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INDEX

S.NO.

PRACTICAL TO PERFORM

1.

To determine the crushing value of aggregate .

2.

To determine 10% finer value of aggregates.

3.

(i)

To determine the abrasion value of aggregate by Los


Angeles apparatus.

(ii)

To find the suitability of aggregates for use in road


construction.

4.

Determination of impact value of aggregate.

5.

To determine optimum binder content of given bituminous mix by


marshall method of mix design.

6.

To determine the flash and fire point of a given bituminous material.

7.

To determine the Elongation index of the given aggregate sample.

8.

To determine the flakiness index of a given aggregate sample.

9.

To determine the softening point of bitumen.

10.

To measure the ductility of a given sample of bitumen

11.

To determine the viscosity of bituminous binder.

12.

1. Determination of abrasion value by Devals Abrasion Machine.

REMARK

EXPERIMENT NOAIM
EQUIPMENT

To determine the crushing value of aggregate .


The apparatus for the standard aggregate crushing test
consists of the following:
(i)
Steel cylinder with open ends, and internal diameter
15.2 cm, square base plate plunger having a piston of
diameter 15cm with a hole provided across the stem of
the plunger so that a rod could be inserted for lifting or
placing the plunger in the cylinder.
(ii)
Cylindrical measure having internal diameter of 11.5 cm
and height 18 cm.
(iii)
Steel temping rod with one rounded end, having a
diameter of 1.6 cm and length 45 to 60 cm
(iv)
Balance of capacity 3 kg with accuracy up to 1 g.
(v)
Compressions testing machine capable of applying load
of 40 tonnes, at a uniform rate of loading of 4 tonnes per
minute.

FIGURE:

THEORY

The principal mechanical properties required in road stones are


(1) Satisfactory resistance to crushing under the roller during
construction and,
(2) Adequate resistance to surface abrasion under traffic.
Also surface stresses under rigid tyre rims of heavily loaded animal,
drawn vehicles ate high enough to consider the crushing strength of
road aggregates as an essential requirement in India.
Crushing strength of road stones may be determined either on
aggregates or on cylindrical specimens cut out of rocks. These two
tests are quite different in not only the approach but also in the
expression of the results.

PROCEDURE

Aggregates used in road construction, should be strong enough to


resist crushing under traffic wheel loads If the aggregates are weak,
the stability of the pavement structure is likely to be adversely
affected. The strength of coarse aggregates is assessed by
aggregates crushing test. The aggregate crushing value provider. a
relative measure of resistance to crushing under a gradually applied
compressive load. To achieve a high quality of pavement, aggregate
possessing low aggregate crushing value should be preferred.
1. The aggregate passing 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on
10 mm IS sieve selected for standard test.
2. The aggregate is dried by heating at a temperature 100 0 c
to 1100 c for a period of 4 hours .
3. The cylindrical measure is filled by the test sample of
aggregate in three layers of approximately equal depth,
each layer being tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the
tamping rod.
4. After the third layer is tamped. the aggregates at the top of
the cylindrical measure is levelled off by using the tamping
rod as a straight edge.
5. Take 6.5 kg of aggregate for preparing two test samples .
6. The same weight of the sample is taken in the repeat test.
7. The cylinder of the test apparatus is placed in position on
the base plate; one third of the test sample is placed in this
cylinder and tamped 25 times by the tamping rod.
8. Similarly, the other two parts of the test specimen are
added, and each layer being subjected to 25 blows.
9. The total depth of the material in the -cylinder after tamping
shall however be 10 cm.
10. The surface of the aggregates is levelled and the plunger
3

inserted so that it rests on this surface in level position.


11. Load is then applied through the plunger at uniform rate of 4
tonnes per minute until the total load is 40 tonnes, and
then the load is released.
12. Aggregates including the crushed portion are removed from
the cylinder and sieved on a 2.36 mm IS sieve and the
material which passes this sieve is collected.
13. The above crushing test is repeated on second sample of
the same weight in accordance with above test procedure.
Thus two tests are made for the same specimen for taking
an average value.
OBSERVATION TABLE:SL.
NO.

SAMPLE NO.

