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FAKULTI TEKNOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN

UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

ELECTRONIC DEVICES LABORATORY

BTKR1334

SEMESTER II

SESSION 2012/2013

LAB 3: BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR

DATE
NAME OF GROUP MEMBERS &
MATRIX NUMBER

1.
2.
3.

NAME OF INSTRUCTOR

1.
2.
3.

EXIMINARS COMMENT

VERIFICATION STAMP

TOTAL MARKS

Document Number
N/A
Revision Number
1 (faizal Y) -250113

Issue Number
2/2/2011
Total Page
10

1.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES

To identify the BJT pins


To identify the characteristic of the BJT applications: Switch and Common-Emitter amplifier.

2.0 EQUIPMENT
Instruments:

Personal Computer with PSPICE Software


Digital Trainer
Oscilloscope
Function Generator
Digital Multimeter
Transistor 2N3904
2 pcs
Resistor 680 Ohm
1 pcs
Resistor 470 Ohm
1 pcs
Resistor 4.7 kOhm
2 pcs
Resistor 47 kOhm
1 pcs
Capacitor Ceramic
0.1uF

3.0 SYNOPSIS & THEORY


Bipolar Junction Transistor
Bipolar transistors are made of either silicon (Si) or germanium (Ge). Their structure consists of two
layers of n-type material separated by a layer of p-type material (npn), or of two layers of p-material
separated by a layer of n-material (pnp). In either case, the center layer forms the base of the
transistor, while the external layers form the collector and the emitter of the transistor. It is this
structure that determines the polarities of any voltages applied and the direction of the electron or
conventional current flow. With regard to the latter, the arrow at the emitter terminal of the transistor
symbol for either type of transistor points in the direction of conventional current flow and thus
provides a useful reference. One part of this experiment will demonstrate how you can determine
the type of transistor, its material, and identify its three terminals.
When the positive lead is connect to the base terminal and the negative lead to either of' the other
terminals, the transistor type is npn, if the meter reading is low (approximately 0.7 V for Si and 0.3 V
for Ge).
The relationships between the voltages and the currents associated with a bipolar junction transistor
under various operating conditions determine its performance. These relationships are collectively
known as the characteristics of the transistor. As such, they are published by the manufac turer of a
given transistor in a specification sheet. It is one of the objectives of this laboratory experiment to
experimentally measure these characteristics and to compare them to their published values.

Figure 1: Construction, analogy and Symbols of BJT

4.0 PROCEDURE

PART 1 (PRE LAB)


Use your knowledge on OrCAD PSpice to perform simulation before your lab session.

PART 2 (HARDWARE)
(a) Label the transistor terminals of Figure 2 as 1, 2, and 3. Use the transistor without
terminal identification for this part of the experiment.

Figure 2

(b) Set the selector switch of the multimeter to the diode scale.
(c) Connect the positive and negative leads according to the terminal listed in Table 1
available below. Record the readings in Table 1. Reverse the leads and record your
reading.
Meter Leads Connected
to BJT
Positive(Re
Negative(Bla
d)
ck)
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
1
2
3
3
2

Diode Check Reading

Table 1
(d) Based on the result in table 1, identify the terminals listed in Table 2 accordingly.

Transistor type
Transistor material
Collector terminal
Emitter terminal
Base terminal
Table 2

(e) Explain on your result in table 2 (e.g. on what reason the answers in table 2 were
given etc)

PART 3 (DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS)


A) Transistor as a switch
One of the applications of discrete transistors is that of a switch. Often one needs to control a
large current from a small current source. Stated another way, the current gain of the transistor
is used to drive a low impedance circuit from a high impedance source.
a) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 3
b) Set the function generator with a 1 Hz, 6Vp-p square wave (Offset at 0V). Or use lower
value of frequency for the input signal.
c) Record the voltages of VCE of the transistor in the ON and OFF states. Please fill the
correspond table (table 5) below.
d) Repeat step b) and c) with Vin Specified in table 3. Use 1 Hz as a signal frequency.

6 Vp-p

Figure 3: Transistor as a switch

Vin

VCE (ON)

VCE (OFF)

6Vp-p
4Vp-p
1Vp-p
Table 3

B) Transistor as an amplifier

Another application of BJT is a small signal amplifier. Transistor amplifiers are the
basis for integrated circuits.

0.1uF

Figure 4: Transistor as an amplifier


a)
b)
c)
d)

Construct the common-emitter amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4


Set the function generator with a 1 kHz, 0.2Vp-p sinewave (Offset at 0V).
Observe and sketch the voltages of Vin and Vout .
Repeat step b) and c) for frequency 10kHz, 100kHz and 1MHz

1 kHz Waveform

10 kHz Waveform

100 kHz Waveform

1 MHz Waveform

5.0 QUESTIONS & DISCUSSION

1) What is the purpose of 680 Ohm resistor in Figure 3?

2) How do the input and output waveform compare in experiment Part 3 (B)? Note
the salient differences.

3) What is the voltage gain at 1kHz, 10kHz and 100kHz for experiment Part 3(B)?

4) Comment your result in Part 3(B) when 1Mhz input was given to the circuit?

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