( ba )
( 12 )
( 12 )
remainder is 5
7
8
+2
( 12 )
5
( 12 )
+3=5
7
8
Therefore the
Factor Theorem
( ba )
=0
Eg, Show (2x 1) is a factor of f(x) = 2x  x 2x + 1. Hence, express f(x) as a product of three
factors.
( 12 )
=2
( 12 )
( 12 )
2
( 12 )
+1=0
(2x 1) (x + 1) (x 1)
Partial Fractions
Express
7 x+ 16
x +2 x8
7 x+ 16
x +2 x8
in partial fractions
A
x+4
B
x2
7x + 16 = A(x  2) + B(x + 4)
When x = 2
7(2) + 16 = 0A + 6B
30 = 6B
12 = 6A
B=5
7 x+ 16
x +2 x8
Repeated factors
7(4) + 16 = 6A
A=2
=
2
x+4
5
x2
Express
2 x5
(x4)
in partial fractions
2 x5
( x4)
A
x4
B
(x4)
multiply
both sides by (x 4)
2x 5 = A (x 4) + B
2(4) 5 = B
sub in x = 4
B=3
2 x5
( x4)
A = 2 (comparing x terms)
2
x4
3
( x4)
Improper Fractions
Express
x +7 x 14
(x+ 5)(x 3)
in partial fractions
x +7 x 14
( x+ 5)(x 3)
B
( x+ 5)
=A+
c
( x3)
when x = 5
x +7 x 14
( x+ 5)(x 3)
=1+
24 = 8B
3
(x+ 5)
B=3
when x = 3
2
(x3)
Binomial Series
(1+ x)n
= 1 + nx +
n ( n1 ) x
2!
n ( n1 ) (n2) x
3!
+ . +
xn
 this is in
(1+2 x )3
(1+2 x )3
= 1 + (3)(2x) +
(3)(4)(2 x )
2x 1
= 1 6x + 24x  80x
Expansion of
x < 1
(a+ x )
(3)(4)(5)(2 x)
3 x2 x1
1
2
(4 3 x)
Eg, Expand
1
3.97
evaluate
1
2
(4 3 x)
1
3.97
3 1
(1 x) 2
4
1
2
1
2
1 3 3
(
2 )( 2 )( 4 )
1 3
1 + ( )(
x +
2
4 )
2x 1
1
2
3
27
1+ x +
x
8
128
1
2
3
16
x+
27
256
for
34 x<1
Hence,
1
43 x
x <
4
3
3.97
43 x
3.97 = 4 3x
x = 0.01 (sub into expansion)
1
2
3
(0.01)
16
27
(0.01)
256
Eg, Express
2x
( 1+ x ) ( 12 x )
terms up to and including x, and state the values of x for which the expansion is valid.
2x
( 1+ x ) ( 12 x )
1
(1+ x)
1
(12 x)
1
(1+ x)
=1
=1
(1+ x)1
x
(1+(1) x + (12) (2x 1 ) x + (1)(32x 2) (3)
)
x1
= 1 x + x  x
1
(12 x)
= 1
=1
(12 x)
x ) (1 ) (2 ) (3)(2 x)
+
(1+(1)(2 x)+ (1)(22 x) (2
)
1
3 x 2x1
= 1 + 2x + 4x + 8x
1
(1+ x)
Therefore,
1
(12 x)
= 2 + x + 5x + 7x
valid for x < 1
Remember, if the range is not x< 1 for both, choose the smaller range so that it is
valid for both
Trigonometry
Compound Angles
Compound angle formulae are in your formula book on pg 5.
