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Respiratory System

Rubie Maranan-Causaren
Melanie P. Medecilo

RESPIRATION
= the sequence of events that
results in gas exchange
between the body s cells and
the environment
= uptake of molecular O2 from
the environment and the
discharge of CO2 to the
environment

RESPIRATION
Consists of
Ventilation
External Respiration
Internal Respiration

Ventilation includes inspiration (entrance of air


into the lungs) and expiration (exit of air from the
lungs)
External respiration gas exchange between
the air and the blood within the lungs
- blood then transports oxygen from the
lungs to the tissues

Internal respiration gas exchange between


blood and tissue fluid.
- the body s cells exchange gases with tissue
fluid and the blood then transports CO2 to the
lungs

RESPIRATION (TYPES)
Direct

O2

CO2

RESPIRATION (TYPES)

aorta

pulmonary capillary

pulmonary
arteries

Indirect

pulmonary
vein

external respiration
internal respiration

O2

CO2

alveolar lumen
capillary
red blood cell

heart

systemic vein

systemic artery

(a)

red blood cell


systemic capillary

CO2
O2

tissue cells

Characteristics:
Good respiratory organ
Thin with moist surface
With a large surface area
Highly Vascularized
Highly elastic
permeable
Delivery to cells is promoted by
respiratory pigments (hemoglobin)

Invertebrate respiratory structures

Cell Membrane

Epidermis

Tracheal System

Vertebrate respiratory structures

Land Environments :
Tracheae
Insects and other terrestrial arthropods
A respiratory system consists of
branched tracheae
Oxygen enters tracheae at spiracles
Tracheae branch until end in tracheoles
that are in direct contact with body cells

Tracheae of Insects

Land Environments: Lungs of Vertebrates


Terrestrial vertebrates have evolved lungs

Vascular outgrowths from lower pharyngeal region


Lungs of amphibians

Possess a short tracheae which divides into two bronchi


that open into lungs
Many also breathe to some extent through skin

Reptiles

Inner lining of lungs is more finely divided in reptiles


than in amphibians

Lungs of birds and mammals are elaborately


subdivided

All terrestrial vertebrates, except birds, use a tidal


ventilation system
Air moves in and out by the same route

Ventilation in Frogs

Ventilation in Terrestrial Vertebrates


Inspiration in mammals
Create negative pressure in lungs
The rib cage is elevated
The diaphragm lowers
Thoracic pressure decreases to less than atmospheric
pressure
Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs
Expiration in mammals
Create positive pressure in lungs
The rib cage is lowered
The diaphragm rises
Thoracic pressure increases to more than atmospheric
pressure
Forces air out the lungs

tidal ventilation mechanism

Respiratory System in birds

-One-way ventilation system


-higher partial pressure of oxygen

Human Respiratory System

The Human Respiratory Tract

Human Respiratory System


Air passes from pharynx through glottis
Larynx and trachea
Permanently held open by cartilage rings
Facilitates movement of air
When food is swallowed
The larynx rises, and
The glottis is closed by the epiglottis
Backward movement of soft palate covers the
entrance of nasal passages into the pharynx

Human Respiratory System


Trachea divides
Forms two primary bronchi
Bronchi enter the right and left lungs

Bronchi branch until there are a great number of


tiny bronchioles
Each bronchiole terminates in an elongated
space enclosed by alveoli

bronchiole

Path of Air
STRUCTURE

FUNCTION

Nasal Cavities

Filter, warm and moisten

Pharynx (throat)

Connection to larynx

Glottis

Permits passage of air

Larynx (Voice box)

Sound production

Trachea (Windpipe)

Passage of air to bronchi

Bronchi

Passage of air to lung

Bronchioles

Passage of air to alveoli

Alveoli

Air sacs for gas exchange

Lungs

RBCs (c. hemoglobin)

1 RBC contains 250m-280 m Hb


O2 + Hb = HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin)
CO2 + Hb = HbCO2 (carbaminohemoglobin)

Gas Exchange and Transport


Breathing stimulus
Increased H+ and CO2 concentrations in the blood
Not affected by O2 levels
Oxygen diffuses into pulmonary capillaries
Most combines with hemoglobin in red blood cells to
form oxyhemoglobin
CO2 diffuses out of pulmonary capillaries
Most carbon dioxide is transported in the form of
bicarbonate ion
Some carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin to
form carbaminohemoglobin

Pulmonary Ventilation

Ventilation
Humans breathe using a tidal mechanism
Volume of thoracic cavity and lungs is
increased by muscle contractions that lower
the diaphragm and raise the ribs
Create negative pressure in the thoracic
cavity and lungs, and then air flows into the
lungs during inspiration

Inspiration/Inhalation

Inspiration Versus Expiration

External and Internal respiration

Expiration/Exhalation

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Tidal volume
The amount of air
moved in and out with
each breath when we
are at rest.
Normally the tidal
volume is 500 cc. but
the amount inhaled
and exhaled can be
increased by deep
breathing.

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Inspiratory
Reserve
Volume/
Complemental
Air
The amount of air
that is taken during
the deepest
inspiration
About 3000 cc.

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Expiratory
Reserve
Volume/
Supplemental
Air
The amount of
air that is given
off during the
most forcible
expiration
About 1100 cc.

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Vital capacity
The maximum
volume of air that
can be moved in
and out during a
single breath.
Average of
3,500-4,000 cc.
Sum of Tidal,
Complemental and
Supplemental Air

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Residual
volume
Volume of air
that remains in
the lungs after
the most forcible
expiration/
exhalation
possible.
About
1000-1200 cc.

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Reserved Air/
Functional
Reserve
Capacity
Residual
Volume +
Supplement
al Air
About 3000
cc.

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Minimal Air
The amount of air that is left in the lungs after
the removal of the reserved air (supplemental
and residual air)
this is because when small bronchi collapse,
air is trapped within the lungs

Pulmonary Air Volumes and


Capacities
Total lung capacity
Sum of the residual
volume,
expiratory reserve
volume, tidal
volume, and
inspiratory
reserve volume;
about 5800 cc.

Respiratory rate
14 breaths per minute

Common Bronchial and Pulmonary Diseases

54

THE END

References

BIOLOGY 9th edition by Madder