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CHAPTER

Construction Planning, Equipment,


and Methods

Sixth Edition

GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS,
COMPACTION, AND STABILIZATION
A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

4a

By
Dr. Ibrahim Assakkaf
ENCE 420 Construction Equipment and Methods
Spring 2003
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park

Slide No. 1

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

HANDLING OF MATERIALS
The actual construction
process of any project is really
a material-handling problem.
On heavy construction
projects the major portion of
the work consists of handling
and processing bulk materials.

Slide No. 2

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

HANDLING OF MATERIALS

Therefore need:
Knowledge about the
physical properties of the
material being handled and
of the material the machine
is operating upon.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 3

HANDLING OF MATERIALS

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Materials are used only temporarily


in support of the construction
activities
9usable forms, scaffolding, shoring,
and some access roads.

Materials such as water for haul


roads and fuel will be consumed.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 4

HANDLING OF MATERIALS

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Other materials will be permanently


incorporated into the structure:
9steel, timber, concrete, asphalt, rock,
and soils.

The contractor must select the


proper equipment to locate and/or
process materials economically.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 5

HANDLING OF MATERIALS

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The decision process for


matching the best possible
machine to the project task
requires that the contractor takes
into account the following items:
1. Properties of the material to be handled.
2. Mechanical capabilities of the machine.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

MAKING EQUIPMENT
CHOICES

Slide No. 6
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Two primary material


considerations:
9Total Quantity
9Size of Individual Pieces

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

MAKING EQUIPMENT
CHOICES

Slide No. 7
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The quantity of material to be


handled and the time constraints
resulting from the contract or
weather influence the selection of
equipment as to the
9type, size, and number of machines.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

MAKING EQUIPMENT
CHOICES

Slide No. 8
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Larger units generally have lower


unit-production cost, but there is a
trade-off in higher mobilization and
fixed costs.
The size of the individual material
pieces will affect the choice of the
machine size.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

MAKING EQUIPMENT
CHOICES

Slide No. 9
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Example:
A loader used in quarry to move
shot rock must be able to
handle the largest rock sizes
produced

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 10
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A loader used in quarry to move shot rock must


be able to handle the largest rock sizes produced

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

EXCAVATION

Slide No. 11
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Common Excavation refers to ordinary


earth excavation.
Rock Excavation cannot be done by
ordinary earth handling equipment.
9Rock materials must be removed by
drilling and blasting or by some other
methods.
9This normally results in a considerably
greater expense than earth excavation.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

EXCAVATION

Slide No. 12
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Muck Excavation includes materials


that will decay or produce subsidence
in embankments.
9 It is usually a soft organic material having
a high water content.
9Typically, it would include such things as
decaying stumps, roots, logs, and humus.
9These materials are hard to handle and
can present special construction problems
both at their point of excavation, and in
transportation and disposal.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

EXCAVATION

Slide No. 13
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Unclassified Excavation refers to


the materials that cannot be
defined as soil or rock.
9The removal of common excavation
will not require the use of explosives,
although tractors equipped with
rippers may be used to loosen
consolidated formations.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 14
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The following glossary is


used to define important
terms that are used in
discussing geotechnical
materials, compaction, and
stabilization:

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 15
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Aggregate, course: Crushed rock


or gravel, generally greater than
1/4 in. in size.
Aggregate, fine: The sand or
fine-crushed stone used for
filling voids in coarse aggregate,
Generally it is less than 1/4 in,
and greater than a No. 200 sieve
in size.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 16
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ASTM: American Society for


Testing and Materials.
Backfill: Material used in refilling
a cut or other excavation.
Bank measure: A measure of the
volume of earth in its natural
position before it is excavated.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 17
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Binder: Fine aggregate or other


materials that fill voids and hold
coarse aggregate together.
Borrow pit: A pit from which fill
material is mined.
Cohesion: The quality of some soil
particles to be attracted to like
particles, manifested in a tendency to
stick together, as in clay.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 18
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Cohesive materials: A soil having


properties of cohesion.
Compacted volume: A measurement
of the volume of a soil after it has
been subjected to compaction.
Grain-size curve: A graph showing
the percentage by weight of soil
sizes contained in a sample.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 19
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Granular material: A soil, such as


sand, whose particle sizes and
shapes are such that they do not
stick together.
Impervious: A material that
resists the flow of water through
it is termed impervious.

