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INTRODUCTION
a) Definition of Multimedia
This project provides definition of multimedia - the interactive use of audio
still image and motion video in addition to text and graphics. A basic multimedia system is
a personal computer that has been enhanced to support these new data types. Using such
systems, developers will be able to enhance existing applications, by including
photographs or voice annotation, for example. The most recent multimedia computers have
video cameras and audio telephony that will enable users to conduct real-time
videoconferences from their desks and share information over networks.
Towards a definition
Multimedia information systems make use of many different ways of
communication (or media). These can include text, record-based data, numeric data,
graphics, image, voice and video. Many applications are multimedia in the sense that they
use more than one of these forms. A desktop publishing package, for example, supports
both text and' graphics. The term 'multimedia' is generally used, however, to describe more
sophisticated systems - particularly those that support moving Images and audio - and that
is the sense in which we have shown in this project. The common factor is that each of
these new forms of communication is essentially generated outside the computer. Speech
and music, photographs and video have to be converted from analogue to digital forms
before they can be used in computer applications. In contrast text, graphics and even
animations are created on the computer and thus do not extend its use. Some people refer
to audio and video, together with animation, as time-sensitive, dynamic or continuous
media.

b) Multimedia today
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It is customary - almost obligatory - to start books and articles on
multimedia with a description of the future, say in the year 2001. Yet this is hardly
necessary. Multimedia is with us today. Let us look for a moment at what is available right
now, to those with the money and knowledge, through a day in the life of a modern couple
in the mid-1990s. Sarah is a product marketing manager for a multinational company. She
is attending a two-day course on management skills at her company's training centre in the
Cotswold's. In the past, the course was held at company headquarters in Des Moines and
took four days to complete, in addition to the time spent traveling. Because the course has
been put onto interactive videodisk she can now learn at her own rate - and without the
need to travel abroad. The material on the disk includes interviews with the company's
Chief Executive and several senior members of staff. It will be studied by every one of
Sarah's ranks in the company, ensuring that they receive a consistent view of company
policy.
Whilst Sarah is out of the office, an important meeting is taking place back
at head office in London. Because the training centre has installed a videoconferencing
system, linked to London and Des Moines, Sarah can take part in making the key
decisions.

c) The future of multimedia


Multimedia applications are currently undergoing an important transition.
During the 1980s custom-built applications were created using interactive videodisks optical storage units that contained audio and video in analogue form. These applications usually training or information systems - could be accessed on standalone computers
equipped with a videodisk player, TV monitor and sound system. Although the quality was

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good, the systems were very expensive to develop and could not be integrated with modern
networked computer systems.
Developments in digital technology at the beginning of the 1990s
encouraged the creation of multimedia 'titles' - compact disks containing audio and video
in digital form that could be played back on a personal computer, equipped with a compact
disk player, a sound board and speakers. Because information on the disks is held in digital
form, it can be processed, stored and transmitted over computer networks.
At present these networks are not designed to cope with such large volumes
of data. However, by the end of the decade improvements in networking technology will
mean that multimedia can be relayed over local and wide area networks and played back
on most personal computers and many home televisions.

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ELEMENT OF MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM


a) Why do we need multimedia?
Human beings are very good at handling information. We are surrounded by
it all the time.

On your desk you may have letters, forms, brochures containing

descriptions and photographs of new products, magazine articles and a copy of this book.
All of these contain information that you have no difficulty in accessing. However, if you
wanted to store all of this information in your personal computer, you would have
considerable problems in storing and retrieving it because your existing software packages
are very limited in the kind of data they can handle.
To illustrate the nature of these limitations, consider a simple application - a
personnel system that contains information about the members of your staff, their skills
and the training courses they have attended. If you use a computer database to hold this
information, it will probably support a range of basic data types including:
Numeric (e.g. staff number);
Character string (e.g. surname, course title);
Alphanumeric (e.g. course code);
Boolean (e.g. male or female);
Date (e.g. date of birth);
Text (e.g. description of a particular course).
Each item of information is held in a field of the correct data type. The
fields make up a record that contains all the information relating to one person. However,
this list of basic data types is inadequate. There is no way of holding documents such as
letters and application forms or images such as photographs. With a scanner we can
capture such images and, given the right database, hold them in storage and display them

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on the screen or print them out. Document image processing systems now provide such
features.

b) Using Multimedia
During the 1980s some large organisations adopted interactive video for
their computer-based training systems. The same technology was later used in point-ofinformation and point-of-sale systems. As the cost of hardware has come down,
multimedia has started to make an impact on the development of information systems. This
influence will expand during the 1990s to all desktop software. Presentation packages and
just-in-time training are already available. These will be followed by multimedia
communications - electronic mail and collaborative computing. The use of multimedia can
provide benefits both in economic terms and through improved quality. New business
opportunities will open up. Development costs will remain high, because multimedia
applications require a wider range of skills than conventional systems. Social and
psychological barriers must be overcome to ensure that workers feel comfortable with the
new technology. Legal problems, especially copyright issues, will impede progress.

c) Who is using multimedia?


Early users
Some advanced uses of multimedia. However, the typical user in the
business community today is a large multinational corporation with a distributed workforce
that it has to train. Indeed it used to be suggested that there were only three uses for
multimedia: 'training, training and training'. This is because most of the multimedia
applications that were developed during the 1980s were training and education systems for
large corporations, government departments and military installations. Such computer-

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based training (CBT) systems were typically large customised projects, designed and built
by professional courseware developers, often in specialist consultancies. They cost
anything from E30,000 to 250,000 to develop, because they required the use of
professional authoring tools and powerful workstations that were capable of capturing
audio and video. Delivery platforms consisted of a personal computer, with a videodisk
player and add-in boards to support the capture and display of audio and video
information, costing around 7,000.
Towards the end of the 1980s some point-of-information (POD -md pointof-sale (POS) applications (known collectively as kiosks) started to appear in banks, travel
agents and department stores, museums and art galleries. For example, one local authority
in the UK installed POI systems to provide a wide range of information about the council
and its services, including a 'What's on' in the county feature. The system incorporated
graphics and sound, with a touchscreen, and was designed to appeal to people who were
diffident about using computers. For many users these systems will have been their first
contact with multimedia.
Although the majority of multimedia systems were used for training or
kiosks, some were used by professionals in a number of specialist markets that require the
ability to handle video, animations and very high-quality images. These applications
included professional videographics in film and broadcasting companies; computerassisted publishing (CAP); and specialist image processing applications such as medicine,
remote sensing and seismography. Typically these were comparatively small systems based
on the use of high-performance, high-cost equipment and tools.

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BENEFITS OF USING MULTIMEDIA


Organisations that use multimedia systems can experience both economic
benefits and qualitative benefits. Perhaps the most attractive reasons for using multimedia and the hardest to assess - are the new business opportunities that may open up. This
section outlines the benefits experienced and expected from the use of multimedia in four
key areas.

a) Training
Although multimedia systems were initially very expensive to develop,
early users of training systems reported overall economic benefits from the use of the
technology. Successful organizations need to maintain high levels of staff training and
development. Through reductions in the expenses associated with holding conventional
training courses, the costs of developing a multimedia training system can be recouped
within a few years. These savings in training costs are achieved because:
Each course can be used by many more people;
Time spent away from the office, including travel time, can be reduced;
Employees can work at their own pace so the average training time per employee is
reduced;
Full-time classroom instructors are no longer required;
Expensive demonstrations can be used without jeopardising safety.
Because the best instructors prepare and take part in each course, the quality of
courses may also be improved. Both the content and quality of courses will be consistent
across the whole organisation. Furthermore it is likely that students retain more from
interactive multimedia training than from traditional classroom courses. A study for the
British Audiovisual Association showed that people retain 10 per cent of what they see, 20
per cent of what they hear and 50 per cent of what they see and hear. Seeing and hearing

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are essentially passive. In contrast people retain 80 per cent of what they see, hear and do.
Interactive multimedia training courses are essentially active - they encourage students to
act and react as well as watching and listening.
The same approach has been adopted in the field of education where interactive
multimedia can be used in the classroom at all levels from primary school to university. An
early example was the Domesday Project, developed by the BBC with funding from Esprit.
A set of two interactive videodisks contained data on the life of the United Kingdom in the
1980s, including contributions from over a million people. Distance learning projects can
also benefit from interactivity. In the past these courses were supported by materials such
as audio cassettes and videotapes, distributed to students by post, and by terrestrial
broadcasts of television and radio programmes. Feedback from students was by means of
post, telephone or meetings with tutors. In future satellite broadcasts of studio discussions
will be supported by live feedback from students over audio or videoconferencing links.

b)Sales
In the retail field multimedia is changing the traditional methods and concepts of
marketing. Both consumers and retailers benefit from the consistency of information
that results from the introduction of point-of-sale systems. The benefits to the retailers are
savings on space, inventory and distribution, estimated at up to 50 per cent of retail profit.
Retailers can afford to bring more products to market and to explore alternative sales
channels. Some see the introduction of shopping kiosks as a way of regenerating the high
street, attracting customers back from out-of-town shopping malls.

