Chapter 2
disp([(b) Px = ,num2str(Px)]) ;
Analytical computations:
(a) E x =
5.5
x(t ) 2 dt =
2.5
5.5
4e t / 10 dt = 16 e t / 5 d t = 5 16 e t / 5
5.5
2.5
= 21.888
2.5
(The small difference in results is probably due to the error inherent in trapezoidalrule
integration. It could be reduced by using time points spaced more closely together.
(b) Px =
1
10
(3t )2 dt =
375
1
1
9t 2 dt = (3t 3 )50 =
= 75
5
5
5
Check.
(b) g(2 t )
(d) g( jt )
(e) g( jt ) + g( jt )
2
(f ) g(( jt 3) / 2) + g(( jt 3) / 2)
2
Answers: 7 cos(t ),
7e 7 + 2t , 7e j 2t 3,
7e ( t / 5) 11, 7e 3 cos(2t ), 7e 9
(a) g( z )
(d) g(g(t ))
(c) g(e jt )
Answers: (e jt 2)2, z 2 4 z + 4, 0,
t 4 8t 3 + 20t 2 16t + 4
u 2 + v 2 + 2 u v 4 u 4 v + 4,
0.0247 + j 0.155
0.0920 + j 0.289
0.0920 j 0.289
0.0247 j 0.155
sin ( 20 pt ) 0
sin ( 20 pt ) < 0
t , sin(2pt ) 0
x 2 (t ) =
.
t , sin(2pt ) < 0
and
Graph the product of these two functions versus time over the time range, 2 < t < 2.
Answer:
x(t)
2
2
2
2
(b)
g(t)
g(t)
3
2
1
1
3
61
62
Chapter 2
Answers:
g(t)
g(t)
g(t)
3
3
1
2
1
3
g(t1)
g(2t)
1 2
3
4
g(t1)
g(t)
1
3
g(2t)
3
12
1
2
3
(a)
g2(t)
g1(t)
(a)
2
2
1
0
1
2
4
2
2
2
1
0
1
2
4
2
g1(t)
(c)
g2(t)
2
t
(c)
2
1
0
1
2
4
(b)
g2(t)
g1(t)
(b)
2
1
0
1
2
4
2
1
0
1
2
4
2
0
t
Figure E.7
Answers: A = 2 , t0 = 1 , w = 1 ; A = 1/ 2 , t0 = 1 , w = 2 ; A = 2 , t0 = 0 , w = 1/ 2
4
g2(t)
(a)
g1(t)
8. For each pair of functions in Figure E.8 provide the values of the constants A,
t0 and a in the functional shifting and/or scaling to g2 (t ) = A g1 ( w(t t0 )).
0
4
4
5
0
t
8
10
10
4
g2(t)
(b)
g1(t)
8
10
0
4
5
0
t
8
10
10
0
t
8
10
10
4
g2(t)
g1(t)
5
0
4
5
0
t
8
10
10
0
4
Figure E.8
0
t
10
5
0
t
10
5
0
t
10
5
0
t
10
8
10
5
4
g2(t)
g1(t)
(e)
10
8
10
4
4
(d)
0
t
8
10
5
4
g2(t)
g1(t)
8
10
(c)
0
4
5
0
t
10
8
10
63
64
Chapter 2
Answers: A = 3, t0 = 2, w = 2
A = 3, t0 = 6, w = 1/ 3 or A = 3, t0 = 3, w = 1/ 3 ,
A = 2, t0 = 2, w = 1/ 3,
A = 3, t0 = 2, w = 1/ 2,
A = 2, t0 = 2, w = 2
9. Figure E.9 shows a graphed function g1 (t ), which is zero for all time outside the
range graphed. Let some other functions be dened by
t 3
g4 (t ) = g1
2
g2 (t ) = 3 g1 (2 t ), g3 (t ) = 2 g1 (t / 4),
Find these values.