Total Weight
of the dry
sample taken
(W1) gms.

Weight of the Aggregate


portion
of Crushing
crushed
Value
=
material
passing 2.36
mm IS sieve
(W2) gms.

1.

V1=

2.

V2=
Average crushing value of aggregate =

CALCULATION

Total Weight of the dry sample taken = W1 gms.


Weight of the portion of crushed material passing 2.36 mm IS sieve
= W2 gms.
The aggregate crushing value is defined as a ratio of the weight of
fines passing the specified IS sieves to the total weight of the
sample, expressed as a percentage. The value is usually recorded
up to the first decimal place.
Aggregate crushing value = 100W 2/W1

RESULT
PRECAUTIONS

The mean of the crushing value obtained in the two tests is


reported as the aggregate crushing value ______________.
1. The aggregate should be in surface-dry condition before
4

PROBLEMS

testing.
2. The test sample is weighed accurately.
3. The cylinder of the test apparatus should be placed in
accurate position on the base plate.
4. Loads should be applied at uniform time intervals.
5.
1. How is the crushing strength test carried out on cylindrical
stone specimen? Why is this test not carried out
commonly?
2. What is the specified standard size of aggregates? How is
the aggregate crushing value of non-standard size
aggregate evaluated?
3. What are the uses and applications of aggregate crushing
test?
4. What are the recommended maximum values of
aggregate crushing value for the aggregate to be used in
base and surface course of cement concrete?
5. Aggregate crushing value of material A is 40 and that of B
is 25. Which one is better and why?

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To determine 10% finer value of aggregates.


5

EQUIPMENT

The apparatus for the standard aggregate crushing test consists of


the following:
(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
( v)

Steel cylinder with open ends, and internal diameter


25.2 cm, square base plate plunger having a piston of
diameter 15cm with a hole provided across the stem of
the plunger so that a rod could be inserted for lifting or
placing the plunger in the cylinder.
Cylindrical measure having internal diameter of 11.5 cm
and height 18 cm.
Steel temping rod with one rounded end, having a
diameter of11.6 cm and length 45 to 60 cm
Balance of capacity 3 kg with accuracy up to 1 g.
Compressions testing machine capable of applying load
of 40 tonnes, at a uniform rate of loading of 4 tonnes
per minute.

FIGURE:

THEORY

Ten percent fines value is a measure of the resistance of aggregate


crushing subjected to loading and it is applicable to both weak and
strong aggregate.
Fine aggregates are defined as those passing 2.36mm sieve.
The test aims at looking for the forces required to produce 10% of
fine values (i.e. weight of fines aggregates/weight of all aggregates =
10%).
This test is very similar to Aggregate Crushing Test in which a
standard force 400kN is applied and fines material expressed as a
percentage of the original mass is the aggregate crushing value.
Granular sub-base is subjected to repeated loadings from truck
types. The stress level at the contact points of aggregate particles is
quite high. The sub-base in pavement is a structural layer used for
distribution of traffic loads into larger area. As such, it is of paramount
importance that the sub-base material should itself not be
disintegrated under severe traffic loads. Ten percent fines value can
be used to reveal the aggregate.

PREPARATION
OF
TEST
SAMPLE

1. The material for the test shall consist of aggregate passing a


12.5 mm IS Sieve and retained on a 10 mm IS Sieve and shall
be thoroughly separated on these sieves before testing.
2. The aggregate shall be tested in a surface-dry condition. If dried
by heating, the period of drying shall not exceed four hours, the
temperature shall be 100 to 110C and the aggregate shall be
7

cooled to room temperature before testing.


3. The quantity of aggregate shall be such that the depth of
material in the cylinder after tamping as described in step-4,
shall be 10 cm.
4. The appropriate quantity may be found conveniently by filling
the cylindrical measure in three layers of approximately equal
depth, each layer being tamped 25 times with the tamping rod
and finally levelled off, using the tamping rod as a straight-edge,
care being taken in the case of weaker materials not to break
the particles.