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TRAINING IN MULTIMEDIA
a) The need for training
Western governments are now agreed on the need for a skilled workforce.
Changes in technology make work skills obsolete very quickly. The reduction in the life
cycles of products means that new production techniques, skills and expertise are needed.
Continuous training will become part of an employee's daily life.
Companies are faced with an inadequate supply of skilled labour due to
poor educational standards and rapid turnover of staff. At the same time the workplace has
become more knowledge and skills intensive. Building and maintaining a qualified
workforce is one of the most important business issues of the day. Training is being
transformed into a weapon of competitive advantage.
At the same time studies in some countries have found that there has been a
reduction in the educational achievements of the workforce. A report by the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development highlighted the shortage of skilled labour in
the United Kingdom. It criticised British managers for their slowness to adapt to a more
competitive world market (OECD 1991).
Different types of training are needed for different types of worker. Blue
collar workers typically need to acquire hard skills that include specific training for
specific tasks, for example technical training on complex pieces of machinery. In contrast
white collar workers need to develop soft skills, where ideas rather than practical tasks are
taught.
The Commission of the. European Communities (CEC) takes a close
interest in the training needs of European companies. A report from the CEC's Industrial
Research and Development Advisory Committee identified four different application
groups:

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1.

Training in on-the-job technical skills takes place at or near the workplace. Staff learn
how best to use their equipment in order to increase productivity.

2.

Training in on-the-job interpersonal skills takes place at or near the workplace. Staff
learn how to communicate, work with others both within & outside the organisation.

3.

Open learning covers training away from the working area, in a designated training
centre. Staff can work undisturbed and at their own pace.

4.

Training the trainers helps trainers to understand the concepts, technologies and
benefits of open and distance learning.
In each case training involves three stages. First trainees acquire

information and skills. Next they need to practice these skills. Finally they need to
reinforce their skills in the course of their daily activities. Multimedia is an effective way
of acquiring information that makes use of all available means of communication. Because
it is interactive, it is also a good way for trainees to practice what they have learnt in a
supportive environment. When they return to work, on-line multimedia help can assist staff
to resolve problems as they occur.
The traditional way to train staff was off-line. Employees were taken away
from their jobs, often away from their place of work, in order to attend training courses
that might last several days or even several weeks. Problems arise when staff miss a
session for some reason. Employees often forget the skills learnt during training if these
are not reinforced by frequent use.
An alternative approach is to train staff on the job. This flexible, continuous
method of training can be supported by computer systems that can be accessed by the user
at any time. Such just-in-time training allows the user to interrupt a task at any time in
order to call up the training application for help. A prototype application has been
developed by Nynex Science & Technology with the University of Massachusetts at

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Lowell. Using a simple logging machine, it shows how visual communications can speed
the repair of automated factory equipment. Three different video services are provided:
video mail, videoconferencing and remote access to video libraries.
Using a public switched multimedia service, the help desk can be
somewhere else in the country. When a problem occurs on the factory floor, local staff call
technical support. They can either use live videoconferencing to make contact with the
remote service expert or leave a video mail message showing the malfunctioning machine
for the expert to play back later. The machine failure is diagnosed by the expert who
analyses the transmitted motion pictures of the problem. The expert can then decide
whether to dispatch a repair specialist to the factory floor to guide the personnel already at
the site through the necessary repair steps. Alternatively the video repair manual can be
transmitted over the network to show the local personnel the relevant repair procedure with
video and audio clips.

b) Multimedia in training
Computers have been used for training employees since the 1970s, using
text-based and linear programs. They were followed in the 1980s by courses on interactive
videodisks. These early CBT courses were developed to met the needs of a particular
company. Some were developed by in-house teams, whilst others were commissioned
from specialist companies. In either case a long development process was involved and
costs were correspondingly high. Some of these customised or bespoke courses were later
modified to create generic packages that could be sold to recoup these development costs.
Other generic courseware has been developed specifically for sale. Early
titles were published on interactive videodisk, which is now being overtaken by the
growing market for titles on CD-ROM. Of the 3,597 titles published on CD-ROM in 1993,

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about 12 per cent may be classified as education, training and careers. This is the most
rapidly growing sector -up 160 per cent from the previous year.

c) Cost benefits
Using an interactive multimedia training system in the office will clearly
provide significant savings in travel costs as well as reducing the amount of time for which
staff are away from their desks. Are these savings offset by the cost of developing or
purchasing the system? The second column in Table shows the costs of sending 50
employees on a three-day training course in an off-site classroom. In the next two columns
these are compared with those to be faced when buying a course off-the-shelf (a generic
package) or having a customised (bespoke) course specially developed. It is assumed
that these two CBT courses would take 10 hours to complete.
As the bottom line of the table shows, the cost per employee of using a
generic package is as little as 330 ECUs (15 per cent of the cost of off-site training). With
larger numbers of employees this cost will drop still further. In many cases no suitable
generic package will be available. For 50 employees, the cost of developing a training
package in-house will be approximately the same as sending the staff to an off-site course.
If there are more employees, or the bespoke course can be reused in subsequent years, this
approach will prove more cost-effective than conventional methods of training.
Type of Cost

Table : Comparative Training Costs


Classroom
Generic Course
(in ECUs)
(in ECUs)

Salary

50,000

Development

30,000

Purchase
Direct

Cost/employee
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10,000
100,000

6,000
30,000

Use of workstation
Total cost

10,000

Bespoke Course
(in ECUs)

540

540

110,000

16,540

110,540

2,200

330

2,211
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d) Qualitative benefits
In addition to the economic benefits just described interactive multimedia
training systems may provide other benefits. Companies retain overall control over the
training process. Courses will be prepared and 'delivered' on disk by the most effective
trainers. The quality and content of training should thus be consistent throughout the
organisation. The availability of courses is increased, as training is taken to the staff rather
than the staff being taken to the training course. Courses can be individually scheduled at a
time and place convenient to both employees and employers. Staff can be given realistic
demonstrations of actual situations that they will encounter in their jobs, including some
that are too expensive or dangerous to present live.
At the training session itself, control passes to the individual students who
can pace the speed and quantity of learning to suit their abilities and work schedules. In
addition, the system itself can be designed to adapt the material it presents to the
knowledge and skills of each student. Content can be differentiated by depth or by style of
presentation to suit different students. Key learning points can be made in a variety of ways
to suit individual preferences. The system can also provide feedback, in the form of either
test scores or indicators, to assist with self-assessment. Because training even in off-site
courses is self-administered, teachers are free to spend more time to help those trainees
who do have difficulties. Trainees prefer active participation to the passive viewing of
material. They retain more information, leading to a significant reduction in errors on the
Job and a consequential increase in confidence in their ability. There is a significant
reduction in course retakes. American Airlines, for example, reported a drop of 40 per cent
in the number of retakes for its flight attendants' course since it began using a multimedia
system. Computer-based training systems can also offer non-biased validation and testing
of a student's work.

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MULTIMEDIA IN EDUCATION
At first sight, interactive multimedia should offer the same benefits to
school pupils as it does to adult trainees. Lessons can be structured to individual
requirements, students can control their rate of learning and retention rates can be
increased. Interactive videodisks have been used in European schools since the early
1980s. The first and best known project in the UK was the BBC's Domesday system -a set
of two disks that contained data on the life of the United Kingdom in the 1980s. An optical
disk player was developed, together with the Laser Vision ROM (LV-ROM) format for
interactive videodisks.
Despite this early interest the use of multimedia in schools remains low. The
costs of hardware and software have been a deterrent. Early government-funded
programmes, such as the Interactive Video in Schools (IVIS) project sponsored by the
Department of Trade and Industry, have probably caused more harm than good by
encouraging schools to invest in platforms that are now outmoded. More recently there
have been government-sponsored programmes in France, Spain and the United Kingdom
to get CD-ROM drives into schools. The National Council for Educational Technology
(NCET), a government-funded body which promotes technology in education, is
enthusiastic about the use of CD-ROM and multimedia to give pupils access to source
material, such as newspapers from a particular period, so that they do not have to rely on
opinions of teachers or text-books. However, the plethora of different compact disk formats
will continue to confuse and dismay would-be purchasers.
In American schools videodisks are seen as a source of information, to be
used with a remote control unit or bar-code reader to control the player, instead of a
computer. This approach allows teachers and students to create and use interactive

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workbooks in the classroom, whilst avoiding the expense and complexity of the European
systems.

