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Unequal Clustering Energy

Efficient Sensitive Election


Protocol in Wireless Sensor
Networks
Guided By
Prof. Yogesh Rai

Presented By
Virendra Lahoriya
0125CS13MT16

Contents

Introduction to Sensor & WSN


Architecture of Wireless Sensor Networks
Theoretical Background & Literature Survey
Problem Statement
Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm
Implementation Methodology
Performance & Analysis
Result
Conclusion & Future Work
References
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Introduction to Sensor[4]
Sensor - A device which detects or measures a physical
property, records & converts it into a signal which can be
read out by an observer.
Modern sensors are tiny electromechanical devices.
Modern MEMS (Micro Electronics Mechanical System).
Low- cost, low-power, multi-functional & bi-directional.
Sensor sense - light, motion, temperature, magnetic
fields, gravity, humidity, moisture, vibration, pressure,
electrical fields, sound, radiation & other physical aspects
of the external environment.
Sensor selection criteria accuracy, environmental
condition, range, resolution, repeatability & cost.
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Introduction to Wireless Sensor Network

WSN wireless network of spatially distributed


autonomous sensor nodes, monitors physical or
environmental conditions.
Applications- Military, Industrial & Scientific.
Examples- environmental monitoring, battle field
surveillance, industry process control, healthcare
applications, traffic control & home automation.
WSN has limited energy (battery power).
Once WSN is deployment & it continuously works
till battery dead without human manipulation.
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Architecture of Wireless Sensor Network


Internet

BS
Sensor node

User

Position Finding System


Sensing Unit

Sensor ADC

Processing Unit
Processor
Storage

Mobilizer

Transmission Unit
Radio
Transceiver

Power Unit (Battery)

Figure 1: Architecture of Wireless Sensor Network [4]


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Architecture of Wireless Sensor Network

Major components of WSN:


1.Sensor Node- main component, (sensing,
processing, data storing, routing, path searching &
data transmission).
2.Clusters- sensor nodes are grouped into cluster
s, (organizational unit for WSNs).
3.Cluster Heads- leader of a cluster.
4.Base Station- communication link between the
sensor network and the end-user.
5.End User- user of data gathered from WSN.
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Theoretical Background & Literature Survey

Previous Study was based on Energy optimization


strategies (Energy efficiency).
We reviewed and analyzed some modern energy
efficient protocols [6][11] :-

LEACH

SEP

ESEP

TEEN
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LEACH[88] (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)

proactive routing protocol.


even distribution of load among nodes.
To distribute the burden or work among nodes, to
improve network life, clusters are formed.
Sensor nodes are made to become CHs on turns.
Nodes randomly elect themselves as CHs & it is done in a
way that each node becomes CH once in the time period
of 1/ round.
CHs selection is done on probabilistic basis, each sensor
node generates a random number inclusive of 0 and 1,
if generated value is less than threshold computed by
the next formula & then this node becomes CH.
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LEACH[88] (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)

where,

= Threshold

P = desired change (probability) of being CH

r = current round number

G = set of nodes which are not became CH in


1/P round
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Advantages of LEACH

LEACH strategy is completely distributed, it reduces en


ergy consumption 4 to 8 times lower in case where packe
ts are relayed in multi-hop transmission, and at last, all t
he nodes in the network die at about the same time due
to LEACH fair distribution of CH role.
In LEACH method, the control information from the bas
e station is not required for sensor nodes.
LEACH reduces 7 to 8 times low overall energy dissipati
on as compared to direct transmissions and minimum tra
nsmission energy routing.
In completely distributed network, sensor nodes do not
require knowledge of global network.

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SEP (Stable Election Protocol )

SEP is an improvement over LEACH.


SEP is based on two levels of heterogeneity
(normal & advanced).
advanced nodes are high energy nodes & the
probability of advanced nodes to become CHs is
more as compared to normal nodes.
Let, m = fraction of total no. of nodes n, which
are deployed with times more energy than the
others.
These powerful nodes are as advanced nodes.
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SEP (Stable Election Protocol )

Remaining (1 m) n as normal nodes.


