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Sewers and Sewer Networks

Design, Construction and Maintenance


S. Sarkar
Pradeep Kumar

TREATED WATER
RAW
WATER

WATER TREATMENT PLANT

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

TEATED
WASTEWATER

WASTEWATER

Classification of Sewers
Domestic or Industrial Sewers
They are designed to carry wastewater generated from domestic
establishments or small- and medium- sized industrial establishments in a
municipal area but not storm-water

Storm Sewers
They are designed to carry off only stormwater and groundwater but excludes
sewage from domestic and/ or industrial source

Combined Sewers
They are designed to carry off stormwater, domestic and industrial
wastewater

Advantages and Disadvantages of Combined Sewers


It is initially economical to set up a combined sewer rather than
separately installing domestic sewers and stormwater sewers
During dry season lack of stormwater causes a low flow rate. Low
flow rate gives rise to low velocity of flow. At low velocities, due to
less turbulence, the deposition of sewage solids are more. Result is
siltation and consequent foul odor generation due to degradation of
the settled solids.
In contrast, during wet or rainy seasons, the flow rate is very high.
Therefore, pumping costs are more, causing high operation and
maintenance cost.
Pumps that are designed to operate at high flow rate to tackle the
wet season flow, runs in low flow condition in dry season which is an
inefficient operation that consumes more power than usual.

Due to the above reasons, combined sewers are not generally


recommended by the manual of sewerage and sewage treatment,
Government of India

Estimation of Quantity of Sanitary Sewage


The sewers are designed to carry:

Spent water from a community


Some groundwater
Fraction of the stormwater
Industrial wastewater for small establishments

The sanitary sewers are designed to carry the wastewater from the above
sources to a sewage/wastewater treatment plants
Carrying capacity of the sewers depends on: 1. Present and 2. Future
quantities of flow rate expected.
Thus, it is important to estimate the design flow rate for the sewers to be
constructed.

Estimation of Sewage Flowrate


Two Parameters:

1. The contributing population, and


2. Per capita (per person) flowrate of
sewage

Both of these
quantities depend
on the design
period

Design period: The length of the time up to which the capacity of a sewer will
be adequate is called a design period.
Normally design period for a sewerage system is considered as 30 years
But, mechanical rotating equipment such as pumps are designed for 15 years

Forecasting the Population


Prospective population of the project area (may be a city, town or a
metropolitan area)
Methods:

Demographic population projection


Arithmetical increase method
Incremental Increase method
Geometrical Increase method
Growth rate
Graphical method
Logistic method
Method of density

Where is the forecast found for design purposes?


Normally for a city, population growth forecasts are found from the
master-plan prepared by town planning or other relevant authorities.

What to do when masterplan or planners documents are unavailable?

Floor-Space Index Based Calculation


1. From the city-plan find out the % of the total area available for residential
development
2. Actual total floor area = Area for residential development X Floor Space
Index (FSI)

3. Find out floor area required for one person or assume it depending on
the available data from the city. Normally it is 9 sqm/ person.
4. Find out the density of population per hectare
5. Multiply the density with the total area of the city to find out the total
population
This total population can be used for estimating the quantity of total sewage
flow.

Example: Finding out population density based on Floor Space Index method
A well-planned city has following areas earmarked for its development in the planning
stage: Roads- 20%; Gardens- 15%; Schools 5%; markets and Commerical places 2%;
Hospital and medical facilities 2% and rest is residential area. The Floor Space Index
(FSI) for the city is fixed at 2. If the floor area is 9 sqm/ person, find out the projected
population density of the city in numbers/ hecatare.
Residential Area (%) = 100 (20+15+5+2+2) = 56
Actual Floor Area = Area of the land X FSI
Population that can reside in the area= Actual Floor area / Area required by a person
= 0.56X2 /9

numbers / sqm

Population density (numbers / hectare) = 0.56X2X10000/9 = 1244

Per Capita Sewage Flow rate


Ideally the entire amount of water used by a community should appear as the total
flow in a sanitary sewer
Water is lost due to:
Evaporation Loss
Seepage into ground
Leakges
The dry weather flowrate is slightly less than the per capita water consumption
For very dry and arid regions,
Average sewage flowrate 40% of water consumption rate
In well-paved and well-developed areas,
Average sewage flowrate 90% of water consumption rate
Conservative estimate is 80% of water consumption rate

Design water consumption in India = 130 LPCD (litre per capita per day)
Design minimum wastewater flow in India = 100 LPCD

Water consumption varies from hour to


hour. Along with daily variations, there
also are seasonal variations.

For design purpose, sewers are always


designed to carry maximum or peak flow
rates, rather than designing it for average
flowrate.

