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i

'I

lv o I tage
norma If'J*
P

ton iltions In | nreer

1. .

TL

ase Phase
ystem
Systems ProducedProduced
by

MEMBER AIEE

H. A. PETERSON
ASSOCIATE AIEE

P. H. LIGHT
ASSOCIATE AIEE

high voltages may occur with one and


two conductors open, with and without
faults, and suggests rules for the application of fuses and single-pole switches.
Interpreting this reference to single-pole
contacts.'-5 Motorsonsuchcircuitsmay switches very broadly, one may include
reverse their direction of rotation. Field any type of switching device, such as
observations of the reversal of direction single-pole disconnecting switches, oil
of rotation of motors have been repro- circuit reclosers, horn gap switches, oil
duced in the laboratory, and the results circuit breakers, etc. The interval of
reported.6 Failures of lightning arresters, time between the closing or opening of the
under conditions involving blowing of first and last phases may vary widely defuses or the opening of switches, appear to pending upon the type of switching device
have occurred because of high sustained and also upon the circuit being energized
fundamental - frequency overvoltages or de-energized. For example, in cases of
above the arrester ratings. Cases of the fuse operation, one phase or two phases
breakage of a line conductor with result- may be open for a relatively long time.
ing abnormal voltages have been noted. On the other hand, in the case of an oil
Abnormal voltage conditions have been circuit breaker, the interval of time durobserved on potential transformers.7 The ing which one contact would be closed and
V.D.E. Standard,8 in effect since October two opened, for example, would be very
1, 1925, points out the danger of using short. The time required for the transifuses and single-pole disconnecting tion to the condition of sustained voltages
switches under certain conditions, and depends upon the circuit constants and
states that the breakage of a conductor, the characteristics of the interrupting
where the end on the system side falls to device. It may vary from a few cycles to
ground, may give sustained voltages to a relatively long period of several seconds.
ground on the portion of the conductor The phenomena to be discussed in this
severed from the main system as high as paper may be associated with any inter3V
\times normal line-to-neutral voltage. rupting device which has characteristics
With the renewed interest in fuses at such that the interval of time between the
high voltages, and the possibility of using opening or closing of the first and last
single-pole switches, the problem of de- phases is of sufficient length to permit the
termining the conditions under which ultimate steady state voltage conditions
these devices may be safely used in cir- to be attained.
The phenomena encountered may be
cuits supplying ungrounded transformer
banks has attained new importance. This summarized as follows: When one conpaper gives the results of an investigation ductor of a three-phase circuit supplying
to determine the conditions under which an ungrounded, unloaded transformer
bank is open, there is a path for currents
Paper 40-105, recommended by the AIEE com- from the closed conductors through the
mittee on power transmission and distribution, and
presented at the AIEE summer convention, exciting impedance of the bank and the
Swampscott, MWass., June 24-28, 1940. Manu- capacitance between conductors to the
script submitted October 24, 1939; made availat)lethe-as
open conductor, and thence to ground
for preprinting May 10, 1940.
and P. H. LIGHT through the capacitance-to-ground of the
EDITHs CLARKE, H. A. PETERSON,
are in the engineering division of the central-station opnconductor.Teeiasmlrpth
iia ah
pn.Teei
department of the General Electric Company,
with two conductors open. When the
Schenectady, N. Y.
The authors wish to express their appreciation to three-phase system is grounded, the path
F. A. Hamilton, Jr., MS. B. Crary, and C. Concordia throu
for their helpful suggestions and to 0. K. Carter iS completed thogh the system grounded
and MW. J. Kirby for their assistance in making the neutrals; if ungrounded, through the
tests.
~~~~~~~capacitance-to-ground on the system side
eeece,selstedo
of the opening. With the inductive reactT has been recognized for some time
that in three-phase circuits, high voltges may cause damage to equipment
following the blowing of a fuse or the nonsimultaneous opening or closing of switch

1.aFor.alnmee
1941, VOL. 60

in series with line capacitance to ground,

~high voltage to ground at the transformer

Sing e-Phase Switc ing


EDITH CLARKE

paralleled by capacitance between conductors


ance of the transformer bank

bank terminal or terminals of the open


phase or phases will result for certain

ratios of the transformer exciting react-

ances to the line capacitive reactances.


The capacitances of the transformer bank,,

bushings, and bus structure, with no inter-

vening length of line, may be sufficient to,

produce high voltages on small banks,


such as potential transformers. The magnitude of the overvoltage is a function of
the ratio of the line capacitive reactance
to the transformer magnetizing reactance;
or, approximately, the length of line left:
connected between the break and the.
transformer for a given transformer
kilovolt-ampere and circuit voltage..
The higher the voltage and the smaller
the transformer kilovolt-amperes, the
more likely are high voltages to occur for
a given line length.
The solidly grounded and isolatedneutral systems were studied in detail.
Systems with neutrals grounded through
resistance or through reactance (includ-.
ing the ground fault neutralizer) were not
included as part of this investigation.
Single-phase, and three-phase shell-type.
and core-type transformers, with different:
primary and secondary connections, and
the effect of one and of two open conductors, with and without faults to
ground, are included in the study.
Basis of Study

Since the highest voltages are apt to,


occur with the unloaded or lightly loaded
transformer bank, the study was made,
with the bank unloaded. Voltage conditions were obtained with transformer
banks made up of three single-phase units
and with three-phase transformers of both
the shell-type and core-type, the windings on the line side and also the secondaries being connected alternately in delta
and wye for each case.
Figure la gives a one-line diagram of
the system studied, which consists of a
three-phase power source supplying a
transmission circuit and transformer bank
through fuses or single-pole switches. It
will be assumed that thethe-as
system is large relative to the kilovolt-.
ampere rating of the bank, and therefecnbeersnedyanquvet
fr a erpeetdb neuvln
generator with balanced line-to-line volt-.
ages and negligible positive- and negative-.
sequence impedances. If the system iS.
grounded, the equivalent generator will
balanced line-to-ground voltages
also
and its zero-sequence impedance will be

havre

Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage Conditions

329

EQUIVALENT
PH ASE POWERTHREESOURCE

00-

Figure 1 (left).
System studied

TRANSMISSION CIRCUIT

FUSES OR SINGLEPOLE SWITCHES

i,}tn

TRANSFORMER
BANK

-ln

diagram>No.

2.0

|| |||N

1L

No1

1.6

~~~~~(b) Miniature

(a)

system equivalent circuit

SINE WAVE GEN.