Probability of normal nodes to become CHs is

=
1 +

Probability of advanced nodes to become CHs is

. 1 +
=
1 +

where, = optimal probability of each node


to become CH.
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SEP (Stable Election Protocol )

Advantage of SEP:
In SEP strategy, sensor nodes do not need any
global knowledge of energy at each selection
round.
Limitations of SEP:
The limitation of SEP strategy is that the
cluster head selection among sensor nodes is not
dynamic, which results that the sensor nodes
that are far away from the powerful nodes will
die first.
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ESEP (Enhanced Stable Election Protocol)

ESEP is the extension and improvement of SEP.


ESEP has three levels of heterogeneity, (normal
nodes, intermediate nodes & advance nodes).
Advantage of ESEP:
The advantage of ESEP is that, the power saving
is little enhanced due to three levels of heterog
eneity as compared to SEP.
The limitation of ESEP is same as in SEP.

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TEEN (Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol)

TEEN is reactive routing network protocol which is used


for time critical applications.
In TEEN, nodes sense the medium continuously, but the
data are transmitted less frequently.
Data are transmitted only when there is an only change o
ccurs in their environment.
TEEN is threshold sensitive protocol based on two levels
of threshold, hard threshold & soft threshold.
In the hard threshold mode, the nodes transmit data if
the sensed data value is in the range, thus it minimizes
the no. of data transmissions.
In soft threshold mode, the nodes transmit data if
there are any changes in the value of the sensed data.
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TEEN (Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol)

Advantages of TEEN:
TEEN is well suited for time critical applications.
It is quite efficient in terms of energy consumption &
response time.
Soft threshold can be varied, depending on sensed data
value & application. A smaller soft threshold value gives a
more accurate result of the sensor network.
Limitations of TEEN:
If the threshold values are not reached, the nodes will
never communicate. The user will not get any data from
network & it will not come to know even if all nodes die.
Cluster heads always wait for data packets from their node
s by keeping its transmitter on.
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Problem Statement

In LEACH, SEP, ESEP, TEEN, clusters are formed


of equal size.
When cluster heads cooperate with other cluster
heads to forward their data to the base station,
cluster heads nearer to base station are loaded
with high data transmission traffic & tend to die
early, leaving areas of the network uncovered &
causing network partition.
Cluster head selection is completely based on
probability basis, less depend on current energy
level.
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

We proposed a UCEESEP (Unequal Clustering


Energy Efficient Sensitive Election Protocol) to
overcome previous problem.
UCEESEP is based on unequal clustering.
UCEESEP groups the sensor nodes into clusters of
unequal size, & clusters closer to the base station
have smaller in size than those farther away from
the base station.
Cluster heads nearer to base station can preserve
some energy for the inter-cluster data packet
forwarding.
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Formation of Cluster
Cluster Member
Cluster Head

Base
Station

Figure 1: Formation of Cluster

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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

In cluster formation phase, base station


broadcasts a signal at a fixed power level. Each
node can compute its approximate distance from
BS based on the received signal strength.
Unequal clusters are produced on the basis of
the unequal clustering formula:

= 1

where,
= range of competition radius in the network for cluster
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

= maximum distance from the sensor node


to the base station in the network
= minimum distance from the sensor node t
o the base station in the network,
= distance from node i to the base station in
the network,
c = weighted factor, value is between 0 to 1,
= maximum value of competition radius.
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

UCEESEP is a reactive routing protocol, as


transmission of data consumes more energy than
sensing & transmission is done only when specific
threshold limit is reached & it has three levels of
heterogeneity.
For three levels of heterogeneity, sensor nodes
with different energy levels are:
1) Advanced Nodes
2) Intermediate Nodes
3) Normal Nodes
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

Energy for normal nodes =


Energy for advance nodes = 1 +
Energy for intermediate nodes = 1 +
where, = 2
= factor for advanced nodes which has times m
ore energy than normal nodes.
n = total number of nodes,
m = proportion of advanced nodes,
= proportion of intermediate nodes,

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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

The optimal probability for normal nodes to be s


elected as cluster head (CH) is calculated as

=
1 + . + .