Flow rate

Variations in Flow and Peak Factor

Average

12

16

Time of the day


Peak Factor (PF) =

Maximum wastewater flow rate


Average flow rate of wastewater

Population
< 20,000

Peak factor
3.0

20,000 50,000

2.5

50,000 7,50,000

2.25

> 7,50,000

2.0

20

24

Groundwater Infiltration into Sewer lines

The sewers have joints. Some groundwater runoff may also seep into the
sanitary sewers.
The extent of groundwater infiltration into the sewers depend on the
workmanship and the level of the groundwater table with respect to the sewers.
Usually, for a sanitary sewer below the groundwater table the following
values are taken,
Minimum

Maximum

Liters/ha.d

5000

50000

Liters per day/


manhole

250

500

In addition, commercial and industrial contributions are to be considered


into the total flow rate.

PEAK FLOW RATE or MAXIMUM FLOW RATE


Maximum sanitary flow rate = Average domestic flow rate X PF + infiltration flow rate

Area with Sufficient Urbanization

RAINFALL
More paved surface, higher
imperviousness, less absorption by soil
How to evacuate this increased runoff?

Area with little or no urbanization

High volume of water on the surface,


High runoff, needs quick evacuation
to avoid flooding/ inundation
BUILD EFFICIENT STORM SEWER SYSTEM

Finding Out of Runoff


Runoff quantity depends on:
Rainfall Characteristics (Intensity, Duration and spacetime distributions)
Characteristics of the watershed surface (nature,
permeability, slope, and landscaping)
Time of concentration (time required for flow to reach
the sewer)
Storm sewers are designed for a rainfall with particular frequency or return
period. The design rainfall is fixed after economic considerations involving
the Intensity-duration and frequency (IDF) curves in an area.
The design should be adequate to carry from a basin or watershed the
maximum runoff caused by the design rainfall.

t1 t1 t0 t
t 2 t 2 t0 2t
t n t n t0 nt

Case I

Rainfall duration is t

Time

Runoff

t0= 0

Q0 = Q(t=0) =0

t1= t

Q1=A1IC1

t2=2t

Q2=A2IC2

tn=nt

Qn=AnICn

Rainfall over a watershed draining at a single


discharge point
I = Intensity of the rainfall
A = Area
C= Run-off coefficient

Case II

Rainfall duration is 2t

Time

Runoff

t0= 0

Q0 = Q(t=0)= 0

t1= t

Q1=A1IC1

t2=2t

Q2=A1IC1+A2IC2

t3=3t

Q3=A2IC2+A3IC3

tn=nt

Qn= An-1ICn-1+AnICn

tn=(n+1)t

Qn+1 =AnICn

tn+2 =(n+2) t

Qn+2 =0

Case III

Rainfall duration is nt

Time

Runoff

t0= 0

Q0 = 0

t1= t

Q1=A1IC1

tj=jt

Q j Ak ICk
k 1

t3=nt

Qn Ak ICk
k 1

tn=(n+1)t

Qn 1 Ak ICk
k 2

tn=(2n-1)t

Q2n-1=A1IC1

tn+2 =2nt

Q2n =0

A Few Observations
If the duration of the rainfall is tn and tn is the time necessary for the water
droplet to reach to the basin outlet from the hydraulically most distant place
in the basin, the entire surface area of the basin contributes to the flow rate
or the runoff observed from the basin.
If the duration of the rainfall is longer than tn, the runoff value remains equal
to the same as the case above, from the time tn until the end of the rainfall
duration.
If the duration of the rainfall is shorter than tn, the maximum runoff occurs at
the end of the rainfall and is smaller than the runoff obtained for a
precipitation of duration tn.

The maximum runoff flow is always reached at the latest by the end of the
rainfall.
The maximum runoff due to a precipitation of uniform intensity I falling all over the
drainage basin, and of duration tn (the longest time for water to travel to the
outfall from the basin), is thus given by
n
n

Qn Ak ICk I Ak Ck
k 1

k 1

Rational Equation
n

k 1

k 1

Qn Ak ICk I Ak Ck
In familiar terms, the above equation is thus given by,

Q AIC

Q = Run-off in cum/hr
C= coefficient of run-off
I= Intensity of design rainfall, mm/hr
A = Area of drainage basin in hectares

Q = 10 CIA
Values of C
Absolutely impervious basin.1.0
Paved Areas0.9
Lawn and Gardens.0.15
Water-bound macadem roads0.45

Time of Concentration (tc)

DRAINAGE BASIN

The period of time after which the entire


basin area starts contributing to the run-off is
called the time of concentration. Varies from
3 to 30 minutes
Maximum run-off is obtained from a rain having a
duration equal to the time of concentration.

tC
SEWER
OUTFALL

The duration of such a rainfall is called critical rainfall duration and the intensity of
such rainfall is known as critical rainfall intensity.