10

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 20
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In situ: Soil in its original or


undisturbed position.
Lift: A layer of soil placed on top of
previously placed embankment
material. The term can be used in
reference to material as spread or
as compacted.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 21
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Optimum moisture content: The


water content, for a given
compactive effort, at which the
greatest density of a soil can be
obtained.
Pass: A working passage (trip) of
an excavating, grading, or
compaction machine.

11

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 22
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Plasticity: The capability of being


molded.
Rock: The hard, mineral matter of
the earth's crust, occurring in
masses and often requiring blasting
to cause breakage before
excavation can be accomplished.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Slide No. 23
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Shrinkage. A soil volume reduction


usually occurring in fine-grained soils
when they are subjected to moisture.
Soil. The loose surface material of the
earth's crust, created naturally from the
disintegration of rocks or decay of
vegetation, that can be excavated easily
using power equipment in the field.

12

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 24
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PROPERTIES OF
GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS

In analyzing problems involving earth


and rock handling techniques, it is
necessary to become familiar with
some of the physical properties of soils
and aggregates.
The properties affect materials
handling, equipment selections, and
equipment production rates.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 25
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TYPES OF GEOTECHNICAL
MATERIALS
Homogeneous material such as
steel and concrete are easy to
predict their behavior.
Heterogeneous material such as
earths are hard to predict their
behavior and properties because
they are rarely uniform.

13

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 26

TYPES OF GEOTECHNICAL
MATERIALS

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In order to establish properties to


geotechnical materials, it is
necessary to classify these
materials.
Soils can be classified according to
the sizes of their particles, physical
properties, and their behavior.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 27
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14

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 28
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TYPES OF GEOTECHNICAL
MATERIALS

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOILS

Slide No. 29
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Soils are the principal component


of many construction projects.
Soils are used to support:
9structures - static load
9pavements for highways and airport
runways - dynamic loads.
9dams and levees, as impoundment - to
resist the passage of water.

15

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOILS

Slide No. 30
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Some soils may be suitable for use


in their natural state, whereas
other, must be excavated,
processed, and compacted in order
to serve their purposes.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOILS

Slide No. 31
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Knowledge of the properties,


characteristics, and behavior of
different soil types is important to
those persons who are associated
with the design or construction of
projects involving the use of soils.

16

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

PROPERTIES OF SOILS

Slide No. 32
ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Soil properties have a


direct effect on
9the ease or difficulty of handling
the material.
9 the selection of equipment.
9 production rates.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 33
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Soils may be classified


according to:
9The sizes of the particles of which
they are composed,
9By their physical properties, or
9By their behavior when file moisture
content varies.

17

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 34
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A constructor is concerned primarily


with five types of soils:
9Gravel,
9Sand,
9Silt,
9Clay,
9Organic matter,and
9Combinations of these types.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Rocks

TYPES OF SOIL

Slide No. 35
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Gravel
pass 3-in, retained on No. 10
No. 10

0.074mm

Sand
from lower limit gravel to No. 200

Silt, noncohesive
smaller than 0.074 mm but
larger than 0.005 mm
Clay, cohesive

18

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 36
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The following size limits


represent those set forth by
the American Society for
Testing and Materials
(ASTM):

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 37
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Gravel: is rounded or
semiround particles of rock that
will pass a 3-in. and be retained
on a 2.0-mm No. 10 sieve.
Sizes larger than 10 in. are
usually called boulders.

