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60

Chapter 2

Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

the function squared, divide the

period and display the result

disp([(b) Px = ,num2str(Px)]) ;

The output of this program is


(a) Ex = 21.5177
(b) Px = 75.015

Analytical computations:

(a) E x =

5.5

x(t ) 2 dt =

2.5

5.5

4e t / 10 dt = 16 e t / 5 d t = 5 16 e t / 5

5.5
2.5

= 21.888

2.5

(The small difference in results is probably due to the error inherent in trapezoidal-rule
integration. It could be reduced by using time points spaced more closely together.
(b) Px =

1
10

(3t )2 dt =

375
1
1
9t 2 dt = (3t 3 )50 =
= 75

5
5
5

Check.

2.10 SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS


1. The term continuous and the term continuous-time mean different things.
2. A continuous-time impulse, although very useful in signal and system analysis,
is not a function in the ordinary sense.
3. Many practical signals can be described by combinations of shifted and/or
scaled standard functions, and the order in which scaling and shifting are done is
signicant.
4. Signal energy is, in general, not the same thing as the actual physical energy
delivered by a signal.
5. A signal with nite signal energy is called an energy signal and a signal with
innite signal energy and nite average power is called a power signal.

EXERCISES WITH ANSWERS


(On each exercise, the answers listed are in random order.)
Signal Functions

1. If g(t ) = 7e 2t 3 write out and simplify


(a) g(3)

(b) g(2 t )

(d) g( jt )

(e) g( jt ) + g( jt )
2

(c) g((t /10) + 4)

(f ) g(( jt 3) / 2) + g(( jt 3) / 2)
2
Answers: 7 cos(t ),

7e 7 + 2t , 7e j 2t 3,

7e ( t / 5) 11, 7e 3 cos(2t ), 7e 9

Exercises with Answers

2. If g( x ) = x 2 4 x + 4 write out and simplify


(b) g(u + v)
(e) g(2)

(a) g( z )
(d) g(g(t ))

(c) g(e jt )

Answers: (e jt 2)2, z 2 4 z + 4, 0,
t 4 8t 3 + 20t 2 16t + 4

u 2 + v 2 + 2 u v 4 u 4 v + 4,

3. What would be the value of g in each of the following MATLAB


instructions?
t = 3 ; g = sin(t) ;
x = 1:5 ; g = cos(pi*x) ;
f = -1:0.5:1 ; w = 2*pi*f ; g = 1./(1+j*w) ;

Answers: 0.1411, [1,1, 1,1, 1],

0.0247 + j 0.155

0.0920 + j 0.289

0.0920 j 0.289
0.0247 j 0.155

4. Let two functions be dened by


1,
x1 (t ) =
1,

sin ( 20 pt ) 0
sin ( 20 pt ) < 0

t , sin(2pt ) 0
x 2 (t ) =
.
t , sin(2pt ) < 0

and

Graph the product of these two functions versus time over the time range, 2 < t < 2.
Answer:
x(t)
2

-2

2
-2

Scaling and Shifting


5. For each function g( t) graph g(t ), g(t ), g(t 1), and g(2t ).
(a)

(b)

g(t)

g(t)

3
2

-1
1
-3

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Chapter 2

Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

Answers:
g(-t)

-g(t)

g(-t)
3

3
1

-2

-1
-3

g(t-1)

g(2t)

1 2

-3

-4

g(t-1)

-g(t)

-1

-3

g(2t)
3
-12

1
2

-3

6. Find the values of the following signals at the indicated times.


(a) x(t ) = 2 rect(t / 4), x( 1)
(b) x(t ) = 5rect(t / 2) sgn(2t ), x(0.5)
(c) x(t ) = 9 rect(t /10) sgn(3(t 2)), x(1)
Answers: 9, 2, 5
7. For each pair of functions in Figure E.7 provide the values of the constants A,
t0 and w in the shifting and/or scaling to g2 (t ) = A g1 ((t t0 ) /w).
2
1
0
-1
-2
-4