sin (A + B) = sinA cosA + cosA sinB
sin (A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB
cos (A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
cos (A B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB
tan (A
B) =
tanA +tanB
1tanA tanB
Double Angles
sin 2x = 2sinxcosx
cos 2x = cosx  sinx
tan 2x =
OR
cos 2x = 2cosx 1
tan (A B) =
OR
tanAtanB
1+tanA tanB
cos 2x = 1 2sinx
2 tanx
1tan x
Tripleangle formulae
sin 3x = 3 sinx 4 sinx
cos 3x = 4 cosx 3cosx
tan 3x =
3 tanxtan x
13 tan x
Both the double angle and tripleangle formulae are used in integration with powers of sin x and cos x
4 cos x dx
0
1
2
cosx =
4 cosx = 4
(1 + cos2x)
1
(1+cos 2 x)
2
= 2 (1 + cos2x)
= 2 + 2cos2x
4 cos x dx
2+2 cos 2 x dx
4
0
[ 2 x +sin 2 x ]
+sin 2( )
4
4
(( )
2
+10
( 2 ( 0 ) +sin 2(0) )
+2
2
Harmonic Form
Expressing any function f(
R sin (
) = a cos
+ b sin
or R cos (
in the form
is acute is called
R=
) = a cos
+ b sin
a +b
for R sin (
tan
b
a
, for R cos (
or
tan
a
b
+ b sin
+ 5 cos
13
2
for 0
Let 12 sin
+ 5 cos
360
, measured
+ 5 cos
12+5
R = 13
= R sin (
tan
R=
5
12
= 22.6
Therefore 12 sin
So, 12 sin
+ 5 cos
+ 5 cos
13
2
= 13 sin (
+ 22.6
becomes
13 sin (
+ 22.6
13
2
)=
= 7.4
, 127.4
sin (
+ 22.6
)=
sin (
+ 22.6
)=
13
2(13)
1
2
sin 1
+ 22.6
+ 22.6
= 30
( 12 )
, 150
Remember, the value for R gives the minimum or maximum value of the
function. For example, when R = 5, the minimum value will be at 5 and the maximum value at +5. This is due
to the fact the original function, sin x or cos x, has been multiplied by the constant term R.
Exponential Models
bt +c
time.
Eg, The value of a car depreciates in such a way that t years after it is new its
value, V, is given by the formula
V = 15000 x
(1.4)kt
(1.4)0
= 15000
8000
15000
2 k
(1.4)
(1.4)2 k
8000
15000
log
8000
15000
()
log
log(1.4)
c)
= 2k
k = 0.934 (3d.p)
When V = 5000,
5000 = 15000 x
5000
15000
log
(1.4)0.934 t
0.934 t
5000
15000
5000
15000
()
log
log(1.4)
(1.4)
= 0.934t
e kx
, where A is a constant.
=x
Eg, A pan of water is heated and then allowed to cool. Its temperature, T
, t
0.2 t
temperature of 12
a) When t = 0,
b) When t = 5,
T = 80
e0
T = 80
T = 80
0.2(5)
T = 29.4
c)
When T = 12,
e0.2 t
12 = 80
12
80
e0.2 t
12
80
ln
) = 0.2t
t = 9.486,
Further Calculus
Implicit Functions
These are functions that are not expressed in the form y = f(x), for example x + 2xy + y = 5.
Differentiate using the chain rule and product rule.
Eg, Differentiate xy + 3x  2y = 6
for xy, let u = x and v = y
2xy
dy
dx
dy
dx
dy
dx
dy
dx
dy
dx
dy
dx
+ y + 3  2
= 2xy
dy
dx
du
dx
=0
=1
+ y
(2xy  2) + 3 + y = 0
(2xy  2) = 3 y
dy
dx
3 y
(2 xy2)
3+ y
(2 xy2)
Hence, find an equation to the normal to the curve at the point (2, 1)
Gradient of tangent at x = 1
dy
dx
3+(1)
(2(2)(1)2)
Equation of normal is
y1=
1
2
1
2
2y 2 = x 2
2y = x
Parametric Equations
(x 2)
=
4
2
= 2
dv
dx
= 2y
This is where x and y are defined in terms of a third variable t. You may be asked to find a
Cartesian equation for parametric forms.