a)_New developments in distance learning


Distance learning reverses the normal approach to training. Instead of the
trainees traveling to a training centre to meet the trainer, the training is brought to the
trainees who are remote from the trainers and source of training materials. Distance
learning courses are based on text, supported by a wide range of other media - audio- and
videotape, radio and TV broadcasts - and occasional meetings with tutors. In future wide
area communications will also be used to give students on-line access to their tutors.
The teaching of surgery - like many branches of medicine - is heavily
dependent on conveying visual information. One pilot project is designed to use facilities
at University College London to enhance the teaching of surgery at other hospitals. Super
JANET is used to relay surgical demonstrations from the operating theatre and clinical
demonstrations from the lecture hall. The project is also exploring ways to enhance
existing courseware in a distance learning environment.

b) The Multimedia Teleschool


The CEC is encouraging the growth of training in Europe through the
DELTA (Developing European Learning Through Technological Advance) programme.
DELTA II has an emphasis on market-oriented projects. One of these is the Multimedia
Teleschool (MTS) for European personnel development, whose aim is to develop a large,
complex and realistic scenario for the application of advanced telecommunications
technologies in corporate training.
The MTS project will merge traditional distance training techniques with
telematics (the integration of computing and telecommunications technologies). Its first

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phase was based on existing telecommunications technologies - public networks and direct
broadcast by satellite (DBS). For example, the Berlitz Teleschool project runs a course in
English for telecommunications. A computer conferencing system on the host computer in
Berlin delivers a series of regular study letters to each student's personal computer at their
workplace. Students use the same system to return completed assignments to their tutors.
This is supplemented once a fortnight by a live satellite broadcast by a panel of experts.
The participants in their workplaces are linked with each other and with their tutors.
Questions and contributions are sent on-line by the students to the tutors, who either
respond online or pass them on to the experts at the TV studio. Students benefit from being
able to communicate with fellow students and experts throughout Europe. In the second
phase of MTS these facilities are being extended to include basic rate ISDN to support
facilities such as:
A direct connection between the tutor's computer and that of the student for
interactive remote tutoring;
Videoconferencing between the tutor and students at different sites for interactive
distributed learning;
Delivery of CBT packages onto the corporate LAN via a training, delivery and
administration server;
Remote distance control of local resources such as CD-ROM on end user machines.
The result will be a computer-mediated multimedia communication system
with voice, images, video and data annotation. Students will be able to interact with their
tutor and with each other.

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WHY MTC IS FIRST CHOICE FOR MULTIMEDIA ?


a) First we about the MTC (Hydraulic and pneumatic circuits)
Machine Tool Control (MTC) is a subject that deals with mainly hydraulic
and pneumatic circuits, again contain pressure boosters, air compressor and accessories,
hydraulic power devices, hydraulic fluids, piping, air filters, regulators and lubricator,
directional control valves, flow controls, pressure controls, rotating and nonrotating
cylinders, pneumatic motors and tools, Rotary hydraulic Motors and Hydraulic
transmission, accumulators all these round use in the Hydraulic and pneumatic circuits.
In MTC we have only taken the Hydraulic and Pneumatic circuits, because
while studying Hydraulic and Pneumatic circuit theoretically from books, it is difficult
while reading because one have to assume the flow of fluid or air in the circuit. The
students does not get perfect idea about the circuits, there may be certain doubt in the mind
the student. To clear this doubt we take MTC (Hydraulic and Pneumatic circuits ) for our
project with multimedia.

a) What we actually do in this Project by Using multimedia :We are take the Hydraulic and pneumatic circuit and with the help of "Flash
5" software we can animate the hydraulic and pneumatic circuits. By this process we can
show that how the fluid in case of hydraulic circuit comes in the work that with the help of
electric motor and hydraulic pump it pushes the fluid upward and then the directional
control valve operates, fluid goes in cylinder and perform desired operation as per the
circuit is designed. This is about hydraulic system.

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In pneumatic system air from atmosphere is collected in compressor and
then supplied to filter regulator and lubricator section to perform some operations on that
after that it goes across directional control valves and go to cylinder and performed desired
operation as per circuit is designed.
All these operation explained earlier can be seen and understand very easily
with the help of this project.
The main purpose of taking MTC (Hydraulic and Pneumatic Circuits) for
multimedia because the multimedia provides all these facilities (animation, sound,
graphics).

c) What is Simulation ?
Simulation is an imitation of reality. A children cycling park, with various
crossings and signals, is a simulated model of the city traffic system. In the laboratories a
number of experiments are performed on simulated models to determine the behaviour of
the real system in true environments. A simple illustration is the testing of an aircraft
model in a wind tunnel from which we determine the performance of the actual aircraft
under real operating conditions. Planetarium shows represent a beautiful simulation of the
planet system. Environments in a geological garden and in a museum of natural history are
other examples of simulation.
In all these examples, it has been tried to imitate the reality to see what might happen
under real operating conditions. This imitation of reality which may be in the physical
form or in the form of mathematical equations may be called simulation.

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SIGN & CONVERSIONS USED IN OUR CIRCUITS


( HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS )
Glossary Of Fluid Power Terms
Actuator - A device that converts fluid energy to mechanical motion.
Automatic control - Those controls that are actuated in response to the cycle of the
equipment.
Back connect - Piping connections that are located on normally unexposed surfaces of
hydraulic or pneumatic components.
Channel - A fluid (either oil or air) passage that has a greater longitudinal dimension than
cross-sectional dimension.
Circuit - An arrangement of the component parts; or fluid equipment interconnected to a
specific appliance or appliances.
Clarifier - A device that removes deleterious solids and assists in maintaining the chemical
stability of the hydraulic fluid.
Cleaner - A device that removes solids from a fluid; the resistance of these solids to
motion is a straight-line resistance.
Compartment - A space within the base, frame, or column of a machine or component.
Compressor - A device that converts mechanical energy to air or pneumatic energy.
Compressor, fixed- displacement - A compressor that delivers a relatively constant
volume of air per cycle.
Compressor, variable - displacement - A compressor in which the volume of air per
cycle can be varied.
Cylinder - A linear motion device in which the thrust or force is proportional to the
effective cross-sectional area and to the pressure change.

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Cylinder, single - acting - A cylinder in which the fluid (either oil or air) force can be
applied only in one direction.
Cylinder, phunge - type - A cylinder in which the internal element is constructed with a
single diameter and a contracting type of seal.
Cylinder, piston-type - A cylinder in which the internal element is designed with one or
more diameters and an expanding type of seal.
Cylinder, double-acting - A cylinder in which the fluid force can be applied in either
direction.
Cylinder, single-end rod - A cylinder designed with the piston rod extending from one end
of the cylinder.
Cylinder, double-end red - A cylinder designed with two piston rods - one piston rod
extending from each end of the cylinder.
Enclosure - A housing designed for hydraulic or pneumatic apparatus.
Filter - A device that is used to remove solids from a fluid; the resistance to motion of
these solids is in the form of a tortuous path.
Front connected - Piping connections that are normally placed on the exposed surfaces of
hydraulic or pneumatic components.
Hydraulic panel, mounting - A plate on which hydraulic components can be mounted.
Hydraulic panel, control - Grouping of hydraulic controls in units to form a single
assembly either on a mounting plate or inside a casting; a single mounting surface may be
used for the entire unit.
Line - A tube, pipe, or hose that acts as a conductor of hydraulic fluid or air.
Line, drain - A line that independently returns excess or leakage oil to the reservoir or
vented manifold.

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Line, hydraulic exhaust - A return line which carries power or control actuating hydraulic
fluid back to the reservoir.
Line, pneumatic exhaust - A return line which carries the power or control actuating air
back to the atmosphere.
Line joining - A hydraulic or pneumatic line that either crosses or connects with another
line either on a schematic diagram or in actual construction.
Line, passing - A hydraulic or pneumatic line that crosses another line on a schematic
diagram, but it does not connect with another line in actual construction.
Line, pilot - A line that conducts a control hydraulic fluid or air.
Line working - A hydraulic or pneumatic line that acts as a conductor of power-actuating
hydraulic fluid or air.
Lubricator - A device that is used to add lubricant to the actuating air.
Manual controls - Those controls that are actuated by the operator, rdgardless of means.
Mass production - A method in which a setup is used to produce a number of identical
workpieces for an indefinite period of time.
Motors and cylinders - Devices that convert hydraulic or air energy into mechanical
energy.
Motor, oscillating - A motor that produces a maximum angular rotating movement of less
than 360 degrees in either direction.
Motor, rotary - A motor that produces rotary motion; the torque output is proportional to
the fluid displacement per revolution and to the pressure change between intake and
exhaust ports.
Motor, rotary, fixed- displacement - A rotary motor in which the displacement per
revolution cannot be adjusted.