(a)
g2(t)

g1(t)

(a)

-2

2
1
0
-1
-2
-4

-2

-2

2
1
0
-1
-2
-4

-2

g1(t)

(c)
g2(t)

-2

t
(c)

2
1
0
-1
-2
-4

(b)
g2(t)

g1(t)

(b)
2
1
0
-1
-2
-4

2
1
0
-1
-2
-4

-2

0
t

Figure E.7

Answers: A = 2 , t0 = 1 , w = 1 ; A = 1/ 2 , t0 = 1 , w = 2 ; A = 2 , t0 = 0 , w = 1/ 2

Exercises with Answers

4
g2(t)

(a)

g1(t)

8. For each pair of functions in Figure E.8 provide the values of the constants A,
t0 and a in the functional shifting and/or scaling to g2 (t ) = A g1 ( w(t t0 )).

0
-4

-4
-5

0
t

-8
-10

10

4
g2(t)

(b)

g1(t)

-8
-10

0
-4
-5

0
t

-8
-10

10

0
t

-8
-10

10

4
g2(t)

g1(t)

-5

0
-4
-5

0
t

-8
-10

10

0
-4

Figure E.8

0
t

10

-5

0
t

10

-5

0
t

10

-5

0
t

10

-8
-10

-5

-4

g2(t)

g1(t)

(e)

10

-8
-10

-4

-4

(d)

0
t

-8
-10

-5

-4

g2(t)

g1(t)

-8
-10

(c)

0
-4

-5

0
t

10

-8
-10

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Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

Answers: A = 3, t0 = 2, w = 2
A = 3, t0 = 6, w = 1/ 3 or A = 3, t0 = 3, w = 1/ 3 ,
A = 2, t0 = 2, w = 1/ 3,
A = 3, t0 = 2, w = 1/ 2,
A = 2, t0 = 2, w = 2
9. Figure E.9 shows a graphed function g1 (t ), which is zero for all time outside the
range graphed. Let some other functions be dened by
t 3
g4 (t ) = g1
2

g2 (t ) = 3 g1 (2 t ), g3 (t ) = 2 g1 (t / 4),
Find these values.
(a) g2 (1)

(b) g3 ( 1)

(c) [g4 (t ) g3 (t )]t = 2

(d)

g4 (t ) dt

g1(t)
4
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1

-1
-2
-3
-4

Figure E.9

Answers: 7/2, 3/2, 2, 3


10. A function G( f ) is dened by
G( f ) = e j 2 pf rect( f / 2).
Graph the magnitude and phase of G( f 10) + G( f + 10) over the range,
20 < f < 20 .
|G( f )|
1

-20

20

G( f )

-20

20
-

Exercises with Answers

Answer:
G( f 10) + G( f + 10) = e j 2 p( f 10 ) rect

f 10
f + 10
+ e j 2 p( f +10 ) rect
2
2

11. Write an expression consisting of a summation of unit-step functions to represent


a signal that consists of rectangular pulses of width 6 ms and height 3, which
occur at a uniform rate of 100 pulses per second with the leading edge of the rst
pulse occurring at time t = 0.

Answer: x(t ) = 3 [u(t 0.01n) u(t 0.01n 0.006)]


n=0

Derivatives and Integrals


12. Graph the derivative of x(t ) = (1 e t ) u(t ).
Answer:
x(t)
1
-1

-1
dx/dt
1
4 t

-1
-1

13. Find the numerical value of each integral.


5/ 2

(a)

[d(t + 3) 2d(4t )] dt

d2 (3t ) dt

(b)

1/ 2

Answers: 1/2, 1
14. Graph the integral from negative innity to time t of the functions in Figure E.14,
which are zero for all time t < 0.
g(t)

g(t)

1
1

1
2

Figure E.14

Answers:
g(t) dt

g(t) dt

1
2

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Chapter 2

Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

Even and Odd Signals


15. An even function g(t ) is described over the time range 0 < t < 10 by
0<t<3
2t ,

g(t ) = 15 3t , 3 < t < 7 .