(a) g2 (1)
(b) g3 ( 1)
(d)
g4 (t ) dt
g1(t)
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
Figure E.9
20
20
G( f )
20
20

Answer:
G( f 10) + G( f + 10) = e j 2 p( f 10 ) rect
f 10
f + 10
+ e j 2 p( f +10 ) rect
2
2
1
dx/dt
1
4 t
1
1
(a)
[d(t + 3) 2d(4t )] dt
d2 (3t ) dt
(b)
1/ 2
Answers: 1/2, 1
14. Graph the integral from negative innity to time t of the functions in Figure E.14,
which are zero for all time t < 0.
g(t)
g(t)
1
1
1
2
Figure E.14
Answers:
g(t) dt
g(t) dt
1
2
65
66
Chapter 2
(a) g(t ) = 2t 2 3t + 6
(c) g(t ) =
2t 3t + 6
1+ t
2
17. Graph the even and odd parts of the functions in Figure E.17.
(a)
(b)
g(t)
g(t)
1
t
1 2
1
Figure E.17
Answers:
ge(t)
ge(t)
1
1
1 2
1
go(t)
go(t)
1
1 2
1
67
18. Graph the indicated product or quotient g(t ) of the functions in Figure E.18.
(b)
(a)
1
1
1
1
1
1
g(t)
g(t)
1
1
1
1
1
Multiplication
(d)
(c)
1
Multiplication
1
1
g(t)
g(t)
1
Multiplication
Multiplication
(f)
(e)
1
1
...
...
1
1
g(t)
1
g(t)
1
1
Multiplication
1
1
(h)
(g)
1
1
1
g(t)
1
1
Figure E.18
Multiplication
Division
1 1
t
g(t)
Division
68
Chapter 2
Answers:
g(t)
g(t)
g(t)
1
1
...
1
1
1
g(t)
g(t)
1
1
1
g(t)
1
g(t)
1
1
1
1
1
19. Use the properties of integrals of even and odd functions to evaluate these
integrals in the quickest way.
1
(a)
(2 + t ) dt
1/ 20
[4 cos(10 pt ) + 8 sin(5pt )] dt
1/ 20
1/10
1/ 20
(b)
(c)
1
g(t)
1
...
1
4 t cos(10 pt ) dt
t sin(10 pt ) dt
1/10
1/ 20
1
(e) e t dt
(d)
(f )
te t dt
1
8
Answers: 0,
,
, 0, 1.264, 4
10p 50p
Periodic Signals
20. Find the fundamental period and fundamental frequency of each of these
functions.
(a) g(t ) = 10 cos(50pt )
21. One period of a periodic signal x(t ) with fundamental period T0 is graphed in
Figure E.21. What is the value of x(t ) at time t = 220ms?
x(t)
4
3
2
1
5ms 10ms15ms 20ms
1
2
3
4
T0
Figure E.21
Answer: 2
22. In Figure E.22 nd the fundamental period and fundamental frequency of g(t ).
g(t)
...
(a) ...
...
1
...
(b)
g(t)
...
...
1
...
...
1
(c)
t
g(t)
...
...
1
Figure E.22
Answers: 1/ 2, , 10 A2, 1/ 2, 4, 1/ 2
24. A signal is described by x(t ) = A rect(t ) + B rect(t 0.5). What is its signal
energy?
Answer: A2 + B 2 + AB
69
70
Chapter 2
25. Find the average signal power of the periodic signal x(t ) in Figure E.25.
x(t)
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
1 2 3 4
Figure E.25
Answer: 8/9
26. Find the average signal power of these signals.
(a) x(t ) = A
(c) x(t ) = A cos(2pf0 t + u)
Answers: A2 , A2 / 2, 1/ 2
27. Given the function denitions on the left, nd the function values on the right.
(a) g(t ) = 100 sin(200 pt + p/ 4)
(b) g(t ) = 13 4t + 6t 2
(c) g(t ) = 5e 2t e j 2pt
g(0.001)
g(2)
g(1/ 4)
28. Let the continuoustime unit impulse function be represented by the limit
d(x) = lim (1/a) rect(x /a), a > 0 .
a0
The function (1/a) rect( x /a) has an area of one regardless of the value of a.
(a) What is the area of the function d(4 x ) = lim (1/a) rect(4 x /a)?
a0
(b) What is the area of the function d( 6 x ) = lim (1/a) rect( 6 x /a)?
a0
(c) What is the area of the function d(bx ) = lim (1/a) rect(bx /a) for b positive and
a 0
for b negative?
29. Using a change of variable and the denition of the unit impulse, prove that
d(a(t t0 )) = (1/ a )d(t t0 ).
