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REGENERATION

OF DECAYING
URBAN PLACE
THROUGH
ADAPTIVE
DESIGN INFILL
Case Study:
Kampung Kriya, Cultural
Tourism and Creative
Sectors Infill at Jalan
Jenderal Sudirman
Bandung, Indonesia by Hafiz Amirrol
PREVIEW 2

1. Topic Discussion
2. State of Decay Issues and Problems
3. Responding the Issues Urban Regeneration
4. Case Study
5. Site Background
6. Design Statement
7. Design Strategies and Frameworks
8. Design Programming
9. Critical Assessment and Reflection
10. Bibliography

The area of intervention in relation to Jalan Jenderal Sudirman


(Source: Author, 2011)

Figure ground plan of the


existing condition of the decaying
site showing patches of
unregulated building blocks and
parcels of open spaces
(Source: Author, 2011)

STATE OF DECAY:
ISSUES AND PROBLEMS

WHAT IS URBAN
DECAY?

Urban decay is the process whereby a previously functioning city, or part of


a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude (Grogan & Proscio, 2001).
Urban decay does not have one single cause, but rather a combination of
many, including poor urban planning, redlining, poverty, suburbanization
and lack of political will to maintain the area into being a decent place to
live in (Lim, 2001).
Where land and financial resources are not well allocated, slums and
squatters exist, and led to urban decay (Lim, 2001).
Crime, racial tension, riots, mass unemployment, and falling standards in the
provision of urban services are some of the more obvious and disturbing
indicators of a general and deep-seated deterioration in the social, economic,
political, and financial fabric of a city leading to urban decay (Clark, 1989).

WHAT CAUSES
THE SITE TO DECAY?

1. Ribbon Development Policy


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Resulted in inefficient use of resources and a precursor to urban sprawl


and traffic congestion.
Difficult to be serviced efficiently.
Competitiveness of the place, which have to deal with the availability of
efficient infrastructure, facilities and amenities.
Massive and uncontrolled land conversion.
Unreliable supply of water resources and utilization.
Solid waste and liquid waste management.
Inadequate green open spaces.
(Source: Middleton, 1991)

2. Settlements and Population Issues


1. Settlement problems due to the lack of efficiently allocated space and
concentration of the population.
2. Increasing informal sectors, which resulted in influx of low skilled
migrants to the area.
3. Declining living standard quality causing local citizens to move away to
new places that offer better living environment.

3. Competition with New Urban Areas


1.

Development of new urban areas that offer better services and


commercial areas, such as malls, distros, tourism spots, etc. increasingly
sharpening the dualistic socio-economic conditions of the decaying
place.

(Source: Lim, 2001 & Siregar, 1990)

4. Failures of Planning Policies


1. Unsuitable planning policies that fully adopted Western models without
any alteration and improvisation to suit local contexts.
2. Tensions between the dualist kampung kota environment.
3. Poor allocation and maintenance of public services and infrastructures.
4. Wasteful new developments that is not responsive to the real needs of the
citys inhabitants. (i.e. over development of gigantic shopping malls,
developments on gazetted public and green areas, etc.)

5. Lack of Regulations and By-Laws


1. Unregulated modification of the built environment that does not respond
to the behavioral patterns and culture of the local community.
2. Weakness in political will and implementation of bylaws and regulations.
(Source: Ng & Hill, 2003)

WHAT ARE
THE DECAYS?

1. Public spaces, community facilities and


infrastructure tend to be worn-out and neglected.
2. Older housing and premises for small businesses
have a backlog of repairs.
3. Numerous derelict buildings attract squatters and
illegal activity of various types, causing crime level
to be high.
4. Poor and unregulated building constructions.
5. Improper utilization of land.
(Source: Field survey, 2011)

Urban decay as a result from unregulated transformations


(Source: Author, 2011)

RESPONDING THE
ISSUES: URBAN
REGENERATION

WHAT IS URBAN
REGENERATION?

1940s Urban transformation activities have included the process of


clearance, renewal and redevelopment strategies.
1950s Urban transformation activities have also included strategies of
reconstruction.
1960s The initiatives move on to revitalization, rehabilitation and
improvement strategies.
1970s Strategy of urban renewal became the major urban transformation
activities, with particular emphasis on the coordination and improvement of
the separated economic, social and physical aspects of urban policies.
1980s Main urban transformation strategy was urban redevelopment.
Private sector, instead of central government, became the major actor in the
urban redevelopment projects in this period.
(Source: Roberts, 2000)

1990s - today Urban regeneration has become the fundamental urban


policy to improve living quality of a place (Zubir & Silis, 2007).
Main Purpose To eliminate blighted areas turning them into areas that
have better built environment quality and values.
Main Objective Creating more pleasurable living by responding to more
holistic criteria of what pleasurable living should be.
Targets of Improvements
1. Flexible and adaptive plans for the place.
2. Land and building values.
3. Update and improve infrastructure.
4. Provide incentives for future development.
5. Focus and encourage public resources to stimulate and leverage larger
private investments to the area.

