49
54
53
52
48
46
64
51
43

%
75 %
61,25 %
67,5 %
66,25%
65%
60%
57,5%
80%
63,75%
53,75 %
65%

From the questionnaire in cycle I above, the total scores was 65%. The
researcher knew some problems in English learning at eight grade of SMPN 1
Jambon. Some of the students disliked English. They felt difficult to join English
learning. These problems made them uncomfortable in teaching reading. They
regarded reading was not interesting and they felt difficult to understand sentences
or the meaning of the text.

b. Data From Test I


Table 4.3
The result of the test I
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
8.
9.
10.

NAME
ASW
AS
DP
EC
FTP
LNEP
MAE
MM
NF
NI

SCORE
72
62
67
62
70
77
65
70
67
77

37

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

NK
NRJS
RSA
RNS
RPA
SW
VKW
WAK
WAN
YY
Total Score

58
65
75
77
75
67
65
62
80
71
1362

4. Reflection
After the researcher did the teaching and learning process, the researcher
made conclusions. In the first meeting, the students were enthusiastic and active,
and they were interested. But in the test, they cannot do themselves because they
made noisy, they were still confused and they felt difficult to understand the
meaning of the text, and the students vocabularies were still low. The result is
unsatisfying. So, the researcher knew test, the researcher tried to discuss and test
again with different story.
After obtaining the data from the observation checklist and the test, then
the researcher compared with the criteria of success. Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal
(KKM) was 75. Based on the result of the reading test was known that only six
students who got score above 75 or 30%. But fourteen students got score under 75
or 70%. Therefore, the result of first test had not fulfilled the criteria of success.
Then, the researcher decided to revise cycle 1 and then established the improved
actions to be implemented in the cycle 2 in order it could improve students
reading skill. The result of reflection in the cycle I would be a consideration to
make next plan for the cycle II.
B. Cycle 2

38

1.

Plan II
The researcher did action better than in cycle 1. In cycle 2, the researcher
improved the actions as follows:

2.

The researcher chose a new subject material.

The researcher asked the students to make groups.

The researcher gave specifics questions based on the material.

The researcher gave a test.

Action II
Third Meeting
On December 3rd, 2013
Day

: Tuesday

Time

: 07.00 a.m. 08.20 a.m.

Theme

: Borobudur Temple

Steps

:
In the third meeting, the researcher came into classroom. At the time the

situation of class was quiet. The researcher greeted and asked students for
praying. After praying, the researcher checked students presence. Then the
researcher reviewed the material in cycle 1. Many students still remembered about
the last material, they replied the questions asked by the researcher. After
reviewing the material, the researcher explained about descriptive text and steps
of DRTA again. The researcher did question answer about descriptive text and the
students did interaction with the researcher.

39

The researcher gave a picture of Borobudur Temple, then the researcher


made a group that consisted of four students of each groups. The first group read
the first paragraph. The other groups predicted the content of the next paragraph,
confirmed, and the other groups refined or rejected their predictions and justified
their opinion. The researcher asked one of groups to read the next paragraph for
predetermined point in the text and check their predictions. The students asked
to draw conclusions and to model their reasoning process for others. In a
discussion, students evaluated the available evidence in relation to their
predictions. The students followed-up activities may be completed after the text
was read. The students identified the genre of the text. The researcher summarized
this material. The researcher closed the teaching and learning process.
The students gave attention when the researcher explained the lesson
material. After discussing the material, the students were given an opportunity to
ask if the students found some difficulties or reinforced their understanding. Then,
the researcher summarized this material. The researcher discussed the students
problems in teaching and learning process. Finally, the researcher closed the
teaching and learning process.

Fourth Meeting
On December 05th, 2013
Day

: Thursday

Time

: 07.00 a.m. 08.20 a.m

Theme

Steps

40

In the fourth meeting, the researcher came into classroom. The


researcher greeted and asked students for praying. After praying, the researcher
checked students presence.
The researcher reviewed the material. Many students still remembered
about the last material, they replied the questions asked by the researcher. After
reviewing the material, the researcher explained about descriptive text again. The
researcher did question answer about descriptive text and the students did
interaction with the researcher. Afterwards, the researcher explained definition of
descriptive text, generic structure of descriptive text, and purposes of descriptive
text.
Furthermore, the researcher distributed test paper to the students. The
researcher gave instructions to the students to read and answer the question of
descriptive text. The researcher prepared and gave time to the students to answer
the question of descriptive text.
After the time was up, the students finished their task and submitted it
to the researcher. The last, the researcher summarized this material. The
researcher closed the teaching and learning process.
Finally, the researcher summarized the result of the activities in the
class during the teaching and learning process. Before closing the meeting, the
researcher gave the second questionnaire that should be answered by the students.
The researcher gave time to the students to fulfill it and submitted it to the
researcher. Then, the researcher apologized to the students if any mistakes that
had been done during the activity in the class. As the result, the researcher hoped
the students could improve their reading skill.