30. Using the results of Exercise 29, show that
1
(a) d1 (ax ) =
d( x n /a)
a n =
(b) The average value of d1 (ax ) is one, independent of the value of a.
(c) Even though d(at ) = (1/ a )d(t ), d1 (ax ) (1/ a )d1 ( x )
(f ) g(t ) = 3 ramp(2t )
( j) g(t ) = 2d1 (t 1/ 2)
( j) g(t ) =
(d) g(t ) =
34. A function g(t ) has the following description. It is zero for t < 5. It has a slope
of 2 in the range 5 < t < 2. It has the shape of a sine wave of unit amplitude
and with a frequency of 1/ 4 Hz plus a constant in the range 2 < t < 2. For t > 2
it decays exponentially toward zero with a time constant of 2 seconds. It is
continuous everywhere.
(a) Write an exact mathematical description of this function.
(b) Graph g(t ) in the range 10 < t < 10.
(c) Graph g(2t ) in the range 10 < t < 10 .
(d) Graph 2 g(3 t ) in the range 10 < t < 10.
(e) Graph 2 g((t + 1) / 2) in the range 10 < t < 10 .
71
72
Chapter 2
35. Using MATLAB, for each function below graph the original function and the
shifted and/or scaled function.
t < 1
2,
2t ,
1< t <1
3 g(4 t ) vs. t
(a) g(t ) =
2
3 t , 1 < t < 3
6,
t>3
(b) g(t ) = Re(e jpt + e j1.1pt )
(c) G( f ) =
5
f j2 + 3
vs. f
Signal in Television
x(t)
5
10
60
t (s)
10
Figure E.36
BPSK Signal
x(t)
1
t (ms)
1
Figure E.37
BPSK signal
38. The signal illustrated in Figure E.38 is the response of an RC lowpass lter to a
sudden change in its input signal. Write a mathematical description of it.
RC Filter Signal
x(t)
1.3333
4
6
Figure E.38 Transient response of an RC lter
20
t (ns)
39. Describe the signal in Figure E.39 as a ramp function minus a summation of step
functions.
x(t)
15
...
t
4
Figure E.39
...
t
9
Figure E.40
42. Given the graphical denition of a function in Figure E.42, graph the indicated
shifted and/or scaled versions.
g(t)
2
(a)
2
t 2t
g( t) 3 g(t )
2
g(t)
2
(b)
1
2
2
tt+4
g(t ) 2 g((t 1) / 2)
73
74
Chapter 2
43. For each pair of functions graphed in Figure E.43 determine what shifting and/or
scaling has been done and write a correct functional expression for the shifted
and/or scaled function.
g(t)
2
(a)
2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5 6
4 3 2 11
g(t)
2
(b)
2
1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1
Figure E.43
jf
1 + j f /10
(c) G( f ) =
1
250 f 2 + j3 f
46. Graph versus f, in the range 4 < f < 4 the magnitudes and phases of
(a) X( f ) = 5 rect(2 f )e + j 2pf
(a)
d(t ) cos(48pt ) dt
20
(c)
(b)
d(t 5) cos(pt ) dt
(a)
d1 (t ) cos(48pt ) dt
(b)
d1 (t ) sin(2pt ) dt
20
(c) 4 d4 (t 2) rect(t ) dt
0
52. Find the even and odd parts of each of these functions.
(a) g(t ) = 10 sin(20pt )
(c) g(t ) = 8 + 7t 2
(d) g(t ) = 1 + t
(e) g(t ) = 6t
(f ) g(t ) = 4t cos(10pt )
( j) g(t ) = (8 + 7t 2 ) sin(32pt )
53. Is there a function that is both even and odd simultaneously? Discuss.
54. Find and graph the even and odd parts of the function x(t) in Figure E.54.
x(t)
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4 5
Figure E.54
Periodic Signals
55. For each of the following signals, decide whether it is periodic and, if it is, nd
the period.
(a) g(t ) = 28 sin(400pt )
75
76
Chapter 2
(Hint: First nd the signal energy of a signal that approaches an impulse in some
limit, then take the limit.)
t
d
(f ) x(t ) = (rect(t ))
(g) x(t ) = rect(l) d l
dt
(b) x( t) = d1 (t )