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Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka(UTeM)

Ayeh Keroh, Melaka, Malysia

Stella.pink80@hotmail.com

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka(UTeM)

Ayeh Keroh, Melaka, Malysia

hidayatulsyakira@gmail.com

between current and voltage for a resistor. But Ohms law by

itself is cannot be sufficient to analyze circuits. However, when it

is coupled with Kirchhoffs laws, we have a sufficient to

analyzing a large variety of electric circuit. Kirchhoff's laws are

usually considered as electrical current and voltage properties.

Nevertheless, they are sometimes applied to nonelectrical

systems. One way to increase their efficacy and range of

applicability would be to show Kirchhoff's laws, and the

properties deriving from them, as being independent of any

physical system as far as possible. Some of these properties,

derived exclusively from Kirchhoff's laws, are identified in this

paper, along with systems that verify them; these systems are

presented as examples.

Kirchhoffs current law,

i1 - i2 + i3 = 0

i1 + i3 = i2

Kirchhoffs second law is based on the principle of

conservation of energy. Kirchhoffs second law is also known

as Kirchhoffs voltage law. It states that the algebraic sum of

the voltage drops around any closed path of a circuit is zero at

all instants of time, the sum of the voltage drops must equal the

sum of the voltage rises.

I.

INTRODUCTION

introduced by Kirchhoffs laws. These are Kirchhoffs voltage

law (abbreviated KVL) and Kirchhoffs current law

(abbreviated KCL). Kirchhoffs laws were first introduced in

1874 by the German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (18241887).

Kirchhoffs first law is based on the law of conservation of

charge, which requires that the algebraic sum of charges within

a system cannot change. Kirchhoffs first law also known as

Kirchhoffs current law. It states that the algebraic sum of the

currents entering a given point in a circuit is zero at all instants

of time. In other words, the sum of the currents entering a

given point in a circuit equals the sum of the current leaving

that point at any instant of time.

Figure 2: A closed path to which Kirchhoffs law

A simple circuit is shown in Figure 1 to illustrate the

application of Kirchhoffs voltage law. The circuit contain the

circuit elements; the references polarities for voltages across

the elements have been shown. A voltage drop is positive when

we move from a + polarity to a -polarity is negative

otherwise. According Kirchhoff law, the algebraic sum of the

voltage drops must be zero, i.e.,

V1+ V2+V3+V4 = 0

Figure 1: Application of Kirchhoffs current law at point.

In Figure 1, the currents i1 and i3 are entering the point O

and the currents i2 are leaving it. Conventionally, the currents

to the sum of the voltage rises.

II.

METHOD

every device and the current through every device. It takes into

account the circuit topology (series/ parallel), multiple sources,

sources of different types, and components of different types,

and components of different types.

Kirchhoffs law starts with a drawing. The drawing is of a

circuit that is labeled with voltage polarities and current

directions, with loops and junctions as described earlier.

Kirchhoffs law circuit analysis cannot start without any

drawing.

A. Sign Conventions to be Follewed while

Applying Kirchhoffs Law

When current flows through resistance, the voltage drop

occurs across the resistance. The polarity of this voltage drop

always depends on direction of the current. The current always

flows from higher potential to lower potential.

Once all such polarities are marked in the given circuit, we

can apply KVL to any closed path in the circuit.

While tracing a closed path, if current go from negative

marked terminal to positive marked terminal that voltage must

be taken as positive. This is called potential rise.

While tracing a closed path, if current go from positive

marked terminal to negative marked terminal, which voltage

must be taken as negative. This is called potential drop.

B. Step to Apply Kirchhoffs Laws to Get Circuit

Equations

In order to apply Kirchhoffs laws to multiloop circuits

(circuits containing more than a single loop), we can follow

the steps outlined below:

1) Assign a current name and direction to each branch of the

circuit that is each section of circuit between two adjacent

nodes. Do not worries about trying to figure out the current

directions in each branch .Then just pick and draw in a

direction This gives us some number of unknown currents for

which we wish to solve. Well call this number of

unknowns N. Make sure that you assign a different current

name and direction only to each separate branch of the circuit,

which is not (necessarily) the same as assigning a different

current to each resistor!

required N equations.

4) Solve the N equations for the N unknown currents. This will

involve solving a system of simultaneous equations.

This method for solving currents is applied in the following

example.

III.

KIRCHHOFF S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS

that the algebraic sum of the current entering any node is zero.

The KCL equations for node 1 through 5 are

-i1 (t) + i2 (t) + i3 (t) = 0

i1 (t) - i4 (t) + i6 (t) = 0

i2 (t) i5 (t) + i7 (t) = 0

-i2 (t) + i4 (t) i5 (t) + i7(t) = 0

-i3 (t) + i5 (t) i8 (t) = 0

-i6 (t) i7 (t) + i8 (t) = 0

Note carefully that if we add the first for equation, we

obtain the fifth equation. What does this tell us? Recall that

this mean that this set of equation is not linearly independent.