19

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 38
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Sand: is disintegrated rock whose


particles vary in size from the lower
limit of gravel 2.0 mm down to
0.074 mm (No. 200 sieve). It may
be classified as coarse or line sand,
depending on the sizes of the
grains. Sand is a granular
noncohesive material.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 39
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Silt: is a material finer than


sand and thus its particles are
smaller than 0.074 mm but
larger than 0.005 mm. It is a
noncohesive material that has
little or no strength. It compacts
very poorly.

20

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 40
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Clay: is a cohesive material whose


particles are less than 0.005 mm.
The cohesion between the particles
gives a clay high strength when airdried. Clay can be subject to
considerable changes in volume
with variations in moisture content.
They will exhibit plasticity within a
range of "water contents."

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 41
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Organic matter: is a partly


decomposed vegetable matter.
It has a spongy unstable
structure that will continue to
decompose and is chemically
reactive.

21

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 42
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Soils existing under natural


conditions may not contain the
relative amounts of desired types
to produce the properties required
for construction purposes.
It may be necessary to obtain soils
from several sources and then to
blend them to use in a fill.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

Slide No. 43
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If the material in a borrow pit


consists of layers of different types
of soils the specifications for the
project may require the use of
excavating equipment that will dig
vertically through the layers in
order to mix the soil.

22

Slide No. 44

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

TYPES OF SOILS

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Rock can be formed by one of


the three different means:
9Igneous rocks solidifies from molten
masses
9Sedimentary rocks formed in layers
settling out of water solutions.
9Metamorphic rocks are transformed
from material of the first two by heat
and pressure.

Slide No. 45

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS
Volume
air
Va

Weight
air = 0
AIR

Volume
voids
Vv
Total
volume
V

Volume
water
Vw

Volume
soil solids
Vs

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Weight
water = Ww

Total
weight W

Water

Weight
soil solids
Ws
Soil

23

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 46
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Which material has the


greatest unit weight?

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 47
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UNIT WEIGHT

Unit weight () =
total weight of soil
total soil volume

24

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 48
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Total volume includes


Air
Water
Solids

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 49
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Air, Water
and Solids.
Thats what
it looks like
under the
microscope.

25

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 50
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drive off the water d

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 51
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Water Content:

Water content =
Wet weight Dry weight
Dry weight

26

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 52
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Same weight but different


volume.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 53
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Definitions:
Unit Weight ( ) =

total weight of soil W


=
total soil volume
V
weight of soil solids Ws
=
total soil volume
V

(2)

weight of water in soil Ww


=
weight of soil solids
Ws

(3)

Dry Unit Weight ( d ) =

Water Content ( ) =

(1)

27

Slide No. 54

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS
Void Ratio (e) =

Porosity (n) =

V
volume of voids
= v
volume of soil solids Vs

(4)

volume of voids Vv
=
total soil volume V

Specific Gravity (Gs ) =

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

(5)

Ws 1
1
weight of soil solids

=
volume of solids unit weight of water Vs w

Degree of Saturation ( S ) =

volume of water in voids Vw


=
volume of voids
Vv

(6)

(7)

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

Slide No. 55
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Other useful relationships can be derived:

Vv

Vv
Vv
n
V
Void Ratio (e) = =
= =
Vs V Vv
V 1 n
1 v
V
Porosity (n) =

e
1+ e

(8)

(9)

Total Volume (V ) = Vv + Vs = Va + Vw + Vs

(10)

28

Slide No. 56

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

W
Ws 1 + w
Ws Ws (1 + )
W Ws + Ww
=
=
=
Moist Unit Weight ( ) =
V
V
V
V

(11)

Ws
(12)
V
From the above two equations :

d =

d =

(13)

1+
W
Ws =
1+

(14)

Slide No. 57

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL WEIGHT-VOLUME
RELATIONSHIPS
Volume
air
Va