Main Concerns of Urban Regeneration


1. The relationship between the physical
conditions of urban space and social
deprivation.
2. The need to attend to matters of housing and
health in urban areas.
3. The attractiveness of linking social
improvement with economic progress.
4. The containment of urban growth.
5. The changing role and nature of policy.

CASE STUDY

ROPEWALKS,
LIVERPOOL
Lesson Learnt:
Industry-based Economy, Building Types,
Scale and Proportions

Urban design frameworks for RopeWalks regeneration plan


(Source: Liverpool City Council and URBANSPLASH UK, 2009)

Slater Street in RopeWalks before and after the regeneration initiatives


(Source: URBANSPLASH UK, 2009)

DISTRICT SIX,
CAPE TOWN
Lesson Learnt:
Housing Restitution, City Gallery as Catalyst,
Collective Memory

District Six urban regeneration frameworks


(Source: N&M Associates Planners and Designers, 2004)

District Six before and after the regeneration initiatives


(Source: District Six Museum, 2009)

DESA SOSROWIJAYAN &


DESA PRAWIROTAMAN,
YOGYAKARTA
Lesson Learnt:
Kampung Kota Relationship, Home Industry Economy,
Cultural Tourism, Urban Fabric

Desa Sosrowijayan and Desa Prawirotaman in relation with the city context of
Yogyakarta (Source: Google Map, 2010)

Tourist village of Desa Sosrowijayan (Source: Flickr, 2009)

Tourist village of Desa Prawirotaman (Source: Flickr, 2009)

THE PAINTING GARAGE,


BANDUNG
Lesson Learnt:
Public Initiatives, Community-based
Programming, Small Scale Big Idea

SITE BACKGROUND

Urban fabric studies based on satellite image and ground survey drawing
(Source: Google Map and Author, 2011)

Surrounding context of regeneration interventions area


(Source: Author, 2011)

Population of the place according to gender and religion


(Source: Daftar rekapitulasi penduduk Kota Bandung untuk
Kelurahan Kebon Jeruk, 2011)

Population according to age group with involvement in the home industries showed in
yellow strips (Source: Daftar sensus Kecamatan Andir, 2011)

Home industries as economic generator for the area


(Source: Author, 2011)

Ownership status of houses and building stocks


(Source: Daftar sensus Kecamatan Andir, 2011)

Current condition of the site in numbers and figures


(Source: Author, 2011)

Street profile studies through mapping of activities and sectional analysis with potential
new infill to improve street life qualities
(Source: Author, 2011)

Consideration of Urbans Physical Conditions


(Montgomery, 1998)
1. Development Intensity
2. Mixed Use
3. Fine Grain
4. Adaptability
5. Human Scale
6. City Blocks and Permeability
7. Streets: Contact, Visibility and Horizontal Grain
8. Public Realm
9. Movement
10. Green Space and Water Space
11. Landmarks, Visual Stimulation and Attention to Detail
12. Architectural Style as Image

DESIGN STATEMENT

1. Approach the problems of the sites decay


condition by means of an appropriate, feasible
and sustainable urban regeneration plan.
2. The regeneration plan will adopt adaptive reuse
and design infill development strategies in
order to maximize utilization of the sites
physical potential.
3. Strategic branding concept is used to support
the regeneration initiatives, based on the sites
existing strength in home industry activities.

Formulation of the three strategies is designed to


elevate the living standard quality of the area
and re-brand it into becoming the new cultural
and tourist destination area for Bandung, thus
improving the wealth and economic status of the
local community.
This is being done by transforming the area into
becoming Kampung Kriya Sudirman a
regenerated kampung kota that prides itself as
the new cultural tourism and home industry
haven for Bandung.

DESIGN STRATEGIES
AND FRAMEWORKS

DESIGN INFILL
AS CATALYST

DESIGN FRAMEWORK

Sketch analysis of the


proposed regeneration
plans massing and
configurations
(Source: Author,2011)

Overlaying variety thematic corridors and strips as architectural catalyst


(Source: Author, 2011)

ADAPTIVE REUSE

Adaptive reuse is the act of finding a new use for an old


building. Buildings and neighborhoods with interesting
spaces and unusual appearance are particularly attractive
to developers and buyers (Burchell & Listokin, 1981).

DESIGN INFILL
DEVELOPMENT

Design infill development as the process of developing


vacant or under-used parcels within existing urban areas
that are already largely developed. Through the use of an
infill development ordinance and bylaw, these vacant
nonconforming lots can be brought back into productive
use. (Lim, 1998).