Sub-basin

tc te t f
te= time of entry
tf= time of flow

te
tf
SEWER
OUTFALL

Time of entry is the longest time required for a water droplet in an urban sub-basin
to travel to a street inlet.
Kirpichs model:

te
F = friction factor

L= maximum distance travelled by


the water on the surface

0.77

0.0195L F
s 0.385

Surface type

s= average slope of the route


travelled by water
F

Rural watershed (flat ground)

1.0

Grass surface

2.0

Concrete or Asphalt surface

0.4

Concrete channel

0.2

Time of flow is the time required for water to travel to a sewage outfall from the street
inlet in the urban sub-basin. It is always computed considering that the pipe is running
full.
1 2 3 12

R s

tf

L
v

Rainfall Intensity, mm/hr

Typical Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves

The curves can vary


from place to place
and the shape of
the curve follows
different patterns.

a
I
tk

a
I n
t k
CN x
I
(b t ) n

Duration, minutes
I ( rainfall intensity) and T (duration) are variables; other terms are constants that can be
found out from fitting the curve with the field data obtained.

How to find out the


design maximum run-off
of a basin?
1. Decide on the frequency
of rainfall on which the
design will be based on.
Lets assume it is twice in a
year (that means we shall
allow flooding to occur on
average twice in a year).

2. From the contour map of the area find out the time of concentration of the basin (say 15
minutes)
3. Find out the rainfall intensity corresponding to the time of concentration. (TOC = duration
of rainfall )
4. Apply Rational Formula to find out the maximum or design runoff

Find out the maximum design runoff at


the discharge point

/1.2 ha

Assume: C = 0.3 (Entire area), 5-year frequency, vel.


In sewers = 0.6 m/s
200

Rainfall Intensity, mm/hr

/120 m

/2.4 ha

/180 m

/1.8 ha

175
150
125
100
75
50
25

Flow time in sewer from MH 1 MH 2


= (120 m)/ (0.6 m/s) (60 s/ min) = 3.3 min
Flow time in sewer from MH 2 MH 3
= (180 m)/ (0.6 m/s) (60 s/ min) = 5.0 min
Time of concentration from remote points of 3 separate areas to MH 3:
Area 1: 5.0 + 3.3 + 5.0 = 13.3 min
Area 2: 5.0 + 3.3 = 8.3 min
Area 3: 8.0 min (inlet time only)
Max. time conc. = Duration of rainfall = 13.3 min
I = 110 mm/hr. for 5-year frequency
Sum of CA values = 0.3 (1.2 + 2.4 + 1.8) = 1.62
Q = 10 x 110 x 1.62 = 1782 m3/hr.

HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF SEWERS

Design of sewers are done assuming steady-state conditions. Steady-state


means that the discharge or flow-rate at a point remains time-invariant.

Objectives:

1. Carry the peak flow rate for which the sewer is designed
This is directly connected with the maximum achievable velocity in
the sewers. We do not want the sewage pipe materials to get worn
out. The wastewater manual recommends a maximum velocity of
3 m/s.

2. Transport suspended solids in such a manner that the siltation in


a sewer is kept to a minimum
This condition gives us an idea about the minimum velocity that
has to be maintained inside a sewer during a low flow period.

Sewers versus Treated Water Conduits

SEWER

1. They are never designed to run full; there is


always an empty space provided at the top.
Reasons: a) Biodegradation causes
generation of gases like methane, hydrogen
sulfide, ammonia etc. which can get
dissolved if running under pressure.
b) At same slopes, the velocity and carrying
capacity is more when it runs partially full.
2. It is unpressurised. It maintains a gravity flow; It
is laid in gradients or slopes.

WATER CONDUITS

1. They are always


designed to run full.
2. It is pressurized.
Normally, we do not
worry about the slope of
the water mains or lines
when we lay them.

Minimum Velocity in a Sewer


The velocity should be such that:
A) It will not allow the particles to settle inside
the sewer

B) Even if there is a deposition, it will promote


scouring of the particles so that it can self-cleanse
itself

The generation of Self-cleansing velocity should occur within the sewer for at
least once in a day.