4 1.0

5N\N..tI njXTTTo TRASOMER

_jjC~C
_rC7~

BANoKr
0

negligible. Figure lb gives the miniature

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

TIMES NORMAL EXCITING CURRENT ( R.M.S. VALUES)

28

30

32

34

Figure 2. Transformer saturation curves used

(b). Wye-connected on line side, delta-connected

Cases Studied

Results

I. POWER SOURCE GROUNDED-LOAD


TRANSFORMERS UNGROUNDED

Curves showing the voltages to ground


of the open phase or phases as a function
of the system constants were obtained
from the miniature system by varying
the capacitances, Cl and C0, but keeping
their ratio constant. Data were obtained
for C = C0 and Cl-=2C0 for the solidly
grounded system. Calculated curves
were obtained by the methods given in
the appendix.
In order to demonstrate the effect of
various factors in producing overvoltages
and phase reversal, case 1 will be dis-

system9 equivalent circuit for figure la, in making calculations and in the miniature on load side.
with
which the
study was made.
The
system
Core type.
Sb thebsine-wave
impedance
generator
is
.
2.1. Shell
type.
oftesn-aegnrtri
1-Miniature system single-phase transformers B w hssoe-ofut
very low relative tothe exciting reactance -135 rms volts normal-1,185 ohms normal B
w hssoe
ofut
Of the unloaded transformer hank and the
mt
impeanc
line capacitive reactances used, so that
adgneilzing mpdneSame as for A.
balanced line-to-line voltages are applied 2-Assumed curve having more saturation than
to the circuit at a'b'c' under all conditions. curve 1. Used in making calculationls to de- II. POWER SOURCE UNGROUNDED
LOAD TRANSFORMERS UNGROUNDED
The syste becomes groundedone withtermine the effect of this factor
balanced line-to-ground voltages when 3-Miniature system three-phase core-type A. One phase open-no fault.
switch SN is closed. Resistance and transformer-158 rms volts line to line normal
reactance are neglected in the transmis- wye-840 ohms per phase normal magnetizing 1. Single-phase load transformers.
sion circuit since they are insignificant
impedance
(a). Delta-connected on line side, wye- or deltarelative to the capacitive reactances fcr 4-Miniature system three-phase shell-type conteonlasi.
the lengths of line under discussion. Cl' transformer- 144 rms volts line to line normal B. Oneconductor open-fault-to-ground
and C0' represent the positive and zero- wye-520 ohms per phase normal magnetizing
on system side of open conductor.
sequence capacitances, respectively, on
impedance
the system side of the fuses or single-pole 5-Miniature system special transformers 110 l. Single-phase load tranlsformers.
switches; C1 and C0, the positive and zero- rms volts normal- 13,200 ohms normal mag- (a). Delta-connected on line side, wye- or deltasequence capacitances of the circuit sup- netizing impedance. Single-phase trans- connected on load side.
plying the ungrounded, unloaded transformers
(b). Wye-connected on line side, delta-connected
former bank on the transformer side,onlasie
which in figurelbis
shown as wye con~~~~~~~(c). Wye-connected on line side, wye-connected on
whlch
lnfigurelb1S
shown
as wye conside.
~~~~~~~~~~~load
nected on the line side and delta con- reproductions to scale of typical power
nected on the load side.
transformers. All saturation curves give C. One conductor open-line-to-ground
To obtain various degrees of saturation the ratio of the applied sinusoidal rms
fault on load side of open conductor.
for the miniature, system transformer voltage to the exciting rms current, with 1. Single-phase transformers.
abanks, it was only necessary to vary the voltage and current expressed in terms of
normal operating voltage level in the normal voltage and normal exciting cur- (a).nelta-onnectdsoiindid,we-oedla
miniature system. In obtaining the re- rent, respectively.
lsults herein summarized, the miniature

impedance~~~~~

system single-phase transformers were


operated at a normal voltage corresponding to the saturation curve shown by
curve 1 of figure 2. Curve 2 of figure 2
gives a transformer saturation curve with
a slightly higher degree of saturation than
1 of the miniature system. Curve 5, for
the specially built miniature system trans-formers, gives an intermediate value of
saturation and because of its higher impedance, made it possible to cover a
greater range of system constants. These
curves are thought to be fairly typical Of
power transformer saturation. The saturation curves of the three-phase core-type
and shell-type transformers of the minia-

ture system are given by curves 3 and 4,


respectively, of figure 2. These units are

3:)0

A. One phase open -no fault.

l. Single-phase load transformers.

(a). Delta-connected on line side, wye- or delta(b.Wecnetdo iesd,dlacnetd


on load side.
(c). Wye-connected on line side, wye-connected on
load side.
2. Three-phase load transformers,
(a). Delta-connected on line side, wye-connected

1. Core type.

2. Shell type.

~~~~~Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal

cussed first in detail.

Throughout the

following discussion, Xm is the magnetiz-ing reactance of the transformer bank on