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Motor, rotary, variable-displacement - A rotary motor in which the displacement per
revolution can be adjusted.
Muffler - A device that is used to reduce or muffle exhaust noises.
Passage, hydraulic - A machined ox cored connection that conducts hydraulic fluid within
or through a hydraulic component.
Passage, pneumatic - A machined or cored connection that conducts air within or through
a pneumatic component

CONVERSION FACTORS
Measurers
1 foot = 12 inches
1square foot = 144 square inches
1 cubic foot =1728 cubic inches
1 cubic foot = 7.48 gallon
1 inch = 25.4 millimeter
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 millimeter = 0.03937 inch
1 meter = 39.37 inches
1 micron = 0.000001 meter
1 gallon = 4 quarts
1 quart = 2 pints
1 gallon = 231 cubic inches
1 Imperial gallon = 1.2009 gallons
1 gallon = 0.833 Imperial gallon
1 cubic foot of water weighs approximately 62.4 pounds (at 60 degrees F)

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1 liter = 2.113 pints
1 gallons = 3.785 liters
1 kilogram = 1000 grams
1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds
Pressure
1 standard atmosphere: 14.7 pounds per square inch, absolute
1 standard atmosphere : 29.92 inches of mercury.
1 standard atmosphere: 33.4 feet of water(at 60 degrees F)
1 inch of water (at 60 degrees F) = 0.0361 pounds per square inch
Rate of Motion
1 gallon per minute = 3.85 cubic inches per second
1 gallon per minute = 0.002228 cubic feet per second
1 foot per second = 0.3048 meter per second
1 meter per second = 3.2808 feet per second
Power And Work
1 horsepower = 550 foot-pounds per second
1 horsepower = 33,000 foot-pounds per minute
1 horsepower = 745.7 watts
1 horsepower = 2545 Btu per hour
1 Btu = 778 foot-pounds
1 kilowatt = 1000 watts
1 watt = 44.26 foot-pounds per minute
Prefixes
micro- = one-millionth
milli- = one-thousandth

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centi- = one-hundredth
deci- = one - tenth
kilo- = one thousand
mega- = one million

Fluid Circuit Failures


New component designs are coming off the drafting boards each day. With
the tremendous amount of applications and demands for fluid power devices, the
manufacturer of fluid power components has become a part of one of the fastest growing
industries. The next decade will surely lead to a number of improvements in fluid power
components, but the basic principles will undoubtedly remain the same.
Common Causes of Failure
The causes of component failures have been studied. These facts should
always be kept in mind when servicing fluid power devices. Some of these points should
be reviewed.
Dirt
Without doubt, dirt causes more components to fail than any other single
cause. Dirt also includes foreign substances. In a pneumatic system, dirt and foreign
substances score the honed cylinder tubes, precision - finished valve liners and valve seats,
ground and polished piston rods, valve stems, and other precision parts. In pneumatics, the
foreign matter may be in the form of: pipe scale; lime deposits; thread compound; shavings
from pipe threads; corrosive fumes entering the intake of the compressor and being
distributed throughout the system; welding spatter caused by carelessness during
construction; rust caused either by improper filters or by excessive condensation; sand and
dirt in the components caused by removal of the pipe plugs before the components are

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installed; and deposits on piston rods caused by particles in the air, which can be drawn
into the system. Dirt embeds itself in the cylinder cup packings and valve packings, often
cutting the packings.
In a hydraulic system, dirt and foreign matter may cause excessive damage
to the components, since the fits between the parts are held to very close limits. Dirt not
only scores the parts but often causes valve spools to stick and become inoperative.
Dirt sometimes becomes lodged between the piston, piston ring, and tube of
a hydraulic cylinder, causing the piston ring to be broken. This, in turn, may cause the tube
to be badly scored. Note that the metal appears to be actually scooped out.
Dirt tears the rod packing, and causes excessive external leakage of the
fluid. Foreign matter also causes pitting of the piston rods and valve stems. Foreign matter,
such as hydrocarbons, may clog intake strainers and cause carbons or cavitation within the
pump. Intake strainers have been known to collapse due to a collection of foreign matter.
Dirt can cause a pump to seize, and the driving means may twist off the pump shaft.
Cutting oils and coolants sometimes get into the hydraulic oil, causing
considerable corrosion within the system and failure of the components. Every precaution
should be taken to keep these solutions out of the hydraulic system.
HEAT
Heat causes considerable trouble to the components of the fluid power
system, especially the hydraulic components. Heat may cause valve spools to stick,
packings to deteriorate, oil to break down, depouts to cling to the finished surfaces,
excessive external and internal leakage, and inaccurate feeds in hydraulic systems. Fluid
power systems should be protected from hot blasts. If heat in a hydraulic system is caused
by internal conditions, install aftercoolers, and if possible, correct the condition, that is
causing the heat. Some of the causes of heat are high ambient temperature, restrictions in

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hydraulic lines and components, high pressures, and high pressures being spilled through
the relief valve.
Misapplication
Misapplication causes many failures of fluid power components. The
selection of the incorrect component as to capacity, ability to withstand shock loads, or
ability to withstand certain other operating conditions may cause failures. The use of a
pneumatic valve for high-pressure oil service is likely to cause trouble. The use of a
cylinder with thin cast iron covers for heavy-duty mill applications is almost certain to
cause trouble. Misapplication is often a product of misinformation or lack of information
on the part of the buyer. It has been found that the buyer often is not willing to divulge to
the vendor how the equipment is to be used, because be is fearful that the vendor may learn
a trade secret.
Improper fluids
Care should be used in selecting the fluid to be used in the hydraulic
system. Check with the pump manufacturer for his recommendations. If the oil is
satisfactory for the pump, it is likely that it is satisfactory for the other components of the
system.
As discussed previously, certain hydraulic fluids have detrimental effects on
seals, packings, paint, and strainers; if these fluids are to be used, provisions must be made
accordingly. Mixing of hydraulic fluids is not recommended as one of the fluids may have
a property that is detrimental to the other. Fluids that cause deposits or corrosive action
should not be used in hydraulic systems.

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Faulty Installation
Faulty installation may contribute to many fluid power system failures.
Many instances of faulty installation have been found in various installations. Some of
these are:
1. Flow controls are often reversed in the system.

Fig.1

Fig.2

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2. Wrong connections are made to directional controls. This can happen on the more
complicated circuits where electric valves are involved. The piping and electrical
diagrams should be followed closely.
3. Installation of a hydraulic power device so that back pressure is created in the return
line to the reservoir. In other words, if it is necessary to push the exhaust oil "uphill" in
order to return it to the reservoir, back pressure is created. This causes some of the
directional and pressure control valves to malfunction.

Fig 3
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4. Failure to mate drain connections to hydraulic valves is a common cause of failure.
When a manufacturer of a control device hangs a tag on a valve port marked "connect to
drain," be means exactly that. Many service calls may be eliminated if this suggestion is
followed strictly.
5. Installation of piping of inadequate size in either the pressure or the exhaust lines in a
hydraulic system may cause trouble. It slows down the action of the system, creates beat,
causes malfunction of valves, and creates bade pressure. In a pneumatic system, it may
cause sluggishness in the action of the components.
6. If control valves with mounting feet are not mounted on a flat surface, they often cause
trouble, as distortion occurs when the mounting feet are securely bolted down.
7. Loose pipe lines are often a source of trouble, especially in high-pressure hydraulic
systems. Piping should be securely anchored. Strap anchors are often used for this purpose.
8. Lack of protection to the piston rods of cylinders that are installed in dirty atmospheres
is another source of trouble. The rod may be scored and dirt may cut the rod packing.
9. Misalignment of piston rods of non rotating hydraulic cylinders and air cylinders is a
source of trouble. Misalignment causes bent piston rods, loss of power, broken covers,
worn bearings, scored cylinder walls, and packing leaks.
10. Leaks around the pipe ports and connections due to improper installation are also
troublesome (Fig. 2). In pneumatic systems, leaks are expensive as they often go unheeded
for long periods of time. In hydraulics, oil leaks not only are messy, but they also present a
real fire hazard. Always make certain that all pipe connections are tight.
Other causes for failure due to improper or careless installations .have been
discussed. Careful planning and the ability to produce good workmanship is a prerequisite
to a satisfactory installation. Remember that precision equipment, often amounting to
several thousand dollars for a single component, is being installed.