We can show that the first four equation are, however, linearly

independent. Store this idea in memory because it will become

very important when we learn how to write the equation

necessary to solve for all current and voltage in a network in

the following chapter

Define a current i(t). We know from KCL that there is only

one current for a single-loop circuit. The current is assumed to

be flowing either clockwise or counterclockwise around the

loop

circuit. A small loop is a loop which does not contain any

secondary loops inside it. This gives us some number of

equations less than N.

3) In order to solve for the N unknowns, we will

need N equations. We have some number of equations which

is less than N from applying Kirchhoffs Voltage Law in

step 2. To get the remaining number of required equations we

apply Kirchhoffs Current Law to one or more nodes in the

KCL is only valid if the charge density remains constant

at the point to which it is applied. Consider the current

entering a single plate of a capacitor. If one imagines a closed

surface around that single plate, current enters through the

surface, but does not exit, thus violating KCL. Certainly, the

currents through a closed surface around the entire capacitor

will meet KCL since the current entering one plate is balanced

by the current exiting the other plate, and that is usually all

that is important in circuit analysis, but there is a problem

when considering just one plate. Another common example is

the current in an antenna where current enters the antenna

from the transmitter feeder but no current exits from the other

end.

Maxwell introduced the concept of displacement currents

to describe these situations. The current flowing into a

capacitor plate is equal to the rate of accumulation of charge

and hence is also equal to the rate of change of electric flux

due to that charge (electric flux is measured in the same units,

coulombs, as electric charge in the SI system of units). This

rate of change of flux called displacement current ID;

current law once again holds. Displacement currents are not

real currents in that they do not consist of moving charges;

they should be viewed more as a correction factor to make

KCL true. In the case of the capacitor plate, the real current

entering the plate is exactly cancelled by a displacement

current leaving the plate and heading for the opposite plate.

This can also be expressed in terms of vector field

quantities by taking the divergence of amperes law with

Maxwell's correction and combining with gauss law, yielding

(KVL), state that the algebraic sum of the voltage around any

loop is zero. KVL, states that "in any closed loop network, the

total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the

voltage drops within the same loop" which is also equal to

zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within

the loop must be equal to zero. This idea by Kirchhoff is

known as the Conservation of Energy.

Kirchhoff's voltage law could be viewed as a consequence

of the principle of conservation of energy. Otherwise, it would

be possible to build a perpetual motion machine that passed a

current in a circle around the circuit.

Considering that electric potential is defined as a line integral

over an electric field, Kirchhoff's voltage law can be expressed

equivalently as which states that the electric field of the

around closed loop C is zero.

can be "cut in pieces" in order to get the voltage at specific

components.

Formally, KVL states that the algebraic sum of the

voltages between successive nodes in a closed path in a circuit

is equal to zero.

Where

laws. From the properties of independent sources, we can

immediately conclude that a circuit cannot be solved if there

exists a loop that is formed exclusively of independent voltage

sources. Thus, short-circuiting an independent voltage source,

as remarked earlier, is a particular case where KVL is violated.

Similarly, a circuit cannot be solved if there exists a node to

which only independent current sources are connected. Also,

open-circuiting an independent current source is a particular

case where KCL is violated.

IV.

CONCLUSION

Kirchhoffs laws are enunciated here with no reference to

any electrical variable, but as topological properties,

exclusively; that is to say, they are properties of every set of

values assigned to networks branches and node pairs. This

approach allows an easier identification of the properties that

derive from Kirchhoffs first and second laws, exclusively. It

also allows a better identification of the systems where circuit

theory analysis methods can be directly applied. Finally, this

approach shows similarities between diverse systems with

apparently unrelated properties, which can make them more

easily understand able it is possible to generalize Kirchhoffs

current law to include a closed surface .by a closed surface we

mean some set of elements completely contained within the

surface that are interconnected. Since the current entering each

element within the surface is equal to that leaving the element

(i.e.., the element stores no net charge),it follows that the

current entering an interconnection of element is equal to that

leaving the interconnection. Therefore, Kirchhoffs current

law can also be stated as follows; the algebraic sum of the

current entering any close surface is zero.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

M. F. Gardner and J. L. Barnes, Transients in Linear Systems,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., vol. 1; 1942.

C. A. Desoer and E. S. Kuh, Basic Circuit Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969..

M. Nahvi and J. A. Edminister, Schaums Outline of Electric

Circuits,

fourth ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

[5]

[6]

[7]

M. Latif and P. R. Bryant, Network analysis approach lo

multidimensional modelling of transistors including thermal

effects, IEEE Trans.660 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS

AND SYSTEMS, VOL. CAS-31, NO. 7, JULY 1984Bv=O (3.la)

Computer-AidedDesign, vol. CAD-l, no. 2, pp. 94-101, Apr. 1982.

Uday A. Bakshi and Ajay V. Bakshi, Electric Circuit Analysis, 1 st

Edition, Technical Publications Pune, India, August 2006.

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