Voltage Conditions

AIEE TRANSACTIONS

>0

0
-J

ci

3 4~

~
~

~ 4~

~ ~ ~ ~ lll
~~~~c
11 XIlllll1111111
^.bS-F4

zU

H~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Xc1/Xm

Xcl/Xm

Figure 3a. Steady-state maximum voltages on


open phase with one conductor open. No
fault on system. Power source solidly
grounded
Cl = Co. Transformers delta-connected on line
side and delta- or wye-connected on load side
Curve 1-Saturation curve 1,

Figure22

Ho

'
Cuve2-atrtin ure2,Fiur
Curve 3-No saturation
0-Test points-miniature system with saturation curve 1, figure 2

I. SOURCE GROUNDEDA. ONE PHASE


OPEN-NO FAULT

Figure 36. Steady-state maximum voltages on


open phase with one conductor open. No
fault on system. Power source solidly
grounded
C1 =2C0. Transformers delta-connected on
line side and delta- or wye-connected on
load side
Cre1Strto uv ,Fgr

1. Sigle-Phase Transformers
(a). Delta-Connected onl Line Side,
Wye- or Delta-Connected on Load Side.
The curves of figure 3a give the steady~~~~state maximum peak voltage of the open
conductor on the transformer side of the
opening in terms of normal line-to-neutral ..
Curve 2-Saturation curve 2, figure 2
peak voltage with the transformer bank ..
Curve 3-No saturation
delta-connected on the line side, and 0-..OTest points-miniature system with saturawye- or delta-connected on the load side,
.
.tion curve 1, figure 2
versus Xci/Xm for C0= C1. Curves 1, 2,

the load side of the open conductor at


normal voltage. In more general terms,
..
and 3 are calculated by methods given in
it is the equivalent magnetizing reactance Figure 3c (lower left). Steady-state ...
the
maximum .. r appendix. Curve 1 gives calculated
of the total transformer kilovolt-amperes voltages on open phase with one conductor ..
voltages using saturation curve 1 Of
on 0~~~~~~~~~1
the load side of the fuse or single-pole open. No fault on system. Power source fi..
gure 2, which corresponds to the saturaswitch location. Thus, the single-load
solidly grounded
.
.
tion of the miniature transformers.
transformer of figure lb may be considered C1=C.Tasomrwy-oecdonle
as te euivaentof everl salle trns- side, wye- and delta-connected
on
load side ..
Figure 3d. Calculated steady-state maximum
3
l111J III1111111111111
L-3
H 2`o
votgsnopnhsewhoecndtr
formers all on the load side of the open Cuv1-auaincre1Fiue2 (a
conductor. Likewise, the positive- and
opren N-durton
fagure2()..vltae
uv on system.asPwihoersonurceo
zero-sequence capacitive reactances, xcl
Wy-we (b). woidygoudelt
sldygone
and XGO, respectively, should be inter- Curve 2-Saturation curve 2, figure 2. Wyepree in a moegnrl manrt o-wye
..
C1=2C0. TransFormers wye-connected on line
respond to total positive and zero-se- Curve 3-No saturation
..
side and delta-connected on load side
quence capacitances C1 and CO on the Curve 4-Neutral displacement saturation ..
Curve 1-Saturation curve 1, Figure 2
load side of the open conductor. Thus
curve 1, figure 2. Connection wye-wye ..
Curve 2-Saturation curve 2, figure 2
the results assume much broader signifi- Curve 5-Neutral displacement no saturation ..
Curve 3-No saturation
cance and are much more widely appli- 0-Test points-miniature system with satura- ..
Curve 4-Neutral displacement saturation
cable.
tion curve 1, figure 2. Connection wye-delta
..curve ii figure 2
4OO-JT .... / 3

0.1

1941, VOL. 60

0.5

1.0

2.0

5.0

Xcl/Xm

10.0

20.0

100

01

0.5

1.0

2.0

xcl/xm

Peterson, Lig;ht
Abnormal Voltage Conditions 3.
Clarke,

5.0

10.0

20.0

100

331

Points obtained by test on the miniature


system are indicated. The general shape
of calculated and test curves is the same,
although calculated voltages are higher
except for large ratios of xCi/Xm where
both calculated and test voltages are less
than normal.
The reference vector for calculated
voltages is the voltage of the open phase
on the system side of the opening, so that
with no capacitance in the circuit, or
x,,==o, the voltage on the transformer
side of the opening is -0.5 and the voltage
at the load is single-phase. As the ratio
xci/xm is decreased, the voltage of the
open phase increases in magnitude in the
negative direction and there is phase
reversal at the load. At xc,/x,n=2 for all
calculated curves and about 1.5 for the
test curve, the voltage-to-ground of the
-open phase is -2 and the line-to-line
voltages at the load are balanced normal
voltages of reverse phase rotation. (For
the calculated curves, Va= -2, Vb= - 1/2
-jv'3/2, V,= - '/2+j/3/2). As XcJ/Xm
is further decreased the voltage-toground of the open phase continues to in-

(b). Wye-Connected on Line Side,


Delta-Connected on Load Side, (c) WyeConnected on Load Side. Figure 3c for
C1 = C0 and figure 3d for C1 = 2Co, with
the transformers wye-connected on the
line side and delta- or wye-connected on
the load side, are similar to figures 3a
and b. Test values from the miniature
system for C1=CO and a wye-delta connection do not differ materially from
those for the transformer delta-connected
on the line side except that only two of the
stable voltage conditions indicated by
calculation for values of Xc,/xm in the
neighborhood of 1 and below, were obtained in test. Figure 5 shows oscillograms of the voltages for the two stable
conditions obtained at x,/xm = 0.15, with
C1=C0. Notestsweremadefor C1=2Co.

crease and remains negative on both calculated and test curves; but before xc,I/xm
= 1 is reached, two other steady-state
values of voltage are possible as indicated
by the calculated curve. Both are positive. Only one of these other indicated
values was obtained in test, the lower of
the two, until Xc,/Xm was decreased to
about 0.2 but for values of xc,/x,n=0.2
or lower, three different values were obtained by test. Figure 4 shows oscillograms of the voltages and currents for the
three possible stable conditions, any one
of which may occur, depending upon the
phases of the voltages at the instant the
switch is opened. With the switch
opened at random a number of times, the
high negative voltage or the low positive
occurred more often than the medium
positive voltage.
Curve 2 of figure 3a was calculated,
using transformer saturation curve 2 of
figure 2. Curve 3 is for no saturation.
Figure 3b is similar to figure 3a except

2. Three-Phase Transformers
(a). Delta-Connected on the Line Side,
Wye-Connected on the Load Side. Figure
6a gives test values of the voltage-to-

thatC1=2Co. Thevoltagesabovenormal

ground of the open phase for both coretype and shell-type transformers, deltaconnected on the live side anid wve-con-

of figure 3b are lower than those of figure


3a for the same values of xc1/xI'.

Figure 4 (left).

Delta -connected
load transformer;
co = C, 1 35 volts

line-to-line,lVxi
x= 0.212

Calibration: Current-Times normal crest transformer exciting


current. Volt-

age-Times

nor-

mal line-to-neutral crest voltage

Figure 5. Wyeconnected

load't=
transformer, C.
Cj, 120 volts
X.=0.1 5

C a I i b r a t i o n:
Times normal lineto-neutral crest

voltage

332

Zi

Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage Conditions

iE

aw

AIEE TRANSACTIONS

.1MStA--ca|4t Wffl :2.ith.ki64


0-

z4

12;]

.5

.0

2O

i.C

(0

10

2t0

-42

+z

.-J~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~x-2 o2
3
0.5

1.0

2.0

5.0

Xci/Xm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~LU-3

100

200

-4.

100

0.5

LO0

2.0

/Xc/

5.0

20.0

10.0

Figure 6a. Steady-state voltages on open phase with one conductor Figure 6b. Steady-state voltages on open phase with one conductor
open; no fault on system; power source grounded; C1 = Co, three- open; no fault on system; power source grounded; C1 = Co; threephase load transformer, connected line delta-load wye, ungrounded phase load transformer connected line wye-load delta, ungrounded
Normal line-line voltage=91 volts for coreNormal line-line voltage=79 volts for coretype, 72 volts for shell-type
type, 83 volts for shell-type
0OCore-type; middle leg opened
x-Shell-type; middle leg unopened
Figure 6c (below). Steady-state voltages on
r-Core-type; end leg opened
open phase with one conductor open; no fault
+-Shell-type; end leg unopened
middle leg opened
x-Shell-type;
on
power
source
grounded;
O-Core-type; middle leg unopened
system;
C=2Co;
+-Shell-type, end leg opened
three-phase load transformer connected line
r1-Core-type; end leg unopened

wye-load delta, ungrounded

nected on the load side, obtained from


the miniature system with saturation
curves 3 and 4, respectively, of figure 2
and with C1 =Co. Calculated values of
voltage for saturation curves 3 and 4 of
figure 2 are not given, but they would not
differ materially from those for saturation
curve 1 of figure 2, given by curve 1 of
figure 3a. In general, the curves of 6a
agree with those of 3a, except that the
medium voltage of the three calculated
voltage conditions indicated by calculations for values of x,, /Xm in the neighborhood of 1 and below, does not appear.
Instead, for x,1/x, lower than 0.7, higher
voltages than indicated by calculations
appear, giving three stable voltage condi-.

tin.a hiving
hs
volestales htave poniounc.Thedsuharmonichvtan ther
thaepror
coulcednotubehpreictd"byd etor
oused Howbevprer, thedctheydvolages
but littlemethig
than thed.Howev
the calculated voltagesotof ce 1,gh
1,

line-line

Normal

voltage = 79 volts
for core-type

O-Core-type; mid-

dle leg opened

rn-Coretpene
le pndw

end

J-1
0

-401

05

...

outlined in the summary of cases


studied, detailed results will not be
shown. Instead, a composite curve show-

as

ing the range of values obtained for all

figure 3a.

of the conditions studied using singlephase transformers is shown in figure 7.


The narrow range of values obtained

formers are wye-connected on the line


ie
the load side.
side and delta-connected onntela

indicates that the transformer connection


and its construction (core, shell, or single
phase) have little effect on the overvoltages obtained. Figure 8 shows some
typical
oscillograms for one case with
single-phase transformers.

obtained for values of Xci/Xm in the vicinity of 1 and below. The voltages of

II. POWER SOURCE UNGROUNDED


LOAD TRANSFORMERS UNGROUNDED

curve

(b). Wye- Connected on Line Side


Delta-Connected on the Load Side. Figures
ar
6cfrCforCadcfrC=2
6b for C,= CO and -b
Cl=2Co are
similar to figure 6a except that the trans-

side~
an.et-once
~~
~~~A
voltage condiltions were
Only
two ~
stable