2,
7 < t < 10

(a) What is the value of g(t ) at time t = 5?


(b) What is the value of the rst derivative of g(t ) at time t = 6?
Answers: 3, 0
16. Find the even and odd parts of these functions.
(b) g(t ) = 20 cos(40 pt p/ 4)

(a) g(t ) = 2t 2 3t + 6
(c) g(t ) =

2t 3t + 6
1+ t
2

(d) g(t ) = t (2 t 2 )(1 + 4t 2 )

(e) g(t ) = t (2 t )(1 + 4t )


2t 2 + 9
, 7t 2,
1 t2
6 + 5t 2
, 3t
t (2 t 2 )(1 + 4t 2 ),
1 t2

Answers: t (2 4t 2 ), (20 / 2 ) cos(40 pt ), 0, t


(20 / 2 ) sin(40 pt ), 2t 2 + 6

17. Graph the even and odd parts of the functions in Figure E.17.
(a)

(b)

g(t)

g(t)

1
t

1 2
-1

Figure E.17

Answers:
ge(t)

ge(t)

1
1

1 2
-1

go(t)

go(t)
1

1 2
-1

67

Exercises with Answers

18. Graph the indicated product or quotient g(t ) of the functions in Figure E.18.
(b)
(a)
1
-1

1
-1
1
-1

g(t)
g(t)

1
-1

1
-1

-1

Multiplication

(d)

(c)

-1

Multiplication

1
-1

g(t)

g(t)
1

Multiplication

Multiplication

(f)
(e)
1
1

...

...
-1

-1
g(t)

-1
g(t)

1
-1

Multiplication

1
-1

(h)

(g)
1

-1

-1
g(t)

1
1
Figure E.18

Multiplication

Division

-1 1

t
g(t)

Division

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Chapter 2

Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

Answers:

g(t)

g(t)

g(t)
1

-1

...

-1

1
-1

g(t)
g(t)

1
1

-1

g(t)

-1

g(t)

-1

-1
1
-1

-1

19. Use the properties of integrals of even and odd functions to evaluate these
integrals in the quickest way.
1

(a)

(2 + t ) dt

1/ 20

[4 cos(10 pt ) + 8 sin(5pt )] dt

1/ 20
1/10

1/ 20

(b)

(c)

-1

g(t)

-1

...

-1

4 t cos(10 pt ) dt

t sin(10 pt ) dt

1/10

1/ 20
1

(e) e t dt

(d)

(f )

te t dt

1
8
Answers: 0,
,
, 0, 1.264, 4
10p 50p
Periodic Signals

20. Find the fundamental period and fundamental frequency of each of these
functions.
(a) g(t ) = 10 cos(50pt )

(b) g(t ) = 10 cos(50 pt + p/ 4)

(c) g(t ) = cos(50 pt ) + sin(15pt )


(d) g(t ) = cos(2pt ) + sin(3pt ) + cos(5pt 3p/ 4)
Answers: 2 s, 1/ 25 s, 2.5 Hz, 1/ 25 s, 1/ 2 Hz, 0.4 s, 25 Hz, 25 Hz

Exercises with Answers

21. One period of a periodic signal x(t ) with fundamental period T0 is graphed in
Figure E.21. What is the value of x(t ) at time t = 220ms?

x(t)
4
3
2
1
5ms 10ms15ms 20ms

-1
-2
-3
-4

T0
Figure E.21

Answer: 2
22. In Figure E.22 nd the fundamental period and fundamental frequency of g(t ).

g(t)

...

(a) ...

...
1

...

(b)

g(t)
...

...
1

...

...
1

(c)

t
g(t)

...