SELF-CLEANSING VELOCITY

submrged

Submerged Weight
Volume

W sin

(Vs * d * g buyoancy)
V

1
[(V - nV) * d * g (V nV ) w )]
V
(1 n)[ d w ] (1 n) w [ S s 1]
Drag Force

w RS

R= Hydraulic mean radius

W cos

S= Slope of the channel

From the force balance, when the particle is on the verge of slipping down the plane,

W sin
If the block (Particle) has a unit length and unit width and thickness is dp , then

W sub *1*1* d p

w RS w (1 n)[S s 1]d p sin


S
vs

k
[ S s 1]d p
R

1 2 3 12
1 2
1
R S
R 3
1
n
n
R 2

Where,

k (1 n) sin

k ( S s 1)d p

1 16
vs R
n

k ( S s 1)d p

Self-Cleansing Velocity
1

1 6
VS R k ( S S 1) D p
n
n = roughness coefficient
R = Hydraulic Mean Radius =

A
P

A= Area of the channel


P= Wetted perimeter of the channel
Ss = Specific gravity of the particle
k = Dimensionless constant, 0.04 for granular particles, 0.8 for organic
matters
DP = Diameter of the particle for which the sewer will be designed, this
is the maximum particle size the sewer can safely carry
Sewers are always designed to attain the self cleansing velocities

JAPAN

/2

/2

D D

d [ cos ]
2 2
2
A

D2

d 1

[1 cos ]
D 2
2

1 D
D

a D .
2 * * sin * cos
4
360
2 2
2 2
2

a
sin
[

]
A 360 2

sin
a D [

]
4
360 2
2

P D
/2

p D *

/2

D 2
A
D
4
R

P D
4

D *

360

360
D
360

a D
360 sin
r [1
]
p 4
2

r
360 sin
[1
]
R
2

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R S
n
/2

/2

v r
r
2/3
V R
R
2/3

2/3

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
v r s
n

360 sin
1
2

2/3

q a.v a v
sin 360 sin

Q A.V A V 360 2
2

2/3

d 1

[1 cos ]
D 2
2

/2

/2
d

r
360 sin
[1
]
D R
2
2/3
v 360 sin
1
V
2

q
sin 360 sin

Q 360 2
2

2/3

In all the above expressions, is the only variable, all other


parameters are constant. Thus at different values of , the above
proportional elements can be easily calculated

d/D

a/A

v/V

q/Q

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.9

0.949

1.124

1.066

0.8

0.858

1.140

0.988

0.7

0.748

1.120

0.838

0.5

0.5

1.000

0.500

0.4

0.373

0.902

0.337

Capital Letters denote the situation


when the sewers run full

Maximum velocity is achieved


when the sewers are designed
to run at 80% of the full depth.

Designing Sewer Systems


Sewers are designed taking consideration of 30 years.

Population in the initial years of the design period are low compared to the
design population at the end of design period
Peak flow rate in the initial years is low compared to the designed peak flow
rate (ultimate peak flow)
Sizing should be such that it will attain the self-cleansing velocity at the
average design flow rate or at least at the maximum flow rate at the beginning
of the design period.

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
v r s
n
a D
360 sin
r [1
]
p 4
2

s
1000
Velocity at partially full flow
Velocity at full flow

v 360 sin
1
V
2

2/3

For Partially-full flow v is not influenced by the diameter of the


pipe, rather is much influenced by the slope of the channel

FROM THE SEWAGE TREATMENT MANUAL, GOI

After finding the minimum slope required, the pipe size is decided on the basis
of ultimate design peak flow rate and the permissible depth of flow. Adoption
of the above slopes would ensure minimum flow velocity of 0.6 m/s
Minimum size for a public sewer is 150 mm diameter
Minimum size for a public sewer in hilly terrain is 100 mm diameter

Gravity Sewer: Minimum Pipe Slope for Attaining Vmin= 0. 6 m/s


Diameter
(mm)

Discharge
(lps)

Slope (m/m)
n= 0.013

n= 0.015

200

19

0.0033

0.0044

250

30

0.0025

0.0033

300

40

0.0019

0.0026

400

75

0.0013

0.0017

450

95

0.0011

0.0015

500

115

0.001

0.0013

600

170

0.0008

0.0010

700

230

0.0006*

0.0008

900

380

0.0004*

0.0006*

A slope below 0.0008


becomes practically
difficult for construction
purposes
Sewers with flat slopes
may be required to avoid
excessive excavation
where surface slopes are
flat or change in the
elevation is small.

The slope and size of the sewer should be such that the velocity of flow shall
increase progressively or shall remain steady throughout the length of the sewer.

Sewers shall have slope steeper than or equal to the ground slope, otherwise the
minimum ground cover may not be maintained through out the length of the
sewer.