PROCEDURE

5. The weight of material comprising the test sample shall be


determined (Weight A) and the same weight of sample shall be
taken for the repeat test.
1. Test Procedure-The cylinder of the test apparatus shall be put in
position on the base-plate and the test sample added in thirds,
each third being subjected to 25 strokes from the tamping rod,
care being taken in the case one weak materials not to break
the particles. The surface of the aggregate shall be carefully
levelled and the plunger inserted so that it rests horizontally on
this surface, care being taken to ensure that the plunger does
not jam in the cylinder.
2. The apparatus, with the test sample and plunger in position,
shall then be placed in the compression testing machine. The
load shall be applied at a uniform rate so as to cause a total
penetration of the plunger in 10 minutes of about :
a. 15.0 mm for rounded or partially rounded aggregates (for
example, uncrushed gravels).
b. 20.0 mm for normal crushed aggregates, and
c. 24.0 mm for honeycombed aggregates (for example,
expanded shales and slag).
These figures may be varied according to the extent of the
rounding or honeycombing.
3. After reaching the required maximum penetration, the load shall
be released and the whole of the material removed from the
cylinder and sieved on a 2.36 mm IS Sieve. The fines passing
the sieve shall be weighed, and this weight expressed as a
percentage of the weight of the test sample. Normally, this
8

percentage will fall within the range 7.5 to 12.5, but if it does
not, a further test shall be made at a load adjusted as seems
appropriate to bring the percentage fines within the range of 7.5
to 12.5.
4. A repeat test shall be made at the load that gives a percentage
fines within the range 7.3 to 12.5.
OBSERVATION TABLE:SL. NO.

SAMPLE NO.

Total Weight of
the dry sample
taken
(W1)
gms.

Weight of the Percent fines =


portion of crushed
material passing
2.36 mm IS sieve
(W2) gms.

1.

V1=

2.

V2=

Percentage fines (Y) =

CALCULATION

The mean percentage fines from the two tests at this load shall be
used in the following formula to calculate the load required to give
10 percent fines:
Load required for ten percent fines =

RESULT

PRECAUTIONS

Where x = load in tonnes, and


y = mean percentage fines from two tests at x tonnes load.
The load required to produce 10 percent fines shall be reported to
the nearest whole number for loads of 10 tonnes or more, the
nearest 0-5 tonnes for loads of less than 10 tonnes.
1. The aggregate should be in surface-dry condition before
testing.
2. The test sample is weighed accurately.
3. The cylinder of the test apparatus should be placed in
9

accurate position on the base plate.


4. Loads should be applied at uniform time intervals.
5.
PROBLEMS

1. How will you determine Ten percent fines value?


2. What are the uses and applications of aggregate Ten percent
fines value?

10

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

(iii)

To determine the abrasion value of aggregate by Los


Angeles apparatus.

(iv)

EQUIPMENT

To find the suitability of aggregates for use in road


construction.
The apparatus as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) 1963 consists of:
(i)

(ii)

Los Angeles Machine: It consists of a hollow steel cylinder,


closed at both the ends with an internal diameter of 700 mm
and length 500 mm and capable of rotating about its
horizontal axis. A removable steel shaft projecting radially
88 mm into cylinder and extending full length (i.e.500 mm)
is mounted firmly on the interior of cylinder. The shelf is
placed at a distance 1250 mm minimum from the opening in
the direction of rotation.
Abrasive charge: Cast iron or steel balls, approximately
48mm in diameter and each weighing between 390 to 445g;
six to twelve balls are required.

(iii)

Sieve: 1.70, 2.36,4.75,6.3,10,12.5,20,25,40,50,63,80 mm IS


Sieves.

(iv)

Balance of capacity 5kg or 10kg.

(v)

Drying oven.

(vi)

Miscellaneous like tray.