L.

2.0

100

5.0

xcl/xm

100

200

side of the opening in per unit of normal


peak line-to-neutral voltage, with XcI/Xm
as parameter, for
as abscissa and
Cl= CO, and the voltage of the open conductor on the system side as reference
vector. Test points from the miniature
system with saturation curve 1 of figure 2

x8'I/x,l

x,'I/x,l

are indicated.
for various values of
The voltages are independent of
B.

ONE CONDUCTOR

x,l'.

OPEN-FAULT-TO-

GROUND ON THE SYSTEM SIDE OF


THOPNC

DU

ORSGL-AE

TRANSFORMERS

Figure 10 shows the range of voltages


A. ONE PHASE OPEN-NO FAULT
figure 6b are substantially the same as
those of figure 3c for the same
values of
.obtained for the vrarious transformer conthe transformer
Delta1. Single-Phase
Transformers-(a)
Xc/xm C1/ m
except
little difference
on the
or nections.
connections Here
make again
Line Side, Wyefor very low ratios of Xci/Xm. The wyeB. TWO PHASES OPEN-NO FAULT
Delta-Connected on the Load Side
Figure 9 gives the calculated voltages- delta connection tends to reduce the
While numerous factors were investigated in connection with this condition to-ground of the open phase on the load overvoltages somewhat in this region.

~~~~~~~~Connected

1941, VOL. 60

Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage Conditions

333

..1

I..
0I

an
4
Z

02
in

-4t

0.1

0.2

OA

0.6 O's 1.0

XC1/Xm

7. Steady-state voltages on open


phase with two conductors open. No fault on
system. Power source solidly grounded
Curve 1-Calculated using curve 1, Figure 2
for C1=Co and transformers delta-connected
on line side and wye-connected on load side
Curve 2-Same but Ci=2Co

2.0-- 4.0

6.0

aL0

10

Figure

Test points as follows-Miniature system using


saturation curve 1, figure 2. Single-phase
transformers
*-Cs = Co, transformers delta line wye load
a-C1 = 2C, transformers delta line wye load
x-Cl= Co, transformers wye line wye or
delta load
-C,=2Co, trdnsformers wye line wye or

Figure 8 (right).
Wye-connectedload
transformer; Co=
Cl, X.,/X. = 0.89.
Phases b and c open
Calibrations: Current-Times normal
crest transformer excurrent.
citing
Voltlge-Times norcres vletagneuta

delta load

C.

ONF CONDUCTOR OPEN-LINE-TOGROUND FAULT ON THE LOAD SIDE OF

THE OPEN CONDUCTOR-SINGLE-PHASE


TRANSFORMERS DELTA-CONNECTED ON
LINE SIDE-WYE- OR DELTA-CONNECTED ON LOAD SIDE

Figure 11 shows the voltages obtained


for this assumed condition. It should be
noted that the severity of this system
from the standpoint of overvoltages can
be defined for all practical purposes by
the ratio of total zero-sequence capacitive
reactance to transformer magnetizing
reactance. The ratio of xe,,/x, has relatively little effect.
The basic circuit which produces the
high voltages shown for this condition
is somewhat more complicated than those
circuits investigated in the other cases.
The principal elements of the circuit are
a capacitance in series with a parallel circuit composed of another capacitance and
a saturable reactance. These three elements can be identified with the zerosequence capacitance on the system side
of the open conductor, a parallel combi-

334

nation of system and load-side zero-secapacitances, and the magnetizing


reactance of the transformer respectively shown in figure lb.
If the total capacitive reactance of the
system (capacitance on both sides of the
opening) is large, no high voltages are
produced. As this reactance is decreased,
voltages are increased. Only one voltage
value is obtained until the ratio of total
zero sequence system capacitive reactance to magnetizing reactance,x('0+c')IIxm,
reaches a value of about 5.0. Below this
value, three stable voltage conditions
were obtained in some cases. As the
capacitive reactance was decreased, increasingly higher maximum voltages were
obtained. With a relatively low-loss
transformer (curve 1 of figure 2), the
high-voltage condition could be obtained
for values of X(co+c.,)/Xm down to 0.03,
although the low-voltage condition occurred more often. In other words, the
higher the voltage, the less would be the
probability of reaching that voltage.
With the smaller transformers (curve 5
of figure 2) which had slightly higher
quence

the high-voltage condition did not


losses,
occur for values of
below

0.2,
x(,+C,')/x,x
approximately. This elimination refers
only to the steady-state condition, however. In many cases, long transient con-

ditions were observed, which could be


quite hazardous to insulation or con-

nected apparatus. It is important to bear


this in mind in conlection with the protective criterion offered in the latter part
of this paper.
Figure 11 indicates that phenomena
such as this can take place in a relatively
large percentage of ungrounded systems.
Perhaps the occurrence of faults followed
by the blowing of fuses may account for
much of the heretofore obscure transient
phenomena occurring in isolated-neutral
systems.
Discussion
The manner of connecting the windings
of an ungrounded transformer bank,
whether delta-delta, delta-wye, wye-wye,
or wye-delta, does not materially affect
the magnitudes of the voltages-to-ground

Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage Conditions

AIEE TRANSACTIONS

obtained on the open phases except in the


very high voltage region. The voltagesto-ground of the open phases obtained
with three-phase transformers of both
core-type and shell-type are approximately the same as those obtained with
banks of. single-phase units, with the
same saturation curve, for corresponding
values of XcI/Xm.
The method of calculating sustained
voltages-to-ground when one or two conductors of the three-phase circuit supplying an unloaded, ungrounded transformer
bank are open, gives values which approximately check tests made on the miniature
system. Except where the calculated
voltages are less than normal, the method
gives values, which, with a few exceptions
in the very high voltage region, are too
high. The method can therefore be considered to give conservative values.
While test points agree quite well with
calculated results, it may be well to point
out that for some of the conditions which
gave rise to very high voltages, it was
possible to obtain slight variations in the
wave shape depending upon the initiating
conditions. For instance, the high voltage might, for one opening of the switch,
be essentially of fundamental frequency.
For a second opening of the switch, it
might be essentially of the same magnitude, but contain definite subharmonics.10,"' Some of these subharmonics
observed were of very low frequency.
For the ground system or the isolated
system effectively grounded through its
capacitance to ground, a fault to ground

Figure 9. Steady-state maximum voltages on


open phase on load side with one conductor
open. No fault on system. Power source

on the open conductor, or conductors,


on the system side of the opening, or openings, does not affect the sustained voltages