What will be the diameter of the sewer designed with the following
conditions:
a) Population to be served: Present = 50,000; Design= 100,000;
b) Water consumption: Present = 130 lpcd; Design = 180 lpcd
c) 80 % of supplied water appears as wastewater
d) Self-cleansing velocity to maintained in the sewer = 0.6 m/s;
e) Maximum velocity in the sewer 3 m/s;
f) Minimum size of the sewer = 150 mm;
g) Peak factor = 2.5
h) n=0.015 i) Average Ground Slope = 1 in 5000
d/D

a/A

v/V

q/Q

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.9

0.949

1.124

1.066

0.8

0.858

1.140

0.988

0.7

0.748

1.120

0.838

0.5

0.5

1.000

0.500

0.4

0.373

0.902

0.337

STEP 1. Find out the average flowrate and maximum flow rate at present and after the
design period
Time

Average flowrate

Peak factor

Peak flowrate

Present

50,000* 130*0.8 L/d=0.06 cum/s

2.5

0.15 cum/s

Design

100,000* 180*0.8 L/d= 0.167 cum/s

2.25

0.375 cum/s

STEP 2. Find out the optimum slope to be provided


Slope to be provided = s=0.8 in 1000 = 0.8/1000 = 0.0008
STEP 3. Find out the size based on the ultimate peak flowrate.
We want the sewer to run 80% full at its ultimate peak flowrate. From the chart q/Q = 0.988
when d/D =0.8
Q = 0.375/0.988 = 0.380
Q = A.V

D
A
4

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R s
n

D 2
R

A
D
4
P D
4

1D
Q A.V
*
4 n 4
2

2/3

* s1/ 2

Q=0.380 m3/s

S= 0.0008

1 D
Q A.V
* *
4 n 4

1
D
*
*
4 0.015 4
2

n =0.015
2/3

* s1/ 2

2/3

* (0.0008)1/ 2 0.380

D = 850 mm

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
1
0.850 / 42 / 3 (0.0008)1/ 2 0.671 m/s
V R s
n
0.015
> 0.6 m/s

Q A.V

(0.85)
4

* 0.671 0.381 cum/s

(OK)

For a circular channel running under gravity,


Velocity is maximum when the depth of flow d = 0.8 D
At d/D = 0.8, v/V = 1.140

Hence, vmax = 1.140*0.671 m/s = 0.765m/s

< 3 m/s (Maxm. Velocity allowable)


O.K.

At the average flowrate q,

q/Q =(0.167/0.381)=0.44
From the proportionality table, extrapolating, v/V = 0.97
Hence, v = 0.94* 0.671 m/s = 0.65 m/s

>0.6 m/s

At the peak present flowrate q1,


q1/Q =(0.15/0.381)=0.39
v/V = 0.93

Hence, v = 0.93* 0.671 m/s = 0.62 m/s

O.K.

>0.6 m/s

OK

Sewerage System
Dr. Sudipta Sarkar

Preliminary Requirements
It is meant for the transport stormwater and wastewater from the generation
point to the treatment plant. So it should be laid as deep as possible so that all
wastewater or storm water flow can be collected and transported.
Erosion and corrosion resistant. Should be structurally strong enough to resist
impact loads or overburden and live loads
Size and slope to be designed to carry the peak load as well as to carry average
flow in such a manner that the deposition shall be minimized.
Maintenance should be easy, economical and safe for the workers.
Aims of the design are: a) make the system operational and b) Economical to build
and c) make the system durable through out its entire design life

Layout of Sewer Lines


Steps followed for making the layout:
Selection of an outlet or disposal points
Fixing limits to the drainage area or zone boundaries
Finalizing the location of Trunk and Main sewers
Finalizing the location of Pumping stations wherever necessary

Trunk sewer is the sewer in the network


with the largest diameter that extends
farthest from the sewage outfall
All other sewers are considered as
branches

Trunk Sewer
Outfall

Whenever two sewers meet at a point, the


incoming one with larger diameter is called the
main sewer.

Nomenclature System Followed in Sewer Systems

Network

L.3.1

Trunk Sewer
4

Outfall
2

L1.R.3.1.2

L1.R.3.1.1

manhole
R.3.1

L2.R.3.1.1
R.3.2

L2.R.3.1.2

House
Most common location of laying sanitary
sewer is along the center of the streets

Sewer

The individual domestic connections


can be from either side of the streets

Street

Slope of the sewers generally follow the


natural slope of the ground or the street
House

For very wide streets the sewers are


laid on each side of the streets in the
curb or under the sidewalk
To avoid any contamination sewer
lines are never laid near to the water
mains. If it is unavoidable, the sewers
are encased in concrete