FIGURE:

11

THEORY

The aggregate used in surface course of the highway pavements are


subjected to wearing due to movement of traffic. When vehicles
move on the road, the soil particles present between the pneumatic
tyres and road surface cause abrasion of road aggregates. The steel
reamed wheels of animal driven vehicles also cause considerable
abrasion of the road surface. Therefore, the road aggregates should
be hard enough to resist abrasion. Resistance to abrasion of
aggregate is determined in laboratory by Los Angeles test machine.
The principle of Los Angeles abrasion test is to produce abrasive
action by use of standard steel balls which when mixed with
aggregates and rotated in a drum for specific number of revolutions
also causes impact on aggregates.
The percentage wear of the aggregates due to rubbing with steel
balls is determined and is known as Los Angeles Abrasion Value.
RECOMMENDED VALUE:
Los Angeles test is commonly used to evaluate the hardness of
aggregates. The test has more acceptability because the resistance
to abrasion and impact is determined simultaneously. Depending
upon the value, the suitability of aggregates for different road
constructions can be judged as per IRC specifications as given:

12

PROCEDURE

The test sample consists of clean aggregates dried in oven at 105


110C. The sample should conform to any of the gradings shown in
table 1.
(i) Select the grading to be used in the test such that it conforms to
the grading to be used in construction, to the maximum extent
possible.
(ii) Take 5 kg of sample for gradings A, B, C & D and 10 kg for
gradings E, F & G.
(iii) Choose the abrasive charge as per Table 1 depending on grading
of aggregates.
(iv) Place the aggregates and abrasive charge on the cylinder and fix
the cover.
(v) Rotate the machine at a speed of 30 33 revolutions per minute.
The number of revolutions is 500 for gradings A, B, C & D and 1000
for gradings E, F & G. The machine should be balanced and driven
such that there is uniform peripheral speed.
(vi) The machine is stopped after the desired number of revolutions
and material is discharged to a tray.
(vii) The entire stone dust is sieved on 1.70 mm IS sieve.
(viii) The material coarser than 1.7mm size is weighed correct to one gram.

OBSERVATION TABLE:TABLE 1

13

Grading

Weight in grams of each test sample in the size range, mm


(Passing and retained on square holes.)
80-63

63-50

50-40

40-25

25-20

20-12.5

1250

1250

1250 1250

12

5000+25

2500 2500

11

4584+25

08

3330+25

06

2500+25

12

5000+25

12

5000+25

12

5000+25

12.5-10

10-6.3

6.3-4.75

2500 2500

D
E

4.752.36

5000
2500* 2500* 5000*

5000* 5000*

5000* 5000*

Number Weight
of
of
spheres charge,
(g)

Tolerance of + 2 percent is permitted

CALCULATION

Let original weight of aggregate sample = W 1 g


Weight of aggregate sample retained on 1.70 mm IS sieve after the
test = W2 g
Loss in weight due to wear = (W1 - W2) g
Abrasion Value or Percentage wear = ((W 1 - W2 ) / W1) X 100 %

RESULT
PRECAUTIONS

PROBLEMS

Los Angeles Abrasion Value =


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1. How is Los Angeles abrasion value expressed?
2. What are the desirable limits of los angeles abrasion
values specified for different types of pavement surfacing?
3. Briefly explain the Los Angeles abrasion test procedure.

14

EXPERIMENT NOAIM
EQUIPMENT

Determination
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

of impact value of aggregate


Impact testing machine,
Weighing balance,
Weight box,
Tamping rod,
2.36mm IS sieve etc.

FIGURE:

15

IMPACT VALUE APPARATUS


THEORY

Aggregate impact Value: - With respect to concrete, aggregate


toughness is usually considered the resistance of the materials to
failure by impact. The most successful is the one in which a sample
of standard aggregate kept in mould is subjected to 15 blows of a
metal rammer of weight 14 Kg. falling from a height of 38cms. The
quantity of materials passing through 2.36mm IS sieve will indicate
the toughness of the sample of aggregate.
The ratio of the weight of the weight of total sample taken in
expressed as a percentage this is known as aggregate impact value.
IS 283- 1970 specified that aggregate impact value shall not exceed
45% by weight for aggregate used for concrete other than wearing
surface and 30% by wearing for concrete for wearing surface, such
as runways, roads and pavement.
Aggregates are classified for type and user in the following according
to their impact value.
Impact Value.
SL.NO. Impact Value
1
Below 10
2
10-20
3
20-30
4
Greater than
30
5
Max limit in
30
6
35