Eg, 1. x = t 4
y = 2t
t=x+4
sub in for t in the equation for yy = 2(x + 4)
2.
x = 3sin t,
y = 2cos t
x
3
sin t =
y
2
cos t =
x
3
()
y
2
()
= 1 or 4x + 9y = 1
Parametric Differentiation
dy
dx
In order to find
Eg,1.
x=3
t4
dy
dt
dy
dx
and
dt
dx
in terms of t for
x=3
t4
dy
dt
, y = 2t  3
y = 2t  3
dx
dt
= 12t
dt
dx
dy
dt
= 4t
1
3
12 t
therefore,
dy
dx
dy
dx
1
12 t 3
= 4t x
dt
dx
1
3t
2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x = 3t, y = 7 + 12t, at the point
where t = 2.
x = 3t
y = 7 + 12t
dy
dx
dx
dt
= 6t
= 12 x
1
6t
dt
dx
=
1
6t
dy
dt
= 12
2
t
When t = 2,
dy
dx
2
2
=1
= 7 + 12(2) = 31
y 31 = x 12
y = x + 19
a
b
numbers.
7
( x3 )1( x4) dx
5
1
( x3 ) (x4 )
1
( x3 ) (x4 )
1
x4
1
x3
Express
in partial fractions
7
1
1
dx
x4
x 3
Now integrate
[ ln ( x4 )ln ( x3) ]5
(ln 3 ln 4) (ln 1 ln 2)
ln
( 34 )
( 12 )
ln
= ln
3
4
1
2
()
= ln
( 32 )
Differential Equations
These are equations that include x and y as well as one or more derivatives of y with respect to x.
To solve these, you must separate the variables and integrate both sides with respect to x.
Remember, you only need to add one constant value, c.
Eg,
dy
dx
x +1
y
equation.
dy
dx
x +1
y
dy
dx
=x+1
y dy
y
2
when y = 3, x = 2
x +1 dx
x
2
+x+c
sub in the values
9
2
c=
=22+c
9
2
therefore,
y
2
x
2
+x+
9
2
y = x + 2x + 9
y=
x +2 x +9
dx
dt
a)
T
14000 x
, where x = 0 at t = 0
dx
dt
=T
14000 x dx
14000 x
2
Tt
7000x =
T dt
= Tt + c
+c
x = 0, when t = 0, therefore c = 0
7000x =
b)
Tt
(as required)
Given T = 10, when the ice starts forming, calculate how long it takes for the thickness of
the ice to reach 2cm.
7000x =
Tt
dx
dt
constant.
If the rate of decay of x is proportional to x, then
dx
dt
Eg, The value of a car depreciates in such a way that when it is t years old, the rate of
decrease in its value is proportional to the value, V, of the car at that time. The car
costs 12,000 when new.
a)
ekt
12000
dV
dt
= kV
1 dV
V dt
= k
1
V
dV =
[ kt ]t0
[ ln V ] V12000
dt
ln V ln 12000 = kt
ln
V
( 12000
)
V
12000
= kt
kt
ekt
V = 12000
(as required)
When the car is three years old its value has dropped to 4000.
1
3
b) Show that k =
ln 3
t = 3, when V = 4000
4000 = 12000
e3 k
e3 k
4000
12000
e3 k
1
3
3k = ln
1
k=
3
k=0+
1
3
ln 1 ln 3)
1
3
ln 3
k=
1
3
ln 3 (as required)
The owner decides to sell the car when its value reaches reaches 2000.
c) Calculate, to the nearest month, the age of the car at that time.
V = 12000
kt
when V = 2000:
kt
2000 = 12000
ekt
kt
1
3
1
6
= ln
1
6
1
6
ln (3)t = ln
ln
t=
1
6
1
ln (3)
3
Vectors
()
OA= 5
3

OA

OA
= 5 + 3 = 34
=
34
AB
and
AC
BC
AB
, then to find
+
BC
AC
AB
AC
AC
2.