41

3.

Observation II
In the observation, the researcher knew the real situation in the classroom
action research during the strategy was applied. The result of observation check
list showed that most of students were active and serious in doing their task. The
result showed that some students got improvements in their scores.

Table 4.4
The result of Observation Checklist II
Category / Score

Indicators

No

R
R/1

S
S/2

O
O/3

1 The students interaction with the


1
2

learning process.
3 The students ask the teacher about

The students can finish task on time.

7
7

teacher explains lesson material.


6 The students are active in writing

5 The students give attention when the


5

lesson material.
4

A/4

teacher.
2 The students are active in teaching

learning.
The students are interested in

teaching writing using interactive

writing through active scaffolding.


Total
Score

1
1

4
4

2
2

2
2

1
12

8
8

42

Note

A : Always

= score 4

O : Often

= score 3

S : Sometimes

= score 2

R : Rarely

= score 1

Total score: (4 x 7) = 28
From the data above, the researcher concluded that total score
{(2 + 12 + 8) : 28} x 100% = 78.57%. The students often had interaction with the
teacher, the students asked the teacher about lesson material, they gave attention
when the teacher explained lesson material, and the students often had active in
reading learning. Then, the students were always active in teaching learning
process. Besides, they were always interested in teaching reading using Directed
Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA).
a. Data from the Questionnaire II
After doing the teaching and learning activities with the revised plan from
the cycle 1, the researcher gave the material as the second test. The second test
was still about reading a descriptive text based on the different theme that had
been choosen too. To find out the second questionnaire score, the researcher used
the way of counting as has been mentioned in the first questionnaire above.
Table 4.5
The result of the Questionnaire II
Percentage
Question
1
2

Answer

Answer

Answer

Answer

SS
4
3

S
16
16

TS
0
1

TB
0
0

Total
%

4
16
9

3
48
48

2
0
2

1
0
0

64
59

80 %
73,75 %

43

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4
1
5
4
3
4
3
5

16
4
20
16
12
16
12
15

11 33
6
18 54
1
10 30
5
15 45
1
14 42
3
14 42
3
16 48
1
13 39
2
Total Percentage

12
2
10
2
6
6
2
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

61
60
60
48
63
66
62
58

76,25 %
75%
75%
60%
78,75%
82.5%
77,5%
72.5 %
75, 13%

From the questionnaire in cycle 2 above, the total of the first questionnaire
was 65% and the second questionnaire was 75,13%. So, the result of the second
cycle was higher than the first questionnaire. The researcher concluded that the
students at eight grade of SMPN 1 Jambon in academic year 2013/2014 were
more interested, enjoy, and easier to understand this lesson.
b. Data From Test II
Table 4.6
The result of the Test II
No.

NAME

SCORE
87

1.

ASW

2.

AS

75

3.

DP

76

4.

EC

83

5.

FTP

78

6.

LNEP

80

MAE

75

8.

MM

85

9.

NF

79

10.

NI

80

11.

NK

77

44

12.

NRJS

78

13.

RSA

80

14.

RNS

85

15.

RPA

77

16.

SW

80

17.

VKW

79

18.

WAK

87

19

WAN

90

20

YY

82
Total Score

1613

In addition, the result of the test showed high improvement. All students
got score reached KKM. The score was like expected on the criteria of success.
C. Reflection
During the activities in the cycle 2, the researcher observed that the
students enthusiastic increased. It could be seen from the result of the second
observation checklist and questionnaire. They were serious in joining the lesson
with Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA). The students were more spirit
and active to join the lesson. It could be said that Directed Reading Thinking
Activity (DRTA) could increase the students motivation and compactness with
other friends too.
In the second cycle, the researcher could see some improvements in
teaching and learning process through Directed Reading Thinking Activity
(DRTA), such as:
1

The students had high motivation. So, the students could be controlled well.

Most of students could read descriptive text well.