Aggregate Classification
Exceptionally strong aggregate
Strong
Satisfactory for road surfacing
Used for road surfacing
For bituminous & cement concrete
For bituminous
16

FORMULA

PROCEDURE

Impact Value = W3 / (W2 W1) X100


Where,
W1 = Empty wt of cylinder.
W2= Wt of Cylinder + aggregate.
W3= Wt of fines passing through 2.36 mm sieve
1. Take the test sample consisting of standard aggregate
passing through 12.5mm and retained on 10mm I.S.
sieves. The aggregate about one third full of the
mould and tamped by 25 strokes by tamping rod. Add
further similar quantity of aggregate and tamp it and
fill the measure.
2. Determine the net wt of aggregate in mould.
3. Place the whole sample into a steel cylindrical cup
fixed on the base of the machine.
4. Raise the hammer wt about 14kgs to the height of
38cm above the surfaces of aggregate.
5. The sample was subjected to a total 15 such blows
each derived at an interval of not less than one sec.
6. Remove the crushed aggregate from the cup and sieve
through 2.36mm 1S sieve and weight the material
passed through 2.36mm.

OBSERVATION TABLE:SL.NO. Details

TRIAL NUMBER
1

Empty weight of the cylinder = W1 gm

17

AVERAGE

Weight of aggregate + Cylinder = W2 gm

Weight of fines passing through 2.36mm


sieve after the test = W3 gm

Weight of aggregate for test sample


= W2 W1 gm

Aggregate Impact Value


= {W3/(W2 W1)}100

CALCULATION
RESULT
PRECAUTIONS

PROBLEMS

Impact Value = {W3/(W2 W1)}100


The impact value of given sample of aggregate found out
to be
__________.
1. The aggregate used should be of good quality.
(2. Hammer should be properly handed otherwise it may
cause physical damage or injury.
3.
4.
5.
1. How is aggregate value expressed?
2. What are the desirable values of agg. Impact value for different
types of pavement surface?

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To determine optimum binder content of given bituminous mix by


marshall method of mix design.

EQUIPMENT

Mould assembly, sample extractor, compaction pedestal and hammer,


breaking head, loading machine flow meter, thermometers water bath
18

and oven

FIGURE:

THEORY
PROCEDURE

1. The coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and mineral filler


material should be proportioned and mixed in such a way that
final mix after blending has the graduation within the specified
range.
2. Approximately 1200 grams of aggregates and filler are taken
and
heated to a temperature of 175 C to 195 C.
3 .The compaction mould assembly and rammer are cleaned and
kept pre- heated to temperature of 100 C to 145 C. The bitumen is
heated to temperature of 121 C to 138 Co and the required quantity
of first trial percentage of bitumen is added to the heated aggregate
and thoroughly mixed using a mechanical mixer or by hand mixing
with trowel.
4. Then the mix is heated and a temperature of 150 to 160 C is
maintained and then the mix is transferred into the pre-heated mould
and compacted by giving seventy five blows on each side.
19

5. The specific gravity values of different aggregates, filler and


bitumen used are determined first. The theoretical specific gravity of
the mix is determined.
6. Soon after the compacted bituminous mix specimens have cooled
to room temperature, the weight, average thickness and diameter of
the specimen are noted. The specimens are weighted in air and then
in water.
7. The bulk density value of the specimen if calculated from weight
and volume.
8. Then the specimen to be tested is kept immersed under water in a
thermostatically controlled water bath maintained at 60 1 C for 30 to
40 minutes.
9. The specimens are taken out one, placed in the marshal test and
the marshal stability value and flow are noted.
10. The corrected Marshall Stability value of each specimen is
determined by applying the appropriate correction factor, i9f the
average height of the specimen is not exactly 63.5mm.
11. Five graphs are plotted with values of bitumen content against
the values of density, Marshall Stability, voids in total mix, flow value,
voids filled by bitumen.
12. Let the bitumen contents corresponding to maximum density be
B1 corresponding to maximum stability be B2 and that corresponding
to the specified voids content (at 4.0%) be B3 . Then the optimum
bitumen content for mix design is given by: B0 = (B1 +B2 +B3 )/3

OBSERVATION TABLE:CALCULATION
RESULT

The optimum binder content of the given mix is ______________

PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

EXPERIMENT NOAIM
EQUIPMENT

To determine the flash and fire point of a given bituminous material.