House
Sewer

Street

Sewer
House

Design Approach
1. On a map of the area locate all the sewer lines and measure the contributory
area to each of the sewer lines or points.
2. Also, draw the longitudinal section or profiles of the sewer lines. Mark on the
profile view the critical points such as basements of the low lying houses, levels
of existing sewers, disposal points, etc.
3. Design all the branch sewers, main sewers and trunk sewers, starting from
the farthest point in the network and based on the following considerations:
a) A self cleansing velocity is maintained at present peak flow
b) The sewer should run 0.8 full at the design ultimate peak flow
c) Minimum velocity of 0.6 m/s is obtained
d) Maximum velocity should not be beyond 3 m/s

Example of a Profile of a Sewer Line

A view inside a sewer in London

Sewer Appurtenances
These are devices necessary (except pipes and conduits) for proper functioning
of the sanitary, storm and combined sewers
The appurtenances include:
1. Manhole
2. Drop Manhole
3. Lampholes
4. Gully-traps
5. Intercepting chambers
6. Flushing tanks
7. Street Inlets
8. Siphons
9. Grease traps
10. Side-flow weirs
11. Leaping weirs
12. Venturi flumes
13. Outfall structures

MANHOLES

Manholes are RCC or masonry chambers, constructed at suitable


intervals along the sewer lines, for providing access to the inside of
the sewers.
Helps in:
a) Joining the sewer pipes
b) Inspection and cleaning of pipes
c) Maintenance
d) Ventilation if manholes are perforated
Manholes are provided at every
transition points such as bends, junction,
change of gradient, or change in diameter Gutter
Between two adjacent manholes, the
sewer line runs straight with constant
slope or gradient

manhole

Sewer

Curb

Electric
cable

Water
main

Types of Manholes
A. Shallow manholes

Manholes with Depth less than 0.9 m


Suitable for branch sewers or places at no
heavy traffic

It is also called an inspection chamber

900X 800 mm

B. Normal or Medium manholes


Manholes with Depth 1.5 m
Heavy cover is provided at the top
May be either square or rectangular (1m X
1m and 1.2m X 1m

C. Deep Manholes
Manholes with Depth> 1.5 m
Heavy cover is provided at the top
Size in the upper portion is reduced by offset
May be either square or rectangular or
circular

Access shaft: Minimum size is


0.75 X 0.6 m
Steps or ladders: for accessing

Working chamber: Provides working


space for inspection and cleaning
operations, Minimum size 1,2 m X
0.9 m or 1.2 m dia; minimum height
is 1.8 m
Benching: concreted portion sloping
towards semicircular or U -shaped
bottom part of the main sewer, the
slope facilitates the entry of sewage
into the main sewer

DROP MANHOLE

It is used when a branch sewer joins a main sewer at a height more than 600 mm above the
main sewer or the drop is more than 600 mm.
Advantages: 1) Steep gradients in the branch sewer can be avoided ; 2) The sewage from
the branch sewers may fall on the person working; This is avoided.

Plug

Inspection Arm

FLUSHING MANHOLE

Provided where it is not possible


to gain enough flow so as to
maintain a self-cleansing velocity.
Often such condition is prevalent
at the beginning of the branch
sewers.
Generally provided at the head
of the sewers where enough
storage is provided to
generate a high velocity to
flush out the obstructions

Automatic Flushing Tanks

Curb Inlet
Gratings

Different Types of Street Inlets

GUTTER TYPE

CURB TYPE INLETS

COMBINATION

MULTIPLE TYPE INLETS

CATCH BASINS

A Type of Street Inlet

The basin helps in settling the grit,


sand, debris, etc. before the
storm water enters the sewer line

SEWER

Hood prevents the escape of the


foul gases into the sewer line and
network

Oil and Grease Trap

Generally located near the sources which can generate oil and greasecontaminated wastewater. Restaurants, garages, automobile repair workshops
Oil and grease in the sewer system can : a) sticks to the inner surface of sewers
and reduces the sewer capacity; b)entraps suspended matter, further reducing
the capacity; c) adversely affect the performance of wastewater treatment
plants

REGULATOR OR OVERFLOW DEVICES OR STORM-RELIEF WORKS


The regulators are provided to avoid overloading of sewers, pumping stations,
treatment plant or disposal arrangements by diverting excess flow to relief
sewers or overflow stream.