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Maintenance
Poor maintenance is often a cause for fluid power system failure. A regular
maintenance program can reduce failures.
In a pneumatic system, the lubricators should be filled regularly with a
lubricant that is suitable for the pneumatic system. A light spindle ml or a nondetergent oil
SAE 10 is generally satisfactory. The, filters should be cleaned at regular intervals. Replace
worn packings, seals, and other parts to keep the system fully efficient.
Clean up oil that is spilled on the floor or on the components. Use good
housekeeping methods (Fig. 3).
In either pneumatic or hydraulic systems do not allow dirt to accumulate
around the system. Keep it clean.
Failure to keep air out of a closed hydraulic system renders unsatisfactory
results. A jumpy feed breaks tools, causes spoilage of workpieces, and produces vibration.
In a closed system, keep the air out, and keep the oil from leaking.
A study of the operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system is more
convenient if a diagram of the system or circuit is available. The components m an
installation and their connections can be determined from such a diagram. A schematic
diagram indicates the functions of the various parts. In a given schematic diagram, for
example, certain symbols and lines are used to represent a compressor, a cylinder, and a
pipe from the compressor to the cylinder. The function of an air compressor is to increase
the air pressure, the function of the pipe line is to transport air, and the function of the
cylinder is to provide a means for doing work on a device or load. Thus, the schematic
diagram shows the components and the connections between the components. A schematic
diagram also indicates the operation of a system to a person who understands the symbols.

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A schematic diagram of a hydraulic system or a pneumatic system is similar
to a geographical road map. The symbols or language of the road map must be learned
before the road map can understood. Similarly, the symbols or language of a schematic
diagram must be learned before the diagram can be used to trace a hydraulic or pneumatic
system.

Standard Symbols For Hydraulic and Pneumatic Components


In the past, many different diagrams and symbols have been fled a practice
which proved to be inconvenient and troublesome. A real need arose for a standard set of
symbols. Accordingly, a number of conferences were held for the purpose of establishing a
set of standard symbols for industrial hydraulic and pneumatic equipment.

These new

standards are known as U.S.A. Standard Fluid Power Symbols. The abbreviation USASI
is frequently used to indicate these standards. Hydraulic equipment manufacturers,
pneumatic equipment manufacturers, manufacturers, machine-tool builders, packing and
seal manufacturers, tube and fitting manufacturers, and users of industrial equipment were
represented in these conferences.
The USASI symbols are used in this book. These systems can be used to
trace the action of oil or air through a system. Each symbol must be carefully examined in
order for the schematic tarns to be thoroughly understood. There are three main groups of
symbols: (1) symbols that are used for both-hydraulic and pneumatic devices; (2) symbols
that are used only for hydraulic devices; and (3) symbols that are used only for
pneumatic devices.
Although the USASI symbols may seem to be complicated at first , they
become less difficult to understand on further study. The symbols become more familiar as
they are used to trace hydraulic and pneumatic systems, and with frequent practice they
become more natural to use.

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USASI Symbols
General Symbols
A working line or pipe line carrying either oil or air under pressure.
A pilot line, usually running from a pilot valve to a master valve.
Flexible line, usually a rubber hose, such as used to connect a pivotmounted cylinder.
Connector, as used in a piping layout.
Indicates the flow direction of the oil.
Indicates the flow direction of the air.
Indicates that a line passes another line, but is not connected to it.

A pressure line and a connector, representing a T-connection.


A junction of four pressure lines.

Elbow. These are usually not shown on a schematic diagram.

A plug or a plugged connection.

A pressure line with a plugged connection.


Lines for Hydraulic Equipment
Vented reservoir or tank for holding or storing oil.
A line to the reservoir, entering the reservoir above the fluid level m
the reservoir or tank.
A line to the reservoir, entering the reservoir below the fluid level
the reservoir or tank.
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Vented manifold.
Line with fixed restriction.
Lines for Pneumatic equipment
A restricted pressure line. Can be accomplished either by reducing
the pipe size or by adding a restriction to the line.

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WHY 'FLASH' IS CHOOSEN AS A ANIMATION


SOFTWARE ?
Basic of Flash
Macromedia Flash is introduced to draw interactive graphics and
animations for web sites. It can be used to create navigation controls, animated logos,
efficient animations with synchronized sound on the web. One can even create a full
fledged web site using Flash with high quality. Due to its vector approach, it takes a very
little time to download. Moreover, it also can be scaled to viewers' size without disturbing
the quality of the contents.
Nowadays, lots of web developers are using flash to fascinate their web
sites. Many sites have been designed entirely on flash. Disney, Simpsons, eye4u are just to
name a few. You can get flash player either with your Internet browser or with your system
software. You can even download it from Macromedia's web site (www.macromedia.com)
absolutely free. Flash player remains in the local computer and used to play the flash
movies whenever you visit a site, which has flash animation. Flash player can also be used
as an individual application to play flash animations.
Now, let's try to understand how do you work in flash? Basically, you create
a movie in flash by drawing objects with the toolbar provided inside the application or by
importing the artwork done in other applications. Then you arrange the components on the
stage and animate them using Timeline. You also specify interactivity by making
components to respond to certain events and to change in specified ways. When the whole
piece is ready, you have to export it as a flash player movie, which can be embedded
within an HTML page. And finally, you can transfer the movie alongwith the HTML page
to a web server.

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To

understand

various components of flash's screen see the menu on

computer screen. Let's try to understand each component briefly.


At the time of creating movie with flash, you will be working in four main
areas viz. Stage, a rectangular area where the composition of graphics will be done and
where the movie will be played; Timeline window, where the graphics will be animated
over a period of time; Library window, which is used to store media of stage, so called
symbols; and Symbol editing mode where symbols will be created and edited.
Stage and Timeline window :- As it is in the case of films, flash movies also divide the
whole sequence into frames. Stage is the place wherein you are able to edit a single frame
by directly drawing on it or by importing artwork from other applications. Timeline
window is used to assemble the artwork on separate layers. Timeline window also displays
each frame in the movie. Layers are like transparent sheets of paper which help you to
design and arrange your work separately so that editing the elements of one layer do not
affect the others.
Library Window :- Library window lets you organise your symbols to be used in movies
in an arranged manner. It may include graphics, buttons, movies clips, imported artwork
including sound files and Quick Time movie clips. It also lets you organise the symbols in
folders, see how many times a symbol is used in movie and lots more.
Symbols and Instances :- Symbols are the graphics that you create with the help of tools
provided in flash. When you place a graphic on the stage, you create an instance of the
symbol. Symbols are very useful in the sense that regardless of how many times they have
been used in the movie, they occupy the same space. It is always advisable to use symbols
whenever a particular item is needed more than once in the movie. When you edit the
symbol, both the stage and timeline window changes accordingly. However, you can

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choose to edit the symbol either in isolation where the properties for that particular symbol
will only be displayed or in its context with the whole movie.
Using Toolbox : Toolbox, in flash, consist of various tools which let you draw, select,
paint and modify your graphics. Some tools are used to change the display of stage
window. Almost every tool is having a set of modifiers which let you change the behaviour
of the concerned tool.
Using toolbars :- In Windows, you can either dock the standard and drawing toolbars, or
let them float above the window. Move a toolbar bydragging anywhere in the
background or title bar (if it is floating). Drag the toolbar to the edge of the Flash
window to dock it; press the Control key while dragging the toolbar to a window edge
to prevent docking. The toolbar automatically switches to a horizontal layout when
docked to the top or bottom of the screen and to a vertical layout when docked to the
left or right edge of the screen. Double-click the title bar of a floating toolbar to switch
between horizontal and vertical layout.
The Toolbar command opens the Toolbars dialogue box. Use the options in
the dialogue box to hide or display toolbars or to change the look of Flash's toolbars.
To show or hide toolbars :
Choose Window > Toolbar.
Show Controls whether the toolbars are visible in Flash.
Standard Displays the Standard Toolbar. This toolbar contains short-cuts for standard menu
commands such as Open and Print.
Drawing Displays the toolbox that contains the Flash drawing tools and their modifiers.
Status Displays the Status bar. The Status bar displays information about commands and
buttons and about the state of the Caps Lock and Num Lock keys.
Controller Displays the Controller as part of the Standard toolbar.

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Large Buttons Displays larger toolbar buttons. If your monitor has a higher resolution, you
might want to use the larger buttons.
Using Timeline
The main components of the timeline window are frames, layers and the
player head. You can control the Timeline by changing the display of frames and by
dragging it from the main application window, separating it into its own window, or by
docking the Timeline to any side of the application window.
When there are more layers than can be displayed in the Timeline, scroll
bars are available to the right of the layer time strips. You also can resize the Timeline and
layers.
To move the Timeline:
Drag from or double-click the area above the time ruler. Drag the Timeline
window to the edge of the application window to dock it. Press Control to prevent the
Timeline from docking.
To lengthen or shorten name fields :
Drag the bar separating the layer names and the Timeline.
To increase or decrease the number of layers displayed when the Timeline is docked :
Drag the bar separating the Timeline from the Stage area. To move the
playhead, drag it in the timeline header to the desired frame. Timeline header shows the no.
of frames in the animation. Playhead shows the current frame displayed on the stage. The
status bar in Timeline window displays the no. of current frame and the frame rate
specified through Modify > Movie. When animation is played, it shows the actual frame
rate which may differ from the specified one in certain cases where the computer is not
able to play animation quick enough.