Pensky-martens closed cup tester, thermometer, heating source,
flame exposure.

FIGURE:

20

THEORY
PROCEDURE

1. All parts of the cup are cleaned and dried thoroughly before the
test is started.
2. The material is filled in the cup up to a mark. The lid is placed to
close the cup in a closed system. All accessories including
thermometer of the specified range are suitably fixed.
3. The bitumen sample is then heated. The test flame is lit and
adjusted in such a way that the size of a bed is of 4mm diameter. The
heating of sample is done at a rate of 5 to 6 C per minute. During
heating the sample the stirring is done at a rate of approximately 60
revolutions per minute.
4. The test flame is applied at intervals depending upon the expected
flash and fire points and corresponding temperatures at which the
material shows the sign of flash and fire are noted.

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

21

Trials
TEST

Mean Value

Flash Point
Fire Point

CALCULATION
RESULT

The temperature at which the flame application that causes a bright flash
____________ C and temperature at which the sample catches fire
________________ C.

PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To determine the Elongation index of the given aggregate sample.

EQUIPMENT

Length gauge, I.S.Sieve

22

FIGURE:

THEORY

The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages


of flaky and elongated particles contained in it. For base course and
construction of bituminous and cement concrete types, the presence
of flaky and elongated particles are considered undesirable as these
cause inherent weakness with possibilities of breaking down under
heavy loads. Thus, evaluation of shape of the particles, particularly
23

with reference to flakiness and elongation is necessary.


The Elongation index of an aggregate is the
percentage by weight of particles whose greatest
dimension (length) is greater than nine-fifths (1.8times)
their mean dimension. This test is not applicable for sizes
smaller than 6.3mm.

PROCEDURE

1. The sample is sieved through IS Sieve specified in the table. A


minimum of 200 aggregate pieces of each fraction is taken
and weighed
2. Each fraction is the thus gauged individually for length in a
length gauge. The gauge length is used should be those
specified in the table for the appropriate material.
3. The pieces of aggregate from each fraction tested which
could not pass through the specified gauge length with its
long side are elongated particles and they are collected
separately to find the total weight of aggregate retained on
the length gauge from each fraction.
4. The total amount of elongated material retained by the length
gauge is weighed to an accuracy of at least 0.1% of the weight
of the test sample.
5. The weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained
on specified sieves sizes are found W1,W2,W3, --------------And the total weight of sample determined = W1+W2+W3+
--------- = Wg.Also the weight of the material from each fraction
retained specified gauge length are found = x 1,x2,x3, -----------and the total weight retained determined = x 1+ x2+ x3 +
.. =X gm.
6. The elongation index is the total weight of the material
retained on the various length gauges, expressed as a
percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.
( x1 + x2 + x3+ ------- )
Elongation index = -------------------------------- 100
(W1+W2+W3+ --------)

OBSERVATION TABLE:Size of aggregates

Weight of the
24

Weight of the

Passing
through IS
Sieve mm

Retained on IS
Sieve mm

Length Gauge

50

40

81

40

25

58.50

25

20

40.50

20

16

32.40

16

12.5

25.60

12.5

10

20.20

10

6.3

14.7

CALCULATION
RESULT

fraction
consisting of at
least 200
pieces in gm

aggregates in
each fraction
retained on
length gauge
gm

The elongation index of a given sample of aggregate is


_____________%

PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To determine the flakiness index of a given aggregate sample.


25

EQUIPMENT

The apparatus consist of a standard thickness gauge, IS Sieve of size


63, 50, 40, 31.5, 25, 20, 16, 12.5, 10 and 6.3 and a balance to weight
the samples.

FIGURE:

26

THEORY

The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the


percentages of flaky and elongated particles contained in it.
For base course and construction of bituminous and cement
concrete types, the presence of flaky and elongated particles
are considered undesirable as these cause inherent weakness
with possibilities of breaking down under heavy loads. Thus,
evaluation of shape of the particles, particularly with reference
to flakiness and elongation is necessary.
The Flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage
by weight of particles whose least dimension (thickness) is
less than three- fifths (0.6times) of their mean dimension.
This test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3mm.