...
1

Figure E.22

Answers: 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 1/ 2 s, 1 s, 1/ 3 s, 3 Hz


Signal Energy and Power

23. Find the signal energy of these signals.


(a) x(t ) = 2 rect(t )
(c) x(t ) = u(t ) u(10 t )
(e) x(t ) = rect(t ) cos(4pt )

(b) x(t ) = A(u(t ) u(t 10))


(d) x(t ) = rect(t ) cos(2pt )
(f) x(t ) = rect(t ) sin(2pt )

Answers: 1/ 2, , 10 A2, 1/ 2, 4, 1/ 2
24. A signal is described by x(t ) = A rect(t ) + B rect(t 0.5). What is its signal
energy?
Answer: A2 + B 2 + AB

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Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

25. Find the average signal power of the periodic signal x(t ) in Figure E.25.

x(t)
3
2
1
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1
-2
-3

1 2 3 4

Figure E.25

Answer: 8/9
26. Find the average signal power of these signals.
(a) x(t ) = A
(c) x(t ) = A cos(2pf0 t + u)
Answers: A2 , A2 / 2, 1/ 2

(b) x(t ) = u(t )

EXERCISES WITHOUT ANSWERS


Signal Functions

27. Given the function denitions on the left, nd the function values on the right.
(a) g(t ) = 100 sin(200 pt + p/ 4)
(b) g(t ) = 13 4t + 6t 2
(c) g(t ) = 5e 2t e j 2pt

g(0.001)
g(2)
g(1/ 4)

28. Let the continuous-time unit impulse function be represented by the limit
d(x) = lim (1/a) rect(x /a), a > 0 .
a0

The function (1/a) rect( x /a) has an area of one regardless of the value of a.
(a) What is the area of the function d(4 x ) = lim (1/a) rect(4 x /a)?
a0

(b) What is the area of the function d( 6 x ) = lim (1/a) rect( 6 x /a)?
a0

(c) What is the area of the function d(bx ) = lim (1/a) rect(bx /a) for b positive and
a 0
for b negative?
29. Using a change of variable and the denition of the unit impulse, prove that
d(a(t t0 )) = (1/ a )d(t t0 ).
30. Using the results of Exercise 29, show that
1
(a) d1 (ax ) =
d( x n /a)
a n =
(b) The average value of d1 (ax ) is one, independent of the value of a.
(c) Even though d(at ) = (1/ a )d(t ), d1 (ax ) (1/ a )d1 ( x )

Exercises without Answers

Scaling and Shifting

31. Graph these singularity and related functions.


(a) g(t ) = 2 u(4 t )

(b) g(t ) = u(2t )

(c) g(t ) = 5 sgn(t 4)

(d) g(t ) = 1 + sgn(4 t )

(e) g(t ) = 5 ramp(t + 1)

(f ) g(t ) = 3 ramp(2t )

(g) g(t ) = 2d(t + 3)

(h) g(t ) = 6d(3t + 9)

(i) g(t ) = 4d(2(t 1))

( j) g(t ) = 2d1 (t 1/ 2)

(k) g(t ) = 8d1 (4t )

(l) g(t ) = 6d2 (t + 1)

(m) g(t ) = 2 rect(t / 3)

(n) g(t ) = 4 rect((t + 1) / 2)

(o) g(t ) = 3 rect(t 2)

( p) g(t ) = 0.1 rect((t 3) / 4)

32. Graph these functions.


(a) g(t ) = u(t ) u(t 1)

(b) g(t ) = rect(t 1/ 2)

(c) g(t ) = 4 ramp(t ) u(t 2) (d) g(t ) = sgn(t ) sin(2pt )


(e) g(t ) = 5e t / 4 u(t )

(f ) g(t ) = rect(t ) cos(2pt )

(g) g(t ) = 6 rect(t ) cos(3pt )

(h) g(t ) = u(t + 1/ 2) ramp(1/ 2 t )

(i) g(t ) = rect(t + 1/ 2) rect(t 1/ 2)


t

( j) g(t ) =

[d(l + 1) 2d(l) + d(l 1)] d l

(k) g(t ) = 2 ramp(t ) rect((t 1) / 2)