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The display of timeline window can be changed by clicking on the pop-up
menu, in the upper right corner of the timeline window. It has options like Tiny, Small
Normal, Medium, Large etc.
Two preview options are available to display a reduced image of the content
of each frame in the layer in the Timeline frames. These thumbnails are useful as an
overview of the animation, but they take up extra screen space.
The Preview option shows only the contents of each frame, scaled so it fits
in the Timeline frames. This can cause the apparent content size to vary.
Frame labels are useful for identifying keyframes in the Timeline and
should be used instead of frame numbers when targeting frames in actions such as Go To
and If Frame Is Loaded. If you add or remove frames, the label moves with the frame it
was originally attached to, whereas frame numbers can change.
Frame labels are exported with movie data, so avoid long names to
minimize file size. Frames labelled with a pound sign are indicators of animated GIF and
PNG formats.
Comments are useful for notes to yourself and others working on the same
movie. You cannot use them in actions. Comments are not exported with movie data, so
you can make them as long as you want.
To create a frame label or comment :
Double-click a frame, or select a frame and choose Modify > Frame.
In the Frame Properties dialogue box, click the Label tab.
For behaviour, choose Label or Comment.
Enter text in the Name box.

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Using scenes
Use scenes to organize a movie thematically. For example, use separate
scenes for an introduction, loading teaser, or credits.
When you play a Flash movie that contains more than one scene, the scenes
play back in the order they are listed in the Scene inspector, one after another. Use actions
if you want the movie to stop or pause after each scene, or to let users navigate the movie
in a non - linear fashion.
If you organize your movie into several scenes, you may have difficulty
implementing actions that use Wait for frame when spanning scenes. In this case, a movie
with one long scene provides better performance. You may also want to avoid scenes if
you preload many actions in your movies.
To display the Scene inspector :

Choose Window > Inspectors > Scene.

To view a particular scene: Choose View > Goto and then choose the name of the scene.
To add a scene:

Click Add in the Scene inspector or choose Insert > Scene.

To delete a scene
Click Delete in the Scene inspector, or open the scene you want to delete
and choose Insert> Remove Scene.
To change the name of a scene:
Click Properties in the Scene inspector or choose Modify > Scene.
To duplicate a scene :
Click Duplicate in the Scene inspector.
To change the order of a scene in the movie:
Drag a scene name in the Scene inspector.

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Creating a new movie and setting its properties


Each time you open Flash, it creates a new file. Use the Movie Properties dialogue
box to set the size, frame rate, background colour, & other properties of the movie.
To create a new movie and set its properties:
Choose File > New.
Choose Modify > Movie.
For frame rate, enter the number of animation frames to be displayed every
second. For most computer- displayed animations, especially those playing from a web
site, 8 fps (frames per second) to 12 fps is sufficient. For size, choose one of the following
options: To specify the size in pixels, enter values for width and height. The default movie
size is 550 pixels by 400 pixels. The minimum size is 18 pixels by 18 pixels; the maximum
is 2880 pixels by 2880 pixels.
To set the Stage size so that there is equal space around the content on all
sides, click Match Contents. To minimize movie size, align all elements to the upper left
corner of the scene before using Match Contents. To set the Stage size to the maximum
available print area, click Match Printer. This area is determined by the paper size currently
selected in the Margins area of the Page Setup dialogue box, minus the current margins.
To use a grid, enter a value for the Grid Spacing, choose a colour with the
Grid colour swatch, and select Show grid.To set the background colour of your movie,
choose a colour from the Background colour swatch. Select the unit of measure from the
Ruler Units option.
As you go on creating a movie with flash, you will frequently need to
preview and test the movie to see that all the components are working properly. To preview
simple animation, interactive controls and sound choose Play button or the Controller
which will play the movie within the flash environment. Whereas to preview all the

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animation with all sorts of control enabled, choose Test Movie command to create a movie
file which will be played in a separate window. To test the movie for the web, choose File
> Publish Preview > HTML command.

Controlling movie playback


Use commands on the Control menu, buttons on the Controller, or keyboard
commands to control movie playback.
To play the current scene :
Do one of the following:
Choose Control > Play.
Choose Window > Controller and click Play.
Press Enter. The animation sequence plays in the
Movie window at the frame rate you specified for the movie.
Use the Step Forward and Step Backward buttons on the Controller, or
choose those commands from the Control menu to step through the frames of the
animation. You can also press the < and > keys on the keyboard.
To play the movie in a continuous loop:
Choose Control > Loop Playback.
To play all the scenes in a movie:
Choose Control > Play All Scenes.
To play a movie without sound:
Choose Control > Mute Sounds.
To enable frame actions:
Choose Control > Enable Frame Actions.
To enable button actions :
Choose Control > Enable Buttons.

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STORAGE
CD-ROM Tutorial
CD-ROMs are one of the most commonly used mediums for transporting
and transferring software from computer to computer. CD-ROMs are an essential part of a
computer as well as a great tool for use in educational settings.
In this tutorial, you'll learn a little bit about CD-ROMs :

What is a CD-ROM?

How to use a CD-ROM?

What can a CD-ROM offer education?


To examine a topic, click on one of the links below. When you finish with a

section return to this Table of Contents.

What is a CD-ROM?
A CD-ROM is a computer peripheral or attachment that is used to read CDs
(compact discs). CD-ROM stands for Compact Disc - Read Only Memory.
There are basically 2 types of CD-ROM drives:
1. Internal CD-ROM Drives. These drives are placed inside the
case of your computer.
2. External CD-ROM Drives. These drives are placed outside
of your computer and are connected to your computer via a
cable. External CD-ROM drives resemble portable CD
Players, such as those available for cars.
There are no functional differences between internal and external CD-ROM
drives. The major difference between the two is that of portability. The external CD-ROM
drive you can unplug and take it with you. The internal one would require you to dismantle
your computer and remove the drive in order to move it from one computer to another. The
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other major difference is in the price of the two different models. External CD-ROM drives
cost slightly more than the internal ones.
As mentioned earlier, CD-ROMs are the now the easiest vehicle for
transporting computer files and software. CD-ROMs are continuously being improved
upon; the main improvement involves the speed of the CD-ROM drive. The first CD-ROM
drive released was a Single Speed (1X) Drive. Soon after its release the Double Speed (2X)
CD-ROM Drive was released. Currently there are Fourteen Speed (14X) CD-ROMs
available, as well as Multiple CD-ROM drives also known as CD Changers. CD Changers
are very similar to multiple CD audio players. A CD Changer is a CD-ROM drive that can
hold more than one compact disc. There are currently 4 - 6 - 12, & 16 Disk CD Changers
on the market, although the price on the newer models is quite steep.
A CD Changer is a CD-ROM Drive that can hold more than one CD. CD
Changers can hold anywhere from 2 to 16 different CDs, but can only access one CD at a
time. These drives are best used in a network setting in which you partially install several
programs on a server that require the CD to be present in order for the program to function.
This will allow users to access a main server and use whichever program they need at the
time. This allows users to free up personal Hard Drive space that is being used to store
large software programs.

Advantages of CD-ROMs
1. CD-ROMs have many advantages over other disk drives such as:
2. A CD-ROM Drive can read both computer CD's as well as Audio CD's. (A Special
"player" application is needed to preform this function.)
3. Newer Computer Programs are being released on CD's that will work on both IBM
and Macintosh platforms.

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4. A CD can hold up to 650 Megabytes, newer CDs can hold up to 1.2 gigabytes, of
data compared to 1.44 megabytes of data on a floppy disk. This is approximately
250,000 pages of text.
5. Data stored on CD-ROMs can't be altered or deleted.
6. CD's are generally safe from computer viruses.
7. Data stored on a CD is digital versus analog data on Laser discs, thus picture and
sound quality are increased as well as the amount of data that can be stored.
8. Quality of data on a CD is better than other tyes of storage media.

Disadvantages of CD-ROMs
1. CD-ROMs can pose problems to users as well, such as:
2. CD-ROM drives are about 10 - 20 times slower than a Hard Drive.
3. CD-ROM drives and Compact Discs are more expensive than other disk drives and
other storage media.

How to use a CD
A CD can hold up to 650 Megabytes of data; a vast amount compared to
standard diskettes. In order to run the programs from a CD most of them require you to
install at least part of the program. This usually consists of movies and sounds as well as
other required files. This helps increase the speed of the program. Movies and sounds can
play faster and clearer from a hard drive than from a CD-ROM drive.
When you install a software program, you generally have a choice of how to install the
program. These choices are:
1. Minimal - Installs only those files that are absolutely necessary to make the
program function.