Weight
air = 0
AIR

Volume
voids
Vv
Total
volume
V

Volume
water
Vw

Volume
soil solids
Vs

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Weight
water = Ww

Total
weight W

Water

Weight
soil solids
Ws
Soil

29

Slide No. 58

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

OTHER USEFUL
RELATIONSHIPS

Relationships Between Unit Weight, Void Ratio,


Moisture Content,and Specific Gravity
=

Ws + Ww Gs w + Gs w Gs w (1 + )
=
=
1+ e
1+ e
V

d =

S=

Ws Gs w
=
1+ e
V

(15)

(16)
(17)

G s
e

at (saturated unit weigth of soil) =

w (Gs + e )

(18)

1+ e

Slide No. 59

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

OTHER USEFUL
RELATIONSHIPS

Relationships Between Unit Weight, Porosity,


and Moisture Content
=

Ws + Ww
= Gs w (1 n )(1 + )
V
Ws
= Gs w (1 n )
V

(20)

sat = [Gs (1 n ) + n] w

(21)

d =

n
(1 n )Gs

(19)

(22)

30

Slide No. 60

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Example 1

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In its natural state, a moist soil has a volume of 0.33 ft3


and weighs 39.93 lb. The oven dry weight of the soil is
34.54 lb. If Gs = 2.71, calculate the moisture content,
moist unit weight, dry unit weight, void ratio, porosity,and
degree of saturation.

Ww W Ws 39.93 34.54
= 0.156 = 15.6%
=
=
34.54
Ws
Ws

W 39.93
=
= 121.0 lb/ft 3
0.33
V

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Example 1 (continued)
d =

e=
n=

S=

Slide No. 61
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Ws 34.54
=
= 104.67 lb/ft 3
V
0.33

Gs w

1 =

2.71(62.4)
1 = 0.62
104.67

e
0.62
=
= 0.38
1 + e 1 + 0.62

Gs
e

0.156(2.71)
= 0.682 = 68.2%
0.62

31

Slide No. 62

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

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Example 2
For a saturated soil, given = 40%, Gs = 2.71,
determine the saturated and dry unit weights.
Gs

(0.4)(2.71)
= 1.084
1
S
Note : S = 1(100% saturation )

e=

sat =

d =

(Gs + e) ws = (2.7 + 1.084)62.4 = 113.6


1+ e

1 + 1.084

lb/ft 3

Gs w (2.71)(62.4)
=
= 81.2 lb/ft 3
1+ e
1 + 1.084

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 63

SOIL CONSISTENCY LIMITS

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Certain limits of soil consistency


were developed to differentiate
between highly plastic, slightly
plastic, and nonplastic materials:
9Liquid Limit (LL)
9Plastic Limit (PL)
9Plasticity Index (PI)

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CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 64

SOIL CONSISTENCY LIMITS

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Liquid limit (LL): The water


content at which a soil passes from
the plastic to the liquid states. High
LL values are associated with soils
of high compressibility. Typically,
clays have high LL values; sandy
soils have low LL value.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 65

SOIL CONSISTENCY LIMITS

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Plastic limit (LL): The water


content at which a soil passes from
the plastic to the semisolid state.
The lowest water content at which
a soil can be rolled into 1/8-in. (3.2mm) diameter thread without
crumbling.

33

Slide No. 66

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SOIL CONSISTENCY LIMITS

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Plasticity index (PI): The


numerical difference between a soils
liquid limit and its plastic limit is the
plasticity index. Soils with high PI
values are quite compressible and
have high cohesion.

PI = LL PL

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

(23)

Slide No. 67

VOLUMETRIC MEASURES

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1.0 CUBIC YARDS


NATURAL
CONDITIONS
(IN(IN-PLACE)

1.25 CUBIC
YARDS
AFTER DIGGING
(LOOSE YARDS)

0.90 CUBIC YARDS


AFTER
COMPACTION
(COMPACTED
YARDS)

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CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 68

VOLUMETRIC MEASURES

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For bulk materials volumetric


measure varies with the material's
position in the construction
process.
The same weight of a material will
occupy different volumes as the
material is handled on the project.