at the transformer bank terminals. A
fault-to-ground on the transformer side
of the opening reduces the voltage there
to zero. The highest voltages are obtained when two conductors are open
and there is no fault. Such a condition
can exist when a line-to-line fault is
cleared by the blowing of two fuses; and
also on a circuit controlled by single-pole
switches when one phase is closed before
the other two.
If the peak value of the sustained voltage-to-ground of the open conductor on
the load side of the opening in a solidly
grounded system with ungrounded transformer bank is to be kept below 1.73 times
normal line-to-neutral peak voltage, the
approximate length of line, 1, between the
opening and the transformer bank should
not exceed a value which can be approximately determined from the normal voltage of the line and the rated kilovoltamperes and exciting current of the transformers.
The positive-sequence capacity susceptance of overhead transmission circuits, 2rfC1, in micromhos per mile at 60
cycles varies from about 5 to 7, depending upon the diameter of the conductors
and the spacing between them. Since
these, in turn, depend upon voltage,
27rfC1 at a given voltage and frequency
can be estimated with fair accuracy. The
following values will be taken as typical
at 60 cycles:
KY

ungrounded

C1=C0. Transformers delta-connected


.
, on, line
side and wye-connectedl on load side
= + Test points-Miniaxco Ixc= 0
= 0.1 =
turesystem with satu= 0.5 = oEl ration curve 1, figure
= 1 .0 = 0 2
= 10 = x J

positive, but usually greater than one-half


the positive.
From figure 7 it is seen that calculated
voltages in the region of 1.73 times
normal line-to-neutral voltage are greater
than test voltages. Allowing for this,
and with C> Co0> C1/2, voltages above
1.73 times normal will probably not occur
with transformers of the usual degree of
saturation if the ratio Xcl/Xm is 6 or
greater.
With a criterion of xci/Xm=6,
106
kva
=6
X
xlxm= ImXc = Im 2
kva

I=
=

where

27rfCl kv2103

10/6 (2fC )(

kv2

1= allowable length of line between


fuses or single-pole switches and load

kva =

transformer bank
rated kilovolt-amperes
bank
transformer

27rfCi Micromhos
Per Mile

230-115 .....
5.2
.s..s.
.......69-34
6934.51.5 .........8.
siean1yecnece.o.oa.ie.45-386
Below 13.8 .6.5

The zero-sequence capacitance of overhead transmission circuits is less than the

Lii~~~~ttl,-~

191

O.6

lre eesn LgtA norma

the

Figure 10. Maximum steady-state voltages to


ground with one conductor open. Lineground fault on source side of open conductors. System neutral isolated. Ci = Co.
These results are independent of Ci' and Co'.
No load on system
Single-phase transformers, delta-connected on
line side-delta- or wye- on load side:
Curve 1-Calculated voltages based on saturation curve 1, figure 2
Curve 2-Calculated voltages based on saturation curve 2 of figure 2
Curve 3-Calculated voltages based on no
saturation
0 Test points-Miniature system saturation
curve 1, figure 2
Single-phase transformers, wye-connected on
line side:
Curve 4-Calculated voltages based on saturation curve 1 of figure 2 with wye-connected
side
odsd
load
Curve 5-Same as 4 but delta-connected load
side
(D-Test points-miniature system-saturation
curve 1, figure 2-delta-connected load side
x-Same but wye-connected load side

No-3

cc

of

I335
_S,ag Cnitin

kv = normal line-to-line voltage of the


circuit in kilovolts
= average per unit rms exciting cur27rfCl= positive-sequence capacitive susceptance of the circuit in micromhos per mile
The transformer exciting current 'm lies
between 1 per cent and 7 per cent, with
3.5 per cent not an unusual value. Figure
12, drawn with Im==3.5 per cent, gives
the approximate maximum allowable
length of line at various voltages supplying a transformer bank of given kilovoltampere rating and 3.5 per cent average
rms magnetizing current which can be
operated by fuses or single-pole switches
without the risk of voltages-to-ground
exceeding line-to-line voltages when two
conductors are open. This allowable
length of line varies directly as the per
unit rms exciting current of the bank and
inversely as the ratio xeI/xm selected. For
an rms exciting current of 7 per cent, the
allowable lengths of line would be doubled;
for an exciting current of 1 per cent, they
would be only about one-third those of
figure 12.
Since for some cases, the maximum
allowable length of line is very short, it
may be necessary under such conditions
to take into account the internal capacitance of the transformer bank itself.
Generally this will not have to be done.
For cases requiring this refinement,
representative values of internal capaci-

Figure 11. Isolated-neutral-system steadystate voltages on open phase with one conductor open. Fault to ground on load side of
open conductor curves calculated using saturation curve I of figure 2

0-)Test points for xo'I/x,o=0 and saturation


curve 1, Figure 2

xco'/xcou=

'

x
0
+ XCO,/XCO= 0o 1
A-xc'/x,O= 1 0

-xC0'/xC0=

10.0

tance of power transformers are given in


a convenient form by L. V. Bewley."2 In
figure 8 of his paper he gives the capacitance between windings in magnetomotive force per phase which may be considered as the capacitance to ground, as
the capacitance of the low-voltage winding to ground is usually larger, while the
capacitance of the high-voltage winding
to ground is small. The largest values of
capacitance given are on the order of
0.01 microfarad which would be equivalent to one mile of line, or less under most
conditions. For the higher voltages, the
internal capacitance would be equivalent
to considerably less than a mile of overhead line. Bushing capacitance, being
very small relatively, can be neglected.
In case the transmission circuit contains some cable, its equivalent in terms
of miles of overhead line may be used.
For that purpose, figure 13 has been prepared which makes it possible to evaluate
this equivalent readily. This figure has
been reproduced from reference 13.
For the ungrounded system, it is important to note that the criterion for the
solidly grounded system is adequately
conservative for conditions not involving
faults. See figure 9. However, should a
permanent fault occur on the system side,
the criterion must be changed if voltages
are to be limited to maximum values of
3 times normal. Figure 10 shows that
a minimum ratio of XCl/Xm= 25.0 approximately is required. This criterion alone
is not sufficient, however. If a permanent fault on the load side is assumed,
then the total zero sequence capacitance
of the system must be very large or else
very small in order to prevent overvolt-

25.0 approximately, depending upon the


In the light of our first
ratio
restriction on xcl/xm, this can be conservatively interpreted to impose the
restriction that xcox/Xm must be less than
0.04 or greater than 40.0 approximately