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2. Recommended - Installs movies, sounds, and other files that the Manufacturer
believes will help the CD run.
3. Full - Installs most of program to your hard disk. This installation will usually help
the program to perform at its best, but will use a larger amount of disk space.
The only differences in these 3 types are related to the speed and
performance of the program. When installing the program, choose the setup that will most
benefit your needs. (e.g., - If you only have a 400 megabyte hard drive, it would not be
recommended to perform a full installation of a CD.)

Installation
To setup or install a CD to your hard Drive, you will follow the same basic
commands that you would follow to install any other software. To install a CD Program on
an IBM or Compatible Machine running Windows Version 3.x follow these steps.
1. Insert the CD into your CD-ROM drive.
2. From the File Menu click Run.
3. Browse to the CD-ROM Drive, and select the Installation File located on the CD.
(usually called Setup or Install).
4. Then follow the directions the program displays.
To install a CD Program on an IBM or Compatible Machine running
Windows Version 95, follow these steps.
1. Insert the CD into your CD-ROM Drive.
2. Click the Start button.
3. Select Run.
4. Browse to the CD.
5. Click the Installation File (usually Setup, or Install).
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6. Follow the directions the program displays.
NOTE - On many CD's that are used with Windows 95, there is a special feature installed
on the CD, called the autorun feature. The autorun feature automatically brings up a
window for that CD. In this window are usually 3 prompts:
1. Install the program. - This will take you through the Installation Procedure.
2. Run the program - This will run the program if it has already been installed.
3. Exit or close the window - This will close the window and return you to your desktop.

To Install a CD Program on a Macintosh Computer follow these steps.


1. Insert the CD into the CD-ROM Drive.
2. Wait for the CD Icon to appear on the Desktop. Double click the CD icon.
3. From the CD window click the Installation File and
4. Follow the directions from the program.
One thing that you will probably want to remember is that most CDs require
you to have the CD in the CD-ROM drive when you run the program, especially those
programs that have not been fully installed.

Using CD-ROMs in the Schools


CD-ROMs have many possibilities that benefit students and teachers. There
are many educational programs and educational utilities currently available on Compact
Discs that may be used in the calssrom. Many items (programs, files, pictures, etc.) that
were too large to be put on a disk or too large to be replicated on multiple machines are
now available on a Compact Disc.

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Educational uses of CD-ROMs
Databases

Encyclopedias

Simulations

The CIA World Factbook

Encarta

The Magic School Bus

Grollier's Encyclopedia

SIM Earth

Encarta

SIM Planet

Brittanica Encyclopedia

SIM Isle

Interactive Story Books Instructional Software

Just Grandma & Me


How the Leopard got his
Spots

Information & Investigative


Software

Carmen SanDiego

Dinosaur

Oregon Trail

Oceans

Math Blaster

Dangerous Creatures

There are literally hundreds of educational titles available on CD-ROM.


These titles are just some examples of CDs that you might use in your classroom. The
following sites may be helpful in learning about and finding more information about CDROM titles that are currently available.

Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM)


CD-ROM is an extension of the CD-DA technology that can support up to
550 MB of pre-recorded digital data. A standard for CD-ROM - known as the Yellow Book
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- was announced by Philips and Sony in 1985. Mode I is for computer data. Mode 2 is for
compressed audio data, image and video data. CD-ROMs (identifiable by the words 'data
storage' beneath the logo) are best suited for the storage of text, but can support still image,
graphics and audio if these are used separately - it is not possible to have commentary over
pictures, for example.
CD-ROM is operating system dependent - different versions are required
for MS- DOS and the Macintosh, for example. The directory format is covered by an ISO
standard (IS 9660) - formerly known as the High Sierra standard. Level One is similar to
an MS-DOS file system, with restrictions on filenames and directory names. Level Two
allows longer filenames, up to 32 characters, whilst retaining many of the other
restrictions. Level Two disks are not usable on some systems, particularly MS-DOS. Most
CD-ROMs intended for the Macintosh are created in the Hierarchical Filing System (HFS)
format, which is unrelated to High Sierra and IS 9660 formats.
CD-ROM is an economic medium for the publication and distribution of
information. CD-ROMs are usually made by specialist companies who will make a master
and then use that to duplicate the disks.
Microsoft, Philips and Sony. It supports simultaneous text, still image and
audio together with some motion video - partial screen, 15 fps. A supplement to the Yellow
Book published in 1991 defines the CD-ROM XA standard, including a new kind of track
that may interleave Mode 2 compressed audio and Mode 2 data sectors. Additional
hardware is needed to separate these when playing the disk. The hardware is programmed
to separate the audio from the data, decompress the audio and play it out through the audio
jacks. At the same time, the hardware passes the data to the computer. It requires a Mode 2
CD-ROM drive and upgrade card.

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CD-ROM XA is the link between the workstation environment supported
by CD-ROM and the consumer environment. It uses the same sound formats as CD-I
(ADPCM levels B and C), but different graphics formats and operating systems. A special
kind of CD-ROM XA bridge disk - Karaoke CD - was developed jointly by Philips and
JVC. These disks can be played on a dedicated Karaoke CD player or on a CD-I player
equipped with a Digital Video cartridge. This concept was developed further in the White
Book specification for Video CD, another CD-ROM XA bridge disk. These disks, typically
containing films or music videos, can be played on a dedicated Video CD player, on a CD-I
player equipped with a Digital Video cartridge or on a computer equipped with the
appropriate hardware and software. The Video CD standard is supported by Philips, JVC,
Sony and Matsushita. Both Karaoke CD and Video CD support FSFM video with CDquality audio, using the MPEG-I compression standard.

Compact disk-interactive (CD-I)


In June 1987 Philips, Sony and Matsushita published a new standard, the
Green Book, for CD-I - a self-contained multimedia system based on compact disk and
compatible with existing CD audio technology. At its launch CD-I supported text, graphics,
four levels of audio including CD-DA, still video and partial screen video. Support for
FSFM video to the White Book specification can now be provided by equipping the CD-I
player with a Digital Video cartridge. CD-I is a self-contained computer system, with its
own processor unit based on the Motorola 68020, with specific video, audio and control
hardware and a CD drive. It runs a real-time, multitasking operating system called CDRTOS, based on the OS-9 operating system from Microware. A standard TV display is
used for output. CD-I is a consumer product, aimed at repeating the success of CD-DA, so
a CD-I disk will play on any CD-I player anywhere in the world. All CD-I players can play
CD-DA disks and CD-I disks can contain CD-DA tracks.

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A variety of players, designed for different markets, are available from
Philips and Sony. These include:
Consumer players such as the CD-I 220 are intended for home use and are sold
through retail outlets;
Professional players such as the CD-I 360 have specific features, such as
This topic stars by outlining the real and potential uses of video. Current use
is largely confined to audiovisual material stored on analogue videodisk and played back
as part of training or POI/POS applications. In future real-time video communications will
be available on personal computers. The chapter then goes on to describe the technology
and components that are required to capture and compress video images, including
conversion to and from broadcast TV standards. It closes with a review of the most
important international standards: the H.320 family for audiovisual telephony and MPEG
for stored audiovisual applications. Proprietary techniques such as DVI are also included.

# AUDIO FILE FORMAT


This project outlines some of the uses of audio in multimedia applications.
It then describes the requirements for music and speech, together with an explanation of
the methods used to capture and encode audio. The chapter closes with a review of the
international standards that are relevant to audio telephony and audiovisual applications.

Audio applications
The audio side of multimedia has attracted relatively little attention in the
computer industry. This is partly because of the massive publicity devoted to video. It may
also be because the use of audio in business information systems is not clear. The existing
multimedia platforms that support audio seemed designed for the entertainment market.
Despite this neglect, audio clearly has an important role in multimedia applications.

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Special effects, such as music and voice, can be added to applications, especially training
and point-of-sale or point-of-information systems. A voice commentary can be used to
narrate what is happening on-screen or to highlight and reinforce key concepts. Combined
with still pictures or animations, it can be used to explain an idea or a process to the user in
a more effective way than text or graphics alone. Music can be used to attract customer
attention or to create a particular mood.
A huge volume of audio material already exists on records, tapes and
compact disks. However, almost all of this will require copyright clearance before it can be
used. Existing legislation such as that covering performing rights for music that is played
in public areas may be unsuitable for new multimedia applications. A point-of-sale system,
for example, might contain a large number of short musical extracts. It would be difficult
and very costly to identify when each extract was played and make the requisite royalty
payments. Libraries of sound clips can be purchased, free of copyright, for such
applications. However, application developers may prefer to generate their own audio
material.
In some specialised areas audio on its own may form the core of a
multimedia application. One such example is the provision of systems to help visually
handicapped people. A recent project involved the downloading of a daily newspaper to a
special terminal in the user's home. Here he or she could choose to listen to a speech
processing system read selected articles aloud or have them displayed in a large typeface
on the monitor.
As costs come down and the technology improves, interest in using speech
processing and recognition in more general business applications will increase. It is already
possible to use simple commands to control a computer as part of the user interface.