PROCEDURE

1. The sample is sieved with the sieves mentioned in the table.


2. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction to be tested are taken
and weighed (W1 gm)
3. In order to separate flaky materials, each fraction is then gauged
for thickness on thickness gauge, or in bulk on sieve having
elongated slots as specified in the table.
4. Then the amount of flaky materials passing the gauge is weighed
to an accuracy of at least 0.1% of test sample.
5. Let the weight of the flaky materials passing the gauge be w 1 gm.
Similarly the weights of the fractions passing and retained on the
specified sieves be W1, W2, W3, etc, are weighed and the total
weight W1+ W2+ W3+ = Wg is found. Also the weight of the
material passing each of the specified thickness gauge are found =
W1, W2, W3, --------- And the total weight of the material passing the
different thickness gauges = w1+w2+w3+ --------------- = wg is found.
6.Then the flakiness index is the total weight of the flaky material
passing the various thickness gauges expressed as a percentage of
the total weight of the sample gauged
(w1+w2+w3+ ------------------)
Flakiness Index = ------------------------------------------100
( W1+W2+W3+ --------------)

27

OBSERVATION TABLE:Size of aggregates

Weight of the
fraction
consisting of at
least 200
pieces in gm

Weight of the
aggregates in
each fraction
passing
thickness
gauge gm

Passing
through IS
Sieve mm

Retained on IS
Sieve mm

Thickness (0.6
times the
mean sieve)
mm

63

50

33.90

W1

w1

50

40

27.00

W2

w2

40

25

19.50

W3

w3

31.5

25

16.50

W4

w4

25

20

13.50

W5

w5

20

16

10.80

W6

w6

16

12.5

8.55

W7

w7

12.5

10

6.75

W8

w8

10

6.3

4.89

W9

w9

CALCULATION
RESULT

The flakiness index of the given sample of aggregates is


___________%.

PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

28

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To determine the softening point of bitumen.

EQUIPMENT

Ring and Ball apparatus, Water bath with stirrer, Thermometer,


Glycerin, etc. Steel balls each of 9.5mm and weight of 2.50.08gm.

FIGURE:

29

THEORY
PROCEDURE
1. Heat the material to a temperature between 75 100 C above
its softening point, stir until, it is completely fluid and free from
air bubbles and water. If necessary filter it through IS sieve 30.
Place the rings, previously heated to a temperature approximating
to that of the molten material. On a metal plate which has been
coated with a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and dextrin. After
cooling for 30 minutes in air, level the material in the ring by
removing the excess with a warmed, sharp knife.
2. Assemble the apparatus with the rings, thermometer and ball
guides in position.
3. Fill the bath with distilled water to a height of 50mm above the
upper surface of the rings. The starting temperature should be
50C.
4. Apply heat to the bath and stir the liquid so that the
temperature rises at a uniform rate of 50.5 C per minute.
5. Note down the temperature when any of the steel ball with
bituminous coating touches the bottom plate.

OBSERVATION TABLE:1
Temperature when ball
touches the bottom, 0C
Average
Softening point of bitumen
30

CALCULATION
RESULT
PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

The Softening value of given bitumen is ________________

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To measure the ductility of a given sample of bitumen


.

EQUIPMENT

Briquette mould, (length 75mm, distance between clips 30mm,


width at mouth of clips 20mm, cross section at minimum width
10mm x 10mm), Ductility machine with water bath and a pulling
device at a Precaliberated rate, a putty knife, thermometer.
.