PUBLIC SPACE
INFILL

AERIAL VIEW FROM SARITEM

AERIAL VIEW FROM CIBADAK

EXPLODED ISOMETRIC

BUILDING TAXONOMY

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

HOTELS AND HOMESTAYS / PUBLIC FACILITY BUILDINGS

HOTELS AND HOMESTAYS / PUBLIC FACILITY BUILDINGS

COMMERCIAL AND MIXED USE BUILDINGS

COMMERCIAL AND MIXED USE BUILDINGS

COMMERCIAL AND MIXED USE BUILDINGS

Sectional sketch studies (Source: Author, 2011)

Sectional sketch studies (Source: Author, 2011)

GATEWAY TO SHOPPING CORRIDOR

SHADED SHOPPING CORRIDOR

ENTRANCE GATEWAY

Arcades and gateways providing shades and new experience


for the city strollers (Source: Author, 2011)

FLATS (PROPOSED SCHEME 1)

FLATS (PROPOSED SCHEME 2)

Sketch studies on the


scale, height, position
and overall visual
appearance of shops
and boutiques, flats,
open spaces and the
public realm
(Source: Author, 2011)

SHOP AND BOUTIQUE

FLATS (PROPOSED SCHEME 3)

Sketch studies on the


scale, height, position
and overall visual
appearance of shops
and boutiques, flats,
open spaces and the
public realm
(Source: Author, 2011)

Sketch study on the potential of the existing


river and new design infill as the catalyst to
identification of place making quality
(Source: Author, 2011)

View from street junction of Kampung Sukamanah towards city gallery, flats, entrance
gateway and gazebos along Sungai Citepus
(Source: Author, 2011)

View from Jl. Jenderal Sudirman towards Jl. Asia Afrika, showing street canopies as
shading for pedestrian walkway and adjusted building frontage setbacks
(Source: Author, 2011)

View from Kampung Kriya Sudirman towards Cibadak cluster, showing the relationship
between gateways, buildings, open spaces and Jl. Jenderal Sudirman
(Source: Author, 2011)

View from an open space dedicated for communal activities and its scale relationship
with flats and other buildings as its background
(Source: Author, 2011)

DESIGN
PROGRAMMING

Programming and branding strategies for Kampung Kriya


Sudirman (Source: Author, 2011)

CRITICAL
ASSESSMENT
AND REFLECTION

1. Efficient use of land (avoiding urban sprawl), which must


also include appropriate new housing schemes and
economic spots for existing local community to live there
without having to be affected with the issue of
gentrification or eviction from their own place.
2. Economic strength (good promotion of tourist attraction
and services, public and private investments, local product
showcase galleries, backpackers hotels, restaurants and
cafes).
3. Ecological awareness (environment protection, increase of
urban greens, outdoor recreation areas, efficient use of
energy).

4. Cultural heritage protection (post industrial built


environment, architectural gems, arts and cultural
institutions activities, local gastronomy, tradition and
dialects).
5. Good governance and good design (attractive architecture,
landscaping, public space management, approved and
consulted with local community members, with their active
commitment and participation).
6. Easy-to-understand designs are more preferable by the
community, with intimate scale friendly to the public realm
and the fine grain of a kampung.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BURCHELL, R.W. & LISTOKIN, D. (1981) The Adaptive Reuse Handbook: Procedures to Inventory,
Control, Manage and Re-employ Surplus Municipal Properties. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
LIM, W. (1998) Asian New Urbanism. Singapore: Select Publishing.
LIM, W. (2001) Alternatives in Transition The Postmodern, Glocality and Social Justice. Singapore:
Select Publishing.
MONTGOMERY, J. (1998) Making A City: Urbanity, Vitality and Urban Design, in Journal of Urban
Design Vol. 3, No. 1, p.p. 93-116.
NG, M.K. & HILLS, P. (2003) World Cities or Great Cities? A Comparative Study of Five Asian
Metropolises in Cities, Vol. 20.3, p.p. 151-165, Hong Kong: Sustainable World Cities Programme.
ROBERTS, P. (2000) The Evolution, Definition and Purpose of Urban Regeneration in ROBERTS, P.
and SYKES, H. (ed.) Urban Regeneration: A Handbook, London: Thousand Oaks.
SIREGAR, S.A. (1990) BandungThe Architecture of a City in Development: Urban Analysis of a
Regional Capital as a Contribution to the Present Debate on Indonesian Urbanity and Architectural
Identity (Doctoral Dissertation), Leiven: Katholieke Universiteit Leiven.
ZUBIR, S.S & SILIS, F (2007) A Conceptual Approach to Urban Rejuvenation: A Design Intervention
Exercise in the Historic Silver Triangle of Kuala Lumpur in ZUBIR, S.S (ed.) REVUE 3: Shah Alam:
Universiti Teknologi MARA.
*expanded bibliography is available in the Thesis Report.

END OF PART 2
7 June 2011