The overloading is caused by excess flow coming in a pipeline due to heavy


rainfall or excess stormwater. As they are not expected to carry huge pollutant
load, the excess stormwater can be safely disposed of to natural streams
without any treatment.
Three types of Regulator devices:
a) Leaping Weir
b) Side-flow or Overflow weir
c) Siphon spillway

Leaping Weir

INCOMING FLOW

Intercepting Sewer

Arrangement consists of an opening at the invert of a storm drain through which


the normal storm flow is taken into an intercepting sewer and excess flow leaps
over the combined sewer to flow to a neighboring stream

Overflow or Side-flow Weir


Excess water is allowed to overflow the
combined sewer in the manhole, from
where it is taken to another channel that
leads to stormwater drain or manhole.
The weir length has to be sufficiently
long for effective regulation

Siphon Spillway
Air Line

Spillway

Sewer

Receiving Stream

Different Cross-sectional Shapes of Sewers


Most widely used cross-sectional shape is a circular-section sewer.
The reasons behind the preferences are:
a) A circular section provides the maximum area of flow for a given
perimeter, therefore higher value of hydraulic mean radius.

A
P

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R s
n
It is the most efficient section, among all possible variations
b) It uses the minimum amount of materials for is manufacture, therefore it is
economical to use such a section
c) Manufacture is easy and convenient
d) Structurally more stable (without any corners, hence load is evenly distributed all
around
e) Chances of deposition is less

d/D

a/A

v/V

q/Q

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.9

0.949

1.124

1.066

0.8

0.858

1.140

0.988

0.7

0.748

1.120

0.838

0.5

0.5

1.000

0.500

0.4

0.373

0.902

0.337

0.3

0.252

0.776

0.196

0.2

0.143

0.615

0.088

Advantages of a circular sewer diminishes when the sewer is not running at least half-full
Lesser the discharge, poorer is the performance

OVOID OR EGG-SHAPED SEWER


At low discharges 2- 15%
higher velocities are available
for these type of sections
compared to Hydraulically
Equivalent Circular Sections

Standard Oval Shaped Sewers

d/D

v/V
Ovoid

New Type Oval Shaped Sewers

circular

0.25

0.7

0.698

0.20

0.62

0.61

0.10

0.44

0.4

0.05

0.29

0.25

Hydraulically Equivalent Section: Two sewers of


different shape (i.e. different sections) are said to be of
hydraulically equivalent when they carry the same
discharge when running full at the same slope.

Design of Ovoid-Shaped Sewers


1. Calculate the approximate diameter of a hydraulically equivalent circular sewer that
would carry the same discharge at the same slope as the ovoid-shaped sewer.
2. Top horizontal diameter of the Ovoid-sewer = 0.84 X Diam. of the circular sewer
3. Find out the other dimensions from the following figures, according to the type of
sewer to be designed

Horse-Shoe Type of Sections

Open-Drain Sections

A
R
P
1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R s
n

Q A *V

Design a gravity flow trunk sanitary sewer for


the area . The trunk sewer is to be laid
along Peach Avenue starting at 4th Street and
ending at 11th Street. Assume that the
that the following design criteria have been
developed based on an analysis of local
conditions and codes:
1. For design period use the saturation
period.
2. For population densities use the data given
in the table.

3. For residential WW flows use the data given in


the table.
4. For commercial and industrial flows (average):
a. Commercial 20 m3 /ha . d
b. Industrial - 30 m3 /ha . d

5. For institutional flows (average):


College - 400 m3 / d (5330 students x 75 L/ student . d)/ (1000 L/ m3 )
6. For infiltration allowance:
a. For residential areas, obtain the peak infiltration values from the fig. (b):

b. For commercial, industrial, and institutional areas also obtain the peak
infiltration values from the fig. (b). However, to take into account that the
total length of sewers in these areas will generally be < that in residential areas,
use only 50% of the actual area to compute the infiltration allowance.

Peaking Factor

7. For infiltration allowance Assume steady flow


8. Peaking Factors:
a. Residential Use the curve, fig. (c)
b. Commercial 1.8
c. Industrial 2.1
d. Institutional (school) 4.0

9.
10.
11.
12.

Hyd. Design Eq. Manning Eq. , n = 0.0013, Use Fig. 6 -10 (Nomogram)
Min. pipe size As per local Bldg. Code, 200 mm
Min. velocity 0.75 m/s
Min cover As per local Bldg. Code, 200 mm, 2.0 m

Solution:
1. Lay out the trunk sewer. Draw a line to
represent the proposed sewer [Fig. (a)].
2. Locate the no. of MHs:
(a) Change in direction
(b) Change in slope
(c) Pipe junctions
(d) Upper end of sewers
(e) Intervals: 90 120 m or less (As per Code)
Identify each MH with a no.
In Fig. (a),
only MHs at major junctions numbered.
In an actual design,
intermediate MHs to be located and numbered.