Given that
BC
()
2
5
1
AB
()
, find
AC
() ()
()
2
5
1
3
8
4
()
3
4
2
5
3
3
AC
and
BC
BA
BC
BA
2
3
3
BC
BA
and
BC
()
2
BA
1 , find
3
CA
AC
() ()
()
3
4
2
2
1
3
5
3
1
Scalar Multiplication
If you multiply a vector by a scalar (magnitude), you get another vector. Eg, 3 x a = 3a
3a and a are parallel
In general, if u = kv then u is parallel to v
OP
=p=
()
1
2
3
OP
OQ
Therefore,
PQ
()
2
3
1
()
3
5
4
=q=
PQ
PQ
a) Find
PQ
and
()
2
1
3
() ()
5
4
1
7
5
4
and
()
11
7
10
, respectively.
QR
QR
()
4
2
6
b) Deduce that P, Q and R are collinear and find the ratio PQ:QR
() ()
4
2
6
=2
2
1
3
and
QR
=2
PQ
a
cos
= 90
and cos
Therefore, a.b = 0
b
When the angle between the two vectors a and b is acute, cos
= 0.
()
a1
a2
a3
If a =
()
b1
b2
b3
and b =
, then a.b =
a1 b1
()
2
1
2
a2 b2
and b =
a3 b3
()
4
3
12
, giving answers to
a
a.b =
b
cos
() ()
2
1
2
a.b =
4
3
12
a
2+1+(2)
b
4+(3 ) +12
169
Therefore, a.b =
a
b
cos
cos
=3
= 13
gives 19 = 3 x 13 cos
19
39
and
= 119.2
Perpendicular vectors
() ( )
2
t
4
1
3
t4
and
constant t.
a.b = 0
( )( )
2
1
t . 3
4 t4
2 3t 4t + 16 = 0
7t = 18
t=
18
7
=2
4
7
r = a + t (b a)
where t is a scalar
Eg, Find a vector equation of the line passing through A( 4, 1,  3) and B (6, 4, 12).
Show that the point Q (2, 0, 0) lies on the line AB.
r = a + t (b a)
r=
r=
( ) [( ) ( ) ]
() () () ()
4
1
3
4
1
3
+t
6
4
4 1
12
3
+t
10
5
15
4
1
3
2
1
3
+t
therefore,
()
x
y
z
( )
4 +2t
1t
3+3 t
compare against Q
()
2
0
0
() () ()
() ( )
2
0
0
2
0
0
4
1
3
4 +2t
1t
3+3 t
2
1
3
+t
x > 2 = 4 + 2t
t=1
y > 0 = 1 t t = 1
z > 0 = 3 + 3t
t=1
since t = 1 works for x, y and z, Q lies on the line.
Parallel and skews lines
If one vector is a scalar multiple of another the vectors are parallel.
() ( )
1
3
5
and
2
6
10
are parallel
In three dimensions, it is possible that lines are not parallel and also do not intersect. These are
called skew. You can find the angle between such lines by finding the angle between the direction
vectors.
Eg, a) show that these two lines are skew:
r1
()
2
1
4
()
5
1
6
and
r2
() ( )
5
4
2
12
6
3
You need to show they do not intersect by finding the values of and using a pair of
simultaneous equations and show they do not satisfy the third component.
x > 2 + 5
= 5 + 12
y > 1  = 4  6
check these values in z > 4 + 6(3) = 2 +3(1)
22 = 5
no, therefore they do not intersect and are skew.
b) Calculate the angle between the two lines.
( )( )
5
12
.
1 6
6
3
a.b =
a
b
cos
and b
5+(1 ) +6
2
12+(6 ) + 3
2
()
5
1
6
84
62 89
=
=
62
189
cos1
( 6284 189 )
= 39.1
()
12
6
3