45

Students reading score increased although it was not extremely.

II. Discussion
Based on the explanation in finding, the researcher stated the classroom
action research is done in two cycles. It could be seen that there are some students
that got score under the KKM in cycle 1. The lowest score was 58 obtained by 1
student or 5% and the highest score that could be reached in the first cycle was 80
obtained by 1 student or 5%. Some students got the score under the KKM. They
were 14 students or 70% who got score under KKM and the students who could
reach the KKM were only 30% or 6 students. It was concluded that the use of
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) was not successful to improve the
students reading skill. The students interest and attention were still low, so that
the researcher still needed to improve the implementation of classroom action
research in order the students could get good score.
The result of cycle 2 showed that there were some improvements. All
students got score greater than the English KKM. 75 was the lowest score that had
been achieved by the 2 students or 10% and the highest score was 90 obtained by
1 student or 5%. It means that the classroom action research was successful in
this cycle. The students were also more active and they had higher motivation to
learn.
The result of questionnaire stated that there were some improvements from
first questionnaire and second questionnaire. The total of the of first questionnaire
was 65% and the second questionnaire was 75,13%. So, the result of the second

46

cycle was higher than the first questionnaire. The researcher concluded that the
students more interested, enjoyed, and easier to understand this lesson.
From the information above, the researcher could conclude the
implementation of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) in improving
students reading skill at eighth grade especially students of VIII A in SMPN 1
Jambon was success, because all of the students reached the English KKM. The
students also had high motivation that stimulates them to be more active in the
class.
Tabel 4.7
The result of Observation, Questionnaire, Test

100
90
80
70
60

observation
questionnaire
test

50
40
30
20
10
0

cycle1

cycle2
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

The finding in the classroom action research finally arrives at conclusion


about the study. In this last chapter, the researcher gives some conclusions about

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the result of the research. The problems arose during the research must be solved
in coherence with the students reading skill to be improved by the teacher in the
future. Due to this case, some suggestions are delivered for students
comprehension improvement.

I. Conclusion
The finding in the classroom action research finally arrives at conclusion
about the study. The researcher looks at the condition now, many English classes
in Indonesia are now attended by many young learners. As a result this class is not
effective. The students are bored and noisy. This can influence the concentration
of the students. So, there is difficulty for students to accept the material of the
lesson. The researcher knows the condition by observation when teaching learning
process in the classroom conducted. From the observation, the researcher draws
some conclusions: (1) Teaching reading by using Directed Reading Thinking
Activity (DRTA) Strategy was more interesting and enjoying, it made the students
comfortable during teaching and learning process. (2) There was a new paradigm
for the students that understanding the text was not difficult.
In learning process in the first cycle from observation, the students were
enthusiastic by using Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) strategy. They
were comfortable and interested in teaching and learning process. But in the test,
they could not concentrate because they were noisy in the classroom. In the
second cycle, this time they were interested. The researcher gave the story and test
again, but by using another story. The students could accept the material well. As
a result they could do the test well.

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There was improvement from cycle 1 until 2. At the beginning of process


(cycle 1), only 30% who got score above 75 and the final test (cycle 2), all of the
students got score more than 75. It showed improving reading skill descriptive
text through Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) strategy was effective in
teaching reading at the eighth grade of SMP Negeri 1 Jambon in 2013/2014
academic year.

II.

Suggestion
The researcher has suggestion for English teacher, students and the next

researcher are as follows:


A. For English Teacher
1

The teacher should have good potency in reading. If the students felt easy to
accept the material, so the teacher should have good media in teaching.

The English teacher would be better to motivate students to ask when they get
problems in teaching and learning process.

Professional teacher is as motivator, mediator, and able to make lesson plan


before teaching.

The teacher always has many ideas to implement the lesson in order to improve
the students skill.

The English teacher would be better to make joyful learning in the classroom
by using suitable strategy.

B. For Students
1

The students should study hard in English lesson in the purpose to have good in
reading skill.

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The students should practice to use English in daily activities.

The students should manage their time to study English effectively.

The students should try to read more and more.

C. For the Next Researcher


The researcher suggests for the next researcher to conduct more creative
and different strategy in teaching English and can improve the English teaching
and learning process to develop students mastery in English, especially in reading
skill. The next researcher should prepare the material well. The researcher hopes
that the result of this study will be useful for the next researcher who will conduct
research about the same case in different field of study. The next researcher also
can develop this strategy to get the better result in teaching and learning process.