FIGURE:

31

THEORY
PROCEDURE
1. Melt the bituminous test material completely at a temperature of 75
C to 100 C above the approximate softening point until it becomes
thoroughly fluid.
2. Strain the fluid through IS sieve 30.
3. After stirring the fluid, pour it in the mould assembly and place it on
a brass plate.
4.In order to prevent the material under test from sticking, coat the
surface of the plate and interior surface of the sides of the mould with
mercury or by a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and dextrin
5. After about 30 40 minutes, keep the plate assembly along with
the sample in a water bath. Maintain the temperature of the water
bath at 27 C for half an hour.
6. Remove the sample and mould assembly from the water bath and
trim the specimen by leveling the surface using a hot knife.
7. Replace the mould assembly in water bath maintained at 27 C for
80 to 90 minutes.
8. Remove the sides of the moulds.
32

9. Hook the clips carefully on the machine without causing any initial
strain.
10. Adjust the pointer to read zero.
11. Start the machine and pull two clips horizontally at a speed of
50mm per minute.
12. Note the distance at which the bitumen thread of specimen
breaks.
13. Record the observations in the proforma and compute the
ductility value report the mean of two observations, rounded to
nearest whole number as the Ductility Value.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
I.

Bitumen Grade

II.

Pouring Temperature

III.

Test Temperature

IV.

Periods of cooling, minutes

(a) In air

(b) In water bath before trimming =


(c) In water bath after trimming =
1

Initial reading
Final reading
Ductility = b-a (cm)
Ductility value

CALCULATION
RESULT
PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

The Ductility value of given bitumen is ________________

33

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

To determine the viscosity of bituminous binder.

EQUIPMENT

A orifice viscometer (one of 4.0mm diameter used to test cut back


grades 0
and 1 and 10mm orifice to test all other grades), water bath, stirrer
and
thermometer.

FIGURE:

THEORY
PROCEDURE

1. Adjust the tar viscometer so that the top of the tar cup is leveled.
Select the test temperature. Heat the water in water bath to the
temperature specified for the test and maintains it within 0.1 C of
the specified temperature throughout the duration of test. Rotate the
stirrer gently at frequent intervals or perfectly continuously
34

2. Clean the tar cup orifice of the viscometer with a suitable solvent
and dry thoroughly.
3. Warm and stir the material under examination to 20 C above the
temperature specified for test and cool, while continuing the stirring.
4. When the temperature falls slightly above the specified
temperature, pour the tar into the cup until the leveling peg on the
valve rod is just immersed when the latter is vertical.
5. Pour into the graduated receiver 20ml of mineral oil, or one
percent by weight solution of soft soap, and place it under the orifice
of the tar cup.
6. Place the other thermometer in the tar and stir until the
temperature is within 0.1 C of the specified temperature. When this
temperature has been reached, suspend the thermometer coaxially
with the cup and with its bulb approximately at the geometric center
of the tar.
7. Allow the assembled apparatus to stand for five minutes during
which period the thermometer reading should remain within 0.05 C of
the specified temperature. Remove the thermometer and quickly
remove any excess of tar so that the final level is on the central line
of the leveling peg when the valve is in vertical position.
8. Lift the valve and suspend it on valve support
9. Start the stop watch when the reading in the cylinder is 25ml and
stop it when it is 75ml. note the time in seconds.
10. Report the viscosity as the time taken in seconds by 50ml of tar
to flow out at the temperature specified for the test.

OBERVATION TABLE:
TEST 1

TEST 2

Test Temperature
Time taken to flow 50cc of
the binder
Viscosity
CALCULATION
RESULT
PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

The Viscosity of given bitumen is ________________

35

EXPERIMENT NOAIM

2. Determination of abrasion value by Devals Abrasion Machine.


.

EQUIPMENT

Deval Machine, Standard sieve, test material.

FIGURE:

THEORY

PROCEDURE

Devals abrasion test was devised to test rock fragments. Later this
test has been standardized by ASTM for finding the rate of wear of
stone aggregates by crushing them to tumble one over other in a
rattler in presence of abrasive charge. Deval abrasion test has also
been standardized by ISI as a test for abrasion of coarse aggregates.
In this test also both the abrasion and impact take place due to the
steel balls used as abrasive charge.
The test sample consists of dry coarse aggregates made of different
percentage of the various sizes conforming to any one of the grading
given in table

OBERVATION TABLE:
TEST 1

CALCULATION
RESULT
PRECAUTIONS
PROBLEMS

36

TEST 2