The optimal probability for intermediate nodes


to be selected as cluster head (CH) is calculated
as
(1 + )
=
1 + . + .
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

The optimal probability for advanced nodes to


be selected as cluster head (CH) is calculated as

(1 + )
=
1 + . + .

where, = optimal probability

UCEESEP improvement over previous method.


We have taken threshold level as a parameter
for consideration.
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

Each node generates a random number between 0 & 1, if


generated value is less than threshold then this node
becomes cluster head (CH).
The threshold level for normal nodes is calculated as
=

= set of normal nodes that have not became cluster


head in the previous round.
= Energy of node at current time.
= Energy of node at initial time.
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

The threshold level for intermediate nodes is calculated as


=

= set of intermediate nodes that have not became cluster


head in the previous round.
The threshold level for advanced nodes is calculated as
=

= set of advanced nodes that have not became cluster head


in the previous round.
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Solution Approach & Proposed Algorithm

Average total number of cluster heads per round


= . 1 . + . . + . .
= .

UCEESEP has better aspect of energy


consumption and network lifetime improvement
due to energy heterogeneity & ratio of current
energy to initial energy of the nodes.

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Implementation Methodology

Hardware:
Intel Core 2 duo processor
2 GB RAM
Software:
Windows 7 Ultimate 32-bit (Operating System)
MATLAB 2012a 32-bit (Unix version)

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Result

In our MATLAB simulation, we considered the


same parameter setting to compare UCEESEP
with LEACH, SEP, ESEP and TEEN.
After comparison of UCEESEP with LEACH,
SEP, ESEP and TEEN, we evaluated that using
our proposed protocol UCEESEP, better energy
efficiency, enhanced network lifetime &
throughput.

Santosh Ahirwar, MTech (Digital Communication) Radharaman Institute of Technology & Science, Bhopal

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Conclusion & Future Work

UCEESEP as reactive routing protocol is proposed


where nodes with 3 different levels of energies.
The concept of unequal clustering is used & cluster
head selection is threshold as well as energy level
based, due to three levels of heterogeneity, it
produces increase in energy efficiency & enhanced
network lifetime.
In comparison with SEP, LEACH, ESEP & TEEN, it
can be concluded that our protocol UCEESEP will
perform well in small as well as large sized network
& best suited for time critical applications.
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Conclusion & Future Work

However UCEESEP is not suitable where


frequent information is received from wireless
sensor network.
Our future direction will be to overcome this
limitation in this protocol.
Finally, in future, the concept & implementation
of mobile base station can be introduced in
UCEESEP to perform the next level of
technology of wireless sensor network.

Santosh Ahirwar, MTech (Digital Communication) Radharaman Institute of Technology & Science, Bhopal

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References
[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A Survey
on Sensor Network", IEEE Communication Magazine 40, 8 (August
2004), pp. 102-114.
[2] Ningbo Wang, Hao Zhu, An Energy Efficient Algorithm Based on
LEACH Protocol, International Conference on Computer Science a
nd Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012, pp. 339-342.
[3] Islam, M M, Matin, M A, Mondol, T K, Extended Stable Election
Protocol (SEP) for three-level hierarchical clustered heterogeneous W
SN, IET Conference on Wireless Sensor Systems (WSS 2012), pp. 1-4.
[4]
Kashaf, A, Javaid, N., Khan, Z.A, Khan, I.A., TSEP: Threshold-Sens
itive Stable Election Protocol for WSNs, 10th International Conference o
n Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT), 2012, pp. 164 - 168.

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Questions ???
and

THANK YOU !!

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