3. Prepare design tables. Comments:


a. Column 1 5, Identify lines, Summarize data
b. Column 6 13, Obtain cumulative peak domestic flows

Table 1

c. Column 14 18, Obtain cumulative peak commercial flows


d. Column 19 23, Obtain cumulative peak industrial flows

Table 2

e. Column 24 26, Obtain cumulative peak institutional flows


f. Column 27 28, Obtain cumulative average and peak flows
g. Column 29 32, Obtain infiltration allowance

h. Column 33

Total Cumulative Peak Design Flow Columns 28 + 32


Table 3

i. Columns 35 38 ,
j. Columns 39 42,
Column s 39/40
Column s 41/42

Sewer Design, Mannings Eq., n = 0.013 , v > 0.75 m/s


Layout Data
Ground surface elevations obtained by interpolation from Fig. (a)
Sewer invert elevations (By Trial and Error from Work Sheet)
Table 4

0.0018
m/m

0.330
m3/s

0.121
m3/s

0.0009
m/m

Line 2-3:
q/Q=0.313/0.330
=0.95
d/D=0.86
v/V=1.04

WORK SHEET
(1) Plot ground surface elevations, working backwards
(2) Sketch invert and crown
(3) Line 1: Locate the invert of the upper end of the pipe
Upper Invert Elevation=Ground surface depth of cover pipe wall thickness pipe dia.
=
20.00 m 2.00 m
0.05 m
- 0.45 m
=17.5 m
Lower Invert Elevation= Upper Invert Elevation-(Slope of sewer)x(Length of sewer)
17.5 m
- (0.0018 m/m) x
(707 m)
=16.23 m
Check: Depth of Cover Adequate/ Not adequate ?
=19.00 m (16.23 m + 0.45 m + 0.05 m)
= 2.27 m OK
If Depth of Cover Not adequate / too shallow
Two alternatives:
(1) Repeat with a lower invert elevation, or
(2) A steeper slope

Ground surface

Depth of cover

Wall thickness
Inside top
Crown
Inside bottom Invert
Bottom

Some Other Important Considerations


(1) When a MH is located at a sewer junction:
Outlet sewer invert elevation is fixed by the invert level of the lowest inlet sewer

Sewer junction

(2)

If the pipe size increases:


The crowns of the two pipes must be matched at the MH
To avoid the backing up of WW in to the smaller pipe.
An example: Increase in size from 450 mm 750 mm at MH 2
450 mm dia.

750 mm dia.

16.23 m
16.23 m +0.45 m
-0.75 m
=15.93 m

15.93 m
-(0.0009 m/m)x(707 m)
=15.29 m

Example of a Profile of a Sewer Line

Small Bore Sewer System

They are designed to carry only the liquid part of the domestic sewage generated
for off-site treatment or disposal
Solids are separated at a septic tank or at the
aqua-privies before the sewage reaches the
sewers
Sewer
Septic Tank or
interceptor tank

The advantages:
a) The sewer can have less velocity and flowrate
as it receives only settled wastewater
b) Economic as it requires less cost of
excavation, material and treatment
c) Upgradation from on-site treatment system to
conventional treatment system is easily done
d) Maintenance of strict sewer gradients is not
required as there is no self-cleansing velocity
requirement

Minimum diameter of the sewer pipes is recommended to be 100 mm

Small Bore Sewer System


The small bore sewer system outfall can be any of the following:
a)The conventional sewer system
b) Waste stabilization ponds
c) Any other low cost treatment systems followed by fish ponds or landbased disposal with precautions

Limitations:
a) Interceptor tank requires periodical cleaning and disposal of solids
b) Any illegal connection without any interceptor tank shall ruin the
system. So, strict vigilance is required.

Shallow Sewer System

These are modification of surface drain with covers and consist of a network of
pipework laid in the areas away from the places where heavy sewage loads are
expected.
Pipes are laid in flat gradients following the natural slope of the ground. The
minimum depth is 0.4 m

System contains:
a) House connections
b) Inspection
chambers
c) Laterals
d) Street-collector
sewers
e) Pumping stations

The laterals are minimum diameter 100 mm


The street collectors have a minimum diameter of 150 mm

Shallow Sewer System

Suitability of the system:


1. High density habitats such as slums or squatter settlements ( with population
density more than 170 per hectre)
2. Ground-condition is adverse and on-site disposal is not possible
3. Sewage has to be disposed of and minimum water consumption is 25 lpcd.
Limitations:
a) It is suitable when suitable ground slope is available
b) Unless flushed out at peak flowrates, there is a possibility of solids
deposition if there is not enough ground slope available
c) May require frequent cleaning