Figure 12 can be used to interpret the
first criterion in terms of total transformer
kilovolt-amperes, system voltage, and
maximum allowable lengths of line on the
transformer side of the open conductor
location. This figure is based on a ratio
of xc/Xmx= 6.0 and since for the isolated
system this must be increased to approximately 25.0, it is necessary to divide the
miles of line shown by approximately 4.J
in order to conform to the required
criterion.
In figure 14 the second criterion, imposing the restrictions on the lengths of
line on the system side of the open conductor, is shown. This curve shows that
overvoltages may be expected as a result
of faults and subsequent fuse blowing for
wide ranges of system constants.
In applying these criteria, it should be
pointed out that these are approximate
values. In some cases it may be necessary
to make a more detailed calculation.
Exact line configuration, exact magnetizing reactance, and more detailed knowledge concerning the particular transformer saturation characteristics may be
necessary. However, the curves serve to
indicate in general the range of system
constants which can give rise to high

ages. See figure 11. Therefore, in addition to imposing the criterion of xc,Ixm_
25.0, restrictions must also be imposed on
the ratio of Xco'/Xm.
From figure 11, the ratio of X(co+co')/xm
should be less than approximately 0.04 or
greater than a value varying from 4.7 to

open phase to

xn,,,/x,.

Figure 12. Solidly grounded system-approximate maximum allowable length of line


between fuses or single-pole switches and load
transformer to limit line-to-ground voltage on

Xci/xm

v'_ times normal, with two con-

ductors open
= 6
= 3.5 per cent rms average
current

NOTE: Allowable length of line varies directly with rms average exciting current

4-

NOT N INT11
0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.

>fl

>oHH tt tittS-Pyllll III I I I I 111111 z, ZLlt 11SS1114 L .3VI

0
4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i1.
1Co
90~ ~ ~ ~ 11 Nill + I I~~~~~~~~~~~~~x

V-

BUT

exciting

II

III

-1 i l-I[
ININT TRNFRERBNRATIN

goo
U.

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Ovrha

005

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FigtuImo
lineprml
.Overhead

t-

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10

ulipyby135201~

_ /

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XLA I11

11)

npstv-TTLTASOMRKAO

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IVO

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0,

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SIDEVO

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eta ytmapoi

pape insulated cableso assme dielectricag o queletliele


For~~~~~~~~~~~~~~rqie
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at ageo0quvln ln entsonsse

seun equpdivalusentofcabeso .mco

For

overvoltages n solated-neutral systems.


Under lightly loaded conditions, it would
f
' t
h 1
ti 1 hi h
isolated-neutral systems are subject to
ovevolageasa rsul offus blwin or
single-pole switching under permanent
fault conditions.
Obviously, there are other combinations
of faults and open conductors possible in
isolated systems which might tend to shift
somehatthe ang of onsantscauing
high voltages. In distribution circuits
involving single-phase feeders, a single

voltages if the system constants are of


certain values. Generally such cases can
be
iterretd i ters o thee-has
constants such that some one of the
i his aper
dd
1
i
can be used directly in determining the

tion, will depend upon the characteristics


of the motors, their loads and the voltages
at their terminals, the latter being influenced by the presence of the motors
and other loads on the transformers.

it s o 136KV-,,
ol
I
I
o'lgroude sstm by goning=
thIeurl
slow down and stop. They will then re- which may cause voltages greater than V/3
open
verse their direction of rotation if the
witrh one
negative sequence torque is great enough
I
to overcome the positive sequence torque Xco'/Xm must be greater than 40.0 or less than
arrZsters
tance the appllcalon of ll.h0ng
, . .
0 04
and provide the torque required to start
the motors from rest. With a motor run- Im =3.5 per cent rms average exciting current
ning, the positive sequence torque is NOTE: Allowable length of line varies directly with rms average exciting current
greater than the negative for equal pOSlNOTE: This criterion alone is not sufficient
tie .n ngatv squec votge.A
stadstill these torques are equal for for elimination of overvoltages. The criterion
of figure 12 must be met also. Maximum perequal voltages.
The conditions under which loaded missible miles of line in figure 12 should be

timegsInornmal

colnducto landaid

blown fuse can sometimes cause over- motorswillreversetheirdirection of rota- divided by 4.0 for the isolated-neutral system

overvoltages possible.
The effect of load on the transformers is to

reduce the voltages on the open phases


obtained with the transformers unloaded,
With the transformers loaded and phase
vi open, Va, the voltage of the open phase
on the transformer side of the opening
referred to the voltage on the system
side, will have a quadrature component
in addition to the positive or negative
in-phase component. If the in-phase
component
negative and greater than
cmoetis
-0-5, Va2 will be greater than Vai and
there will be phase reversal. Running
motors, however, will not slow down If
the difference between the positive- and

1941, VOL. 60

Since reversal of the direction of rotation

three-phase core- or shell-type) make little


difference in the magnitudes of voltage or in
thentregrions in which hgh votge ars n

has occurred in practice following the

3 High overvoltages can be eliminated in

opening of a conductor, it iS reasonable


tassum that the higher the negative
voltage produced on the open phase with
the transformer unloaded, the more apt
is reversal of thle direction of rotation of
motors to occur.

Of the load transformers.


4. The regions within which abnormal voltages are obtained, are considerably extended
by the effects of transformer saturation.
5 The regions wherein voltages in solidly
grounded systems in excess of rated line-toof imporoccur, and therefore
line voltages
tac
in th 'plctono.
ihnngarses
are for the usual cases confined to ratios of
Xci/Xm less than three for one conductor
open, and less than six for two conductors
open.Toaodtepssblt of obann un6.
duly high atbnnormSasl voltages tin soglidly
ruddsses igepl wthso
fuses should not be used where the length of
line, or equivalent capacitance, between the

Conclusions
1. In athree-phase power system, high susresult
in or
some
~~~from
openingmay
of one
twocases
conductors
tamnedthevoltages
which separates ungrounded transformers
from the rest of the system.
2. The transformer connections (wye or
delta) and construction (single-phase, or

Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage Conditions

337

break and ungrounded transformers supplying the load is greater than that given by
equation 1. Figure 12 can be used directly
when the rms exciting current is 3.5 per cent.
7. The highest voltages appear in an ungrounded system with the simultaneous
occurrence of an open conductor and line-toground fault, such as might correspond to
the breaking and falling to ground of a line
conductor.
8. From the standpoint of open conductors
without faults, the criterion given in conclusion 6 is always conservative for ungrounded systems. However, if the criteria
are to include the effects of permanent
faults, then it is necessary to impose two
approximate requirements, namely, xcl/Xm
must be greater than 25.0, and Xco/xm must
be either less than 0.04 or greater than 40.0.
Figures 12 and 14 can be used when the
rms exciting current is 3.5 per cent.
.
.
9. The voltages arising from open conductors can be calculated with reasonable
accuracy by consideration only of the fundamental-frequency components of voltage
and current as outlined in the appendix.

Appendix
Analytic Determination of the Sustaned Voltage to Ground on Open
Conductors in a Circuit Supplying
an Unloaded Transformer Bank
Using figurcs lb, the following additional
assumptions will be made:
1. The sustailned voltages to be determined
are substantially sinusoidal voltages of
fudmna frqeny

fundamental frequency.

2. The effective exciting reactance of


transformer windings to be used in calculating fundamental-frequency voltages can be
determined from the saturation curve of the
transformer, determined by applying sinusoidal voltages. The exciting reactance
varies with the magnitude of the impressed
voltage, but at any voltage, it is the ratio
of the rms voltage to the rms current.
3. Resistance in the transformers as well as
in the transmission circuit can be neglected.

I. POWER SOURCE SOLIDLY GROUNDED


A-Phase a Open, No Fault
'
Referring to figure lb, switches SN, Sb, SC
are closed and Sa and SL open. No voltage
iS applied to phase a of the three-phase
vhr
ltpasecircuit supplying the transformer bank. The
voltages to ground, Vb and V&, applied to
phases b and c in per unit of normal line-toneutral voltage, with the applied voltage of
phase a as reference vector, are

Tr= -C/-j
V/2; VC=-/2j V3/2 (2)
Let
Va=voltage to ground of phase a on transformer side of opening in per unit of normal line-to-neutral voltage
V =voltage to ground of neutral of wyeconnected transformer bank in per ulnit
of normal line-to-neutral voltage
Xm =per unit effective transformer exciting
reactance of any winding at normal voltage, either wye or delta-connected

338

Xab, xac, xc = per unit effective transformer


exciting reactances of windings ab, ac, bc
of delta-connected bank corresponding
to voltages across them
Xa, Xb, x, =per unit effective transformer
exciting reactances of windings a, b, c
of wye-connected bank corresponding to
voltages across them
xcl, xco', xcl, xc0=per unit positive- and zerosequence system and circuit line capacitive reactances, respectively, corresponding to C1', C0', Ci and C0 of figure lb
- tXC1
All reactances are in per unit on a common
kilovolt-ampere base. Effective reactances
of delta-connected transformer windings,
as defined above, are expressed in per
unit on normal line-to-line voltage. They
are to be multiplied by 3 to be expressed on
normal line-to-neutral voltage.
Vb and V, can be resolved into two components of voltage in quadrature with each
~~~~other, - i/2and -ja'3. The former sends
current to ground through phases b and c in
parallel in series with phase . The latter
produces equal and opposite currents in
phases b and c Since the circuit is symmetrical about phase a and resistance is
neglected, the voltages between neutral and
terminals b and c of a wye-connected transformer bank will be equal in magnitude.
Therefore the impedances Xb and xc are
equal. In a delta-connected bank, the
voltages between a and b and a and c will be
equal in magnitude, and therefore xab and
Xac are equal. The component - j\/3 will
produce no voltage at terminal a. With
resistance neglected, Va can be positive or
negative but will have no quadrature component. In a wye-connected bank, the
neutral will likewise have no quadrature
component of voltage.
Le
Let
puincm

current flowing from phase a on


Ja= total
the transformer
side of the opening to

ground
It = current flowing from transformer bank
terminal a
xt = effective exciting reactance of the transformer bank to It
With delta-connected primary windings
and secondary windings either wye- or deltaconnected,
(3)
xt = 3xa0/2

The capacitive reactance of the threephase shunt, Cl-C0, which is in parallel


with xt is (3/2)x,0x,i/(x,0-xc1).
The two
parallel paths are in series with the capacitance Co between phase a and ground. Ia is
independent of Cl' and Co'.

Ia

-0.5/[ -jxco+j3xxcjxco/0 3xclxco2xt(xco- xc) l (6>


3xcoxc1-2x1 (xc0- Ci)
Va = -XcoIa 2xt(x. +2xco) (

With saturation neglected, xt = 3xm/2 in


(3), (4), or (5) and (7) becomes
with Xco = Xci, Va= xcl/xm/(3 - 2xcl/Xm) (8)
with x,c = 2xcl, Va= (2xcl/xm -1)
(5-4Xc/Xm) (9)

V0, calculated from (8), is the ordinate of


curves 3 of figures 3a and 3c; calculated
from (9), the ordinate of curves 3 of figures
3b and 3d.
Effect of Transformer Saturation. (a).
Delta-connected primary windings, delta- or
wye-connected secondary windings. Replacing xtin (7) by3Xdo/2, and dividing
both numerator and denominator by 3x0o Xco,

Va

(Xco/Xci) (XcolXci 1) I
[-[(1[(xci/xab)
xclxcl) -x)
+2xlo/x1) -(2xl/xab) (Xco/xcl) ]
-

=_ 1 (11
V_ 1
-

j.

ab2 -/

(10)

3p

2+ 0/4 per unit

normal line-to-line voltage (11)

The following procedure can be used to

h
obanagahot0vessXiX,we
obtain a graph of Va versus X,,i/x., when the
ratio of x,o/x,l is known.

1. Calculate Va
xCl/xab from (10).

for an assumed ratio of

2. Calculate Vabl corresponding to Va


from (11).
3. From the given transformer saturation
curve, calculate xab/xm, the ratio of the reactance at voltage Vabl to the reactance at
normal voltage.
4. Xci/xrn corresponding to Va is the product of Xcl/xab and Xab/Xm.

With wye-connected primary and secondIllustration: Let x,0=2x,0. Performing


ary windings,
the four steps of the procedure given above,
each by number:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~indicating
(4)
e
number:
X= Xa+Xb/2
(1) Assuming XXb= 1.42, from (10),
With wye-connected primary windings
.
V0r -2.7
and delta-connected secondary windings,
the sum of the (2) From (11), Vab0 =
neglecting leakage reactance,
1
three voltages to neutral of the wye must be
zeITo
-=V/(-2.21)2+0.75 =1.37 per unit of nor-

indiAting chlby

z/3
..

V0v = 2 (real part of VNb)

mal line-to-line voltage

If IA is the circulating current in the


assumed opposite to It in phase a,

~~~~~~~~~delta,

X0(It-IA) =2X0(It/2+IA) and


.~.IA=It(xa-Xl/(Xa+2Xb)

The voltage drop through the bank, from b


to a is

j(It/2+IA)xbj(1t-1A)xa = j10[(9/2)Xaxb .
.t.Xt= (9/2)XaXi/(Xa+2Xh)

(xa+2xb)]

(5)

(3) From saturation curve 2 of figure 2,


Xab/Xm =
rms voltage
1.37/8.0 =
(4) xci/xm"'1.42XO.172 =0.244
The point, V0 =2.71, Xci/Xm=0.244, is
plte incre2o iue3.Frn au
14.
raotedion, cub/rve=1 and
fiue3bX Frosthe
=
plTtedi
ptoint V0/x-.1,
adXc /Xm = 1.42.i
pitV=27,XlX=14 spotdi
curve 3of figure 3b.
(b). Wye-connected primary and secondary windings. The current, It, through

Clarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage Conditions

ATEE TRANSACTIONS

the wye-connected bank produces voltage


drops between b and N, and N and a in the
ratio Xb/2 to xa. Replacing xt in (7) by
xa+xb/2 and dividing numerator and denominator by Xcl/xm,

from the transformer saturation curve. Va


is calculated from (15). With V7a determined, the corresponding value of xclXm can
be calculated from (7) if xt is replaced by its
value from (5).