(l) g(t ) = 3 rect(t / 4) 6 rect(t / 2)
33. Graph these functions.
(a) g(t ) = 3d(3t ) + 6d(4(t 2)) (b) g(t ) = 2d1 ( t / 5)
t

(c) g(t ) = d1 (t ) rect(t /11)

(d) g(t ) =

[d2 (l) d2 (l 1)] d l

34. A function g(t ) has the following description. It is zero for t < 5. It has a slope
of 2 in the range 5 < t < 2. It has the shape of a sine wave of unit amplitude
and with a frequency of 1/ 4 Hz plus a constant in the range 2 < t < 2. For t > 2
it decays exponentially toward zero with a time constant of 2 seconds. It is
continuous everywhere.
(a) Write an exact mathematical description of this function.
(b) Graph g(t ) in the range 10 < t < 10.
(c) Graph g(2t ) in the range 10 < t < 10 .
(d) Graph 2 g(3 t ) in the range 10 < t < 10.
(e) Graph 2 g((t + 1) / 2) in the range 10 < t < 10 .

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Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

35. Using MATLAB, for each function below graph the original function and the
shifted and/or scaled function.
t < 1
2,
2t ,
1< t <1

3 g(4 t ) vs. t
(a) g(t ) =
2
3 t , 1 < t < 3
6,
t>3
(b) g(t ) = Re(e jpt + e j1.1pt )
(c) G( f ) =

5
f j2 + 3

g(t /4) vs. t


G(10( f 10)) + G(10( f + 10))

vs. f

36. A signal occurring in a television set is illustrated in Figure E.36. Write a


mathematical description of it.

Signal in Television
x(t)
5
-10

60

t (s)

-10
Figure E.36

Signal occurring in a television set

37. The signal illustrated in Figure E.37 is part of a binary-phase-shift-keyed (BPSK)


binary data transmission. Write a mathematical description of it.

BPSK Signal
x(t)
1

t (ms)

-1
Figure E.37

BPSK signal

38. The signal illustrated in Figure E.38 is the response of an RC lowpass lter to a
sudden change in its input signal. Write a mathematical description of it.

RC Filter Signal
x(t)

-1.3333
-4
-6
Figure E.38 Transient response of an RC lter

20

t (ns)

Exercises without Answers

39. Describe the signal in Figure E.39 as a ramp function minus a summation of step
functions.

x(t)
15

...
t

4
Figure E.39

40. Mathematically describe the signal in Figure E.40.


x(t)
Semicircle
...

...
t

9
Figure E.40

41. Let two signals be dened by


1 , cos(2pt ) 0
and x 2 (t ) = sin(2pt /10).
x1 (t ) =
0, cos(2pt ) < 0
Graph these products over the time range 5 < t < 5.
(b) x1 (t / 5) x 2 (20 t )
(a) x1 (2t ) x 2 (t )
(c) x1 (t / 5) x 2 (20(t + 1))

(d) x1 ((t 2) / 5) x 2 (20 t )

42. Given the graphical denition of a function in Figure E.42, graph the indicated
shifted and/or scaled versions.

g(t)
2

(a)

-2

t 2t
g( t) 3 g(t )

-2

g(t ) = 0 , t < 2 or t > 6

g(t)
2

(b)

1
-2

-2

g(t ) is periodic with fundamental period, 4


Figure E.42

tt+4
g(t ) 2 g((t 1) / 2)

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Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

43. For each pair of functions graphed in Figure E.43 determine what shifting and/or
scaling has been done and write a correct functional expression for the shifted
and/or scaled function.

g(t)
2

(a)