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 69

VOLUMETRIC MEASURES

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Soil volume is measured in one of three states:


Bank Cubic Yard (bcy):

1 cu yd of material as it
lies in the natural state

Loose Cubic Yard (lcy):

1 cu yd of material after
it has been disturbed
by a loading process

Compacted Cubic Yard (ccy):

1 cu yd of material in
the compacted state,
also referred to as a
net inin-place cubic yard

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Slide No. 70

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

SHRINKAGE AND SWELL


FACTORS
Shrinkage Factor =

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Compacted Dry Unit Weight Cd


=
Bank Dry Unit Weight
Bd

(24)

Shrinkage % =

Compacted Unit Weight - Bank Unit Weight


X 100
Compacted Unit Weight

Swell Factor =

Loose Dry Unit Weight Ld


=
Bank Dry Unit Weight Bd

(25)

(26)

Bank Unit Weight


Swell % =
1 X 100
Loose
Unit
Weig
ht

(27)

Slide No. 71

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

SWELL VALUES FOR DIFFERENT


CLASSES OF EARTH
Bank
weight

Loose
weight

Table 2
Material

lb/cu yd

kg/m3

lb/cu yd

kg/m3

Percent
swell

Swell
factor

Clay,dry
Clay, wet
Earth, dry
Earth, wet
Earth and gravel
Gravel, dry
Gravel, wet
Limestone
Rock, well blasted
Sand, dry
Sand, wet
Shale

2,700
3,000
2,800
3,200
3,200
2,800
3,400
4,400
4,200
2,600
2,700
3,500

1,600
1,780
1,660
1,895
1,895
1,660
2,020
2,610
2,490
1,542
1,600
2,075

2,000
2,200
2,240
2,580
2,600
2,490
2,980
2,750
2,640
2,260
2,360
2,480

1,185
1,305
1,325
1,528
1,575
1,475
1,765
1,630
1,565
1,340
1,400
1,470

35
35
25
25
20
12
14
60
60
15
15
40

0.74
0.74
0.80
0.80
0.83
0.89
0.88
0.63
0.63
0.87
0.87
0.71

36

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Slide No. 72
ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Example 3

An earth fill, when completed, will occupy a net volume of


187,000 cu yd. The borrow material which will be used to
construct this fill is a stiff clay. In its "bank" condition, the
the
borrow material has a wet unit weight of 129 lb per cu ft (), a
moisture content () of 16.5 %, and an inin-place void ratio (e
(e)
of 0.620. The fill will be constructed in layers of 88-in. depth,
loose measure, and compacted to a dry unit weight (d) of
114 lb. per cu ft at a moisture content of 18.3%.
Compute the required volume of the borrow pit excavation.
excavation.

Borrow :

d =

1+

129
= 111 lb/ft 3
1 + 0.165

Fill (given) : d = 114 lb/ft 3

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

Example 3 (continued)

Slide No. 73
ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Fill:

27 ft 3
= 5,049,000 ft 3
Volume of Fill (VF ) = 187,000 yard3
3
1
yard

114 lb
= 575,586,000 lb
Weight of Fill (WF ) = 5,049,000 ft 3
3
1 ft
Borrow:

111 lb
Weight of Borrow = VB 3
ft

37

Slide No. 74

CHAPTER 4a. GEOTECHNICAL MATERIALS & COMPACTION

ENCE 420 Assakkaf

Example 3 (continued)
Note: Weight of Fill = Weight of Borrow
Hence:
111 lb
575,586,000 lb = VB 3
ft
575,586,000 lb 3
Volume of Borrow (VB ) =
ft = 5,185,460 ft 3
111 lb
= 192,054 cu yd
Alternatively (Simpler Approach):
Shrinkage Factor =

Compacted Dry Unit Weight 114


=
= 1.03
Bank Dry Unit Weight
111

Volume of Borrow (VB ) = (Shrinkage Factor )(Volume of Fill) =

114
187,000 yard3 = 192,054 cu yd
111

38