Va
(3Xci/xm) (x,o/Xl1) + (2xa/xm+

B-Phases b and c Open, No fault


*
Refernng to figure lb. switches SN and Sa
are closed and Sb, Sa, and SL open. Case B
differs from case A, in that the only voltage
applied to the circuit supplying the transformer bank is Va = 1; and 'a, the current
from phase a, flows to ground through Co of
phases b and c in parallel. Making these

/(1
\
'1
/ 8
-XCO/cl)
Xb/ Xm)

(2Xa/Xm+Xb/ X,) (1 +2xco/xcl) -

6(Xci/xr)(x,,/Ix,)

(12)

The real part of


VN

IVIVNb 12-3/4

VaN/(xa/xm) =

(13)
______

A V |3/4
12
(14)

Va = Vb- VNb- VaN = 22VV real- Va


VaN

real-

VaN

(15)

A graph of Va versus Xcl/Xm for a given


ratio
of xc00 to
to xc1 can be obtained
by the
the
ratio of
x*procedure:
x_jcan_be obtained by
following
1. Assume VNbi, the magnitude of the
voltage between transformer terminal b and
neutral in per unit of normal. From the

not the case, the zero-sequence capacitance


of the power source, CO', in figure lb must be
considered. Under the assumption of balanced line-to-line voltages at a'b'c', the

positive-sequence capacitance, Cl', has

no

effect upon the resulting voltages.


The procedure used in case II is analogous
to that given for case I. The voltage which
sends current to ground is 1.5 times normal
line-to-neutral voltage applied in a loop circuit in which the ground can be considered a

snle
point.
g
P

References

changes, with Va as reference vector,


1. THEORY oF ABNORMAL LINE-TO-NEUTRAL
2Vb = VCeI(
=Ia( V-jxco
/2)
i
/)=TRANSFORMER VOLTAGES, C. W. LaPierre. AIEE
3x,lxo - 2xt(x0cXC) (17) TRANSACTIONS, March 1931, page 328.
2. PHYSICAL NATURE OF NEUTRAL INSTABILITY,
2xt(2xc1+x,O) -3xC1xC0
A. Boyajian and 0. P. McCarty. AIEE TRANStwo

(a). Delta-Connected Primary Windsngs,


Delta- or Wye- Connected Secondary Windings. Relcnx1i(1)b3a/2
ReplacingSxTin (N7) by 3xab/2,
ins

Vt, VG

ACTIONS, March 1931, page 317.


OF SYSTEM
RESULTING FROM
A. Boyajian and W. J.
SWITCHINGeOPERATIONS,
General Electric Review, July 1931, page
Rudge.

3. INVERSION
436.

4. MAIHEMATICAI, ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR CIRCUITS-PART 1, A. Boyajian. General Electric Review, September 1931, page 531. Part II, General
Electric Rcview, December 1931, page 752.
5. ELEETRISCEE SCHALTVORGANGE (a book),
Vba =- Va- Vb | - 1- Vb times R. Riidenberg. Third edition.
6. Talk by F. A. Hamilton, Jr., at a meeting of the
gvntransformer saturation curve, obtain
AIEE Toronto Section reported in Electrical News
(9
givxn co pod
t
VNbl
'normal line-to-line voltage ( a9)nad Engineering, November 1, 1937.
7. EXPERIENCES WITH
Y19)intea of(10 a
(1),
2. Calculate the real part of VNVb from (13).
UigUsig
(18)(8)nd (1)
(1)
(11), CONNECTBED POTENTIAL GROUNDED-NiEUTRAL,
TRANSFORMERS ON UNrespectively,
the procedure for determining GROUNDED SYSTEMS, C. T. Weller. AIEE TRANS3. Obtain the ratio VaN!(Xa/Xm) from a graph of Vb or V, versus xCl/xm for a given ACTIONS, March 1931, page 299.
given tratisformer
(14),
(14),and from the given
transformer satu- ratio xC0/x,j is analogous to that for one 8. LEITSATZE FUR DEN SCHUTZ ELEKTRISCHER
ration curve find values of VaNl and (xa .
open conductor.
ANLAGEN GEGEN UBERSPANNUNGEN, VDE, 0145/
xm) which are in this ratio. The sign of VaN
Wye-Connected Primary Windings. Sec- 1933, page 242.
is the same as that of the real part of V_vbondary Windings (b) Wye-Connected, (c) 9. AN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT TRANSIENT ANALYZER,
Delta-Connected. The procedure for obtain- H. A. Peterson. General Electric Review, Septem4. Calculate Va from (15).
a graph of V0 or V, versus Xcil/Xm for a
5. Knowing Va, calculate xci/xm from the ing
known ratio, xco/x, is analogous
to that 10. SUBDARMONICS IN CIRCUITS CONTAINING
sdfroeoe
odutr xetteei
IRON-CORED REACTORS, Irven Travis and C. N.
impici
eqatin (2),after replacing xco/xci
used
for
one
open conductor, except there (S Weygandt. AIEE TRANSACTIONS, 1938 (August
by its given value.
no quadrature component of voltage in
section).
(c). Wye-connected primary and delta- VNb, and equation (17) is used instead of 11. ANALYSIS OF SERIES CAPACITOR APPLiCATION
connected secondary windings. This case
(7).
PROBLEMS, J. W. Butler and C. Concordia. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AIEE TRANSACTIONS), Audiffers from the preceding in that xt = (9/2) X
gust 1937.
II. POWER SOURCE UNGROUNDED
XaXb/(Xa+2Xb) and
12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS OF TRANSFORMERS AND
If the capacitance to ground of the power REACTORS TO SWITCHIsNG SURGES, L. V. Bewley.
VaN = 2 VNb real
(16)
AIEE TRANSACTIONS, volume 58, 1939, pages 797source with ungrounded neutral is large relaThe procedure to determine a graph of Va tive to that of the transmission circuit and 802.
versus xil/xm is similar to that of case (b) bank, the power source can be considered to 13. PROTECTOR TUBES FOR POWER SYSTEMS, H.
except that (16) is used to determine VaN,
have its neutral effectively grounded. R. LUdWig. AIEJE TRAgSACTIONS, volume 59, 1940
and xa/xm corresponding to VaeN is obtained Case II then becomes case I. When this is (May section).

(Xci/XaD) (xCO/xC1) - (xCO/xC1- 1) (18)


(2+xco/xxl) - (Xco/xcl (Xci/Xab)
(X,i IXb) (X co IX ci)

(Xco IXe 1

1)

an

1941, VOL. (;0

Glarke, Peterson, Light-Abnormal Voltage C'onditions

339