-2 -1

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5 6

-4 -3 -2 -1-1

g(t)
2

(b)
-2

1 2 3 4 5 6

-2 -1

Figure E.43

In (b), assuming g(t ) is periodic with fundamental period 2, nd two different


shifting and/or scaling changes that yield the same result.
44. Write a function of continuous time t for which the two successive changes
t t and t t 1 leave the function unchanged.
45. Graph the magnitude and phase of each function versus f.
(a) G( f ) =

jf
1 + j f /10

f 1000 + rect f + 1000 e jpf /500


(b) G( f ) = rect
100
100

(c) G( f ) =

1
250 f 2 + j3 f

46. Graph versus f, in the range 4 < f < 4 the magnitudes and phases of
(a) X( f ) = 5 rect(2 f )e + j 2pf

(b) X( f ) = j5d( f + 2) j5d( f 2)

(c) X( f ) = (1/ 2)d1/ 4 ( f )e jpf


Generalized Derivative

47. Graph the generalized derivative of g(t ) = 3 sin(pt / 2) rect(t ).


Derivatives and Integrals

48. What is the numerical value of each of the following integrals?

(a)

d(t ) cos(48pt ) dt

20

(c)

d(t 8) rect(t /16) dt


0

(b)

d(t 5) cos(pt ) dt

Exercises without Answers

49. What is the numerical value of each of the following integrals?

(a)

d1 (t ) cos(48pt ) dt

(b)

d1 (t ) sin(2pt ) dt

20

(c) 4 d4 (t 2) rect(t ) dt
0

50. Graph the time derivatives of these functions.


(b) g(t ) = cos(2pt )

(a) g(t ) = sin(2pt ) sgn(t )


Even and Odd Signals

51. Graph the even and odd parts of these signals.


(b) x(t ) = 2 sin(4 pt p/ 4) rect(t )

(a) x(t ) = rect(t 1)

52. Find the even and odd parts of each of these functions.
(a) g(t ) = 10 sin(20pt )

(b) g(t ) = 20t 3

(c) g(t ) = 8 + 7t 2

(d) g(t ) = 1 + t

(e) g(t ) = 6t

(f ) g(t ) = 4t cos(10pt )

(g) g( t) = cos(pt ) /pt

(h) g(t ) = 12 + sin(4 pt ) / 4 pt

(i) g(t ) = (8 + 7t ) cos(32pt )

( j) g(t ) = (8 + 7t 2 ) sin(32pt )

53. Is there a function that is both even and odd simultaneously? Discuss.
54. Find and graph the even and odd parts of the function x(t) in Figure E.54.

x(t)
2
1
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
-1

1 2 3 4 5

Figure E.54

Periodic Signals

55. For each of the following signals, decide whether it is periodic and, if it is, nd
the period.
(a) g(t ) = 28 sin(400pt )

(b) g(t ) = 14 + 40 cos(60pt )

(c) g(t ) = 5t 2 cos(5000pt )

(d) g(t ) = 28 sin(400 pt ) + 12 cos(500 pt )

(e) g(t ) = 10 sin(5t ) 4 cos(7t )

(f ) g(t ) = 4 sin(3t ) + 3 sin( 3t )

56. Is a constant a periodic signal? Explain why it is or is not periodic and, if it is


periodic, what is its fundamental period?

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Chapter 2

Mathematical Description of Continuous-Time Signals

Signal Energy and Power

57. Find the signal energy of each of these signals.


(a) x(t ) = 2 rect(t )
(c) x(t ) = 3 rect(t / 4)
(e) x(t ) = d(t )

(b) x(t ) = rect(8t )


(d) x(t ) = 2 sin(200pt )

(Hint: First nd the signal energy of a signal that approaches an impulse in some
limit, then take the limit.)
t
d
(f ) x(t ) = (rect(t ))
(g) x(t ) = rect(l) d l
dt

(h) x(t ) = e( 1 j8p)t u(t )


58. Find the average signal power of each of these signals.
(a) x( t) = 2 sin(200pt )
(c) x(t ) = e j100pt

(b) x( t) = d1 (t )

59. A signal x is periodic with fundamental period T0 = 6. This signal is described


over the time period 0 < t < 6 by
rect((t 2) / 3) 4 rect((t 4) / 2 ).
What is the average signal power of this signal?