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Audio capture
A sound digitiser is used to capture and digitise analogue sound from
audiotape, cassettes, records, CD-ROM and the original audio version of compact disk
known as CD-DA (compact disk-digital audio). Alternatively original music can be
recorded using a microphone or composed on instruments that are attached to the computer
through a MIDI interface. Once captured, audio is then stored on hard disk or optical
media and can be edited and played back through speakers connected to the computer or
through a headset. Many computers are now equipped with built-in sound processors and
speakers. However, externally powered speakers will provide higher sound clarity and
volume. They will be needed if the audio source is a separate compact disk drive that needs
to be attached to speakers and cannot play through the computer.
Music on the computer
A variety of tools are available to support musicians who want to compose
and edit music using a multimedia system. These include sequencers, which record MIDI
information rather than sound. This information can then be edited and sent back to the
MIDI instruments for playback.
MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is an industry-standard
connection for computer and digital control of musical instruments. It provides a way to
record, play back and synchronise the settings needed to control sound-producing devices.

Speakers
Digitiser

Computer

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Source

Fig. Configuration for sound system


MIDI coding is also used in some multimedia editing and control systems.
MIDI includes standards for the hardware itself (for example, the cables and connectors) as
well as for the electronic information in the form of MIDI messages that are sent from one
device to another. A computer with a MIDI interface can be used to control other MIDIcompatible devices through a MIDI port - a five-pin connection socket built into a device
for connecting MIDI cables. There are three types of port: MIDI In receives data, MIDI
Out sends data and MIDI Thru relays data without reading the message. The device also
requires a microprocessor that is able to send and receive MIDI messages. These
communicate musical events such as note-on/note-off or the pitch bend of a note. All
systems must have at least one MIDI port with MIDI In, Out and Thru.
Voice on the computer
The use of voice is likely to be far more important than music to most
managers who want to develop multimedia information systems. Until recently this was
not well catered for by suppliers. Suitable adapters and software are now available from
several suppliers including Apple, Microsoft and Creative Labs. The Windows Sound
System, for example, consists of a 16-bit audio card, microphone, headphones and a
software application that Is designed to support business audio. It includes voice
recognition (so that the user can teach it to recognise commands), voice synthesis, and
support for importing sound clips into applications that make use of OLE. It also allows
users to synchronise audio with digital video.

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Speech recognition technology, once used mainly by people who were
unable to type due to physical disabilities, is now closer to being of practical use in the
office. IBM has started to ship its Personal Dictation System for OS/2. In addition to
supporting dictation at around 70 to 100 words per minute for text input, the system can be
used to control the functions of the computer system and its applications. It
can be trained to recognise the voice of an individual speaker uttering simple commands
such as 'save file' and 'close window'. If speech recognition is to be used in business
applications, then good acoustic conditions will be required to reduce ambient noise.
Success rates are also affected by factors such as the size and composition of the
vocabulary used, the attitude and speaking style of the user, and the type and placement of
the microphone. Suitable applications are those that require relatively limited vocabularies
in a quiet environment. They include inspections, sorting and visual monitoring where
hands- free operation is required.
A quiet environment will also be required for the use of video PCs in the
office. Traditional videoconferencing equipment supports full duplex audio without echo.
Picture Tel's IDEC technology, for example, adjusts the audio to maintain maximum sound
quality without recalibration, allowing participants to move around the room. An enhanced
version is provided in the company's video PCs, designed to suppress unwanted
background noise from air conditioning or fans in PCs.
Compression
As human beings are more sensitive to variations in the quality of sound
than in the quality of image, multimedia systems will be required to support high standards
for audio. Techniques to encode audio information are already well developed. Sound
consists of pressure differences in the air. A microphone picks up these differences and
feeds them through an amplifier. This analogue signal is first digitised using an analogue to

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digital converter (ADC). The computer samples the input waveform at regular intervals
and converts the amplitude to a binary code, using pulse code modulation (PCM).
For speech the audio signal is sampled at 8 kHz (i.e. 8,000 times per
second) and 8 bits - representing 256 different amplitude values - are used to code each
sample. The technique of limiting the number of values in this way is known as
quantisation. This method of encoding will generate a stream of 64,000 bits per second
(written as 64 Kbit/s), which needs to be put into packets for transmission over a network.
For music of the quality provided by compact disk, the signal is sampled at 44.1 kHz (i.e.
44,100 times per second) and 16 bits are used to code each sample. In stereo this will
generate a stream of 1.4 million bits per second (Mbit/s). Further compression can be
achieved by suppressing silences or by better methods of coding:
1.

Non-linear PCM assigns the amplitude value points non-linearly. For example, a
logarithmic scale can be used to assign codes more sparsely at the maximum
amplitudes and more densely near the zero-crossing point.

2.

Differential PCM (DPCM) encodes the differential of the signal instead of the
signal itself. The range of differentials is usually smaller than the range of
amplitudes.

3.

Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) dynamically adjusts the range of amplitude values to


match the expected range of amplitudes in the input data stream.

# VIDEO FILE FORMAT


Applications
The launch of audiovisual applications on personal computers has attracted
much attention. The use to which this technology will be put in the future is rather less
clear, although some early experiments point the way. We can think of video applications

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in two groups: playback of stored audiovisual material and real-time audiovisual
communications.
The first group is well established. Training applications based on
interactive videodisk have incorporated analogue video sequences as a standard technique.
Public information systems also incorporated video clips, often as a way of attracting the
attention of the user. The use of digital video in networked systems is still restricted by
the technical problems of transferring large volumes of time- dependent data. Possible
applications include the use of servers to hold libraries of
Audiovisual communications may be one-to-one, as for example in a
meeting between two people, each of whom has a videophone or video camera mounted on
a personal computer. Compared to conventional videoconferencing equipment, these
personal video systems seem rather limited. The combination of a small image (a window
on a 14-inch monitor), low resolution and relatively slow frame rate means that current
products are unlikely to satisfy users' requirements for lengthy face-to- face 'meetings' such
as recruitment interviews where eye contact and body language are important. They could,
however, be successfully used in situations where the discussion involves other forms of
interaction. For example, a sales director might wish to contact sales executives in different
cities. Each executive could display the latest forecasts on the computer, using a shared
workspace. The quality of the video links is of secondary importance in this case.
Real-time video communications may also be one-to-many. In this case
only one person has a video camera; everyone else receives the video on their computers,
as in a live broadcast.

This

latter approach is suitable for internal

company

communications - the company President's Christmas message, for example. More


importantly it can form a part of a distance learning project. For example, in a university
programme for US high schools that use personal computers for teaching the fine arts, the

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instructor can talk to students on remote locations via a real-time video link, as well as
showing them still images of paintings.

Video capture
Converting video for the computer
Conventional broadcast TV, audio and video signals are analogue, whilst
computers handle digital information. Multimedia systems need to be able to handle
information in both analogue and digital forms, because:
1. Analogue video and audio signals may need to be converted into digital form so that
they can be manipulated more easily.
2. Applications developed on computers may need to be converted back into analogue form
for playback - from videotape, for example.
3. Analogue and digital forms may be combined in one application, as when a live
television broadcast is run in a window on a computer screen, for example.
Conversion between analogue and digital video presents a number of
technical difficulties. The situation is complicated by the different and incompatible
standards that have been adopted by the different industries involved.
A TV screen may look superficially like a computer screen but it differs in a
number of important ways. Most computers and some video systems use a component
signal made up of three basic colours - red-green-blue (RGB) - that are individually
controllable. Broadcast TV and most video systems use a composite signal in which
luminance (brightness) and chrominance (colour), together with synchronisation
information, are combined into a single signal. A decoder is needed to change a composite
signal from a video source into an RGB signal for display on a computer screen.

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A complete image in a sequence of moving film or video is called & frame.
In most broadcast video, the screen is interlaced. Two sets of alternating lines are
broadcast. Even-numbered lines are drawn at one pass, odd-numbered lines are in a second
pass. This allows an image to be broadcast at comparatively low frame rates (25-30 fps)
without excessive flicker. The eye averages similar values so the image remains clear.
Computer screens, in contrast, are non-interlaced - video lines are presented sequentially.
To compensate for this, frame rates are faster - 66.7 frames per second (fps) for the
Macintosh, for example.
Video resolution varies between broadcast standards - 625 lines for the US
standard (NTSC) or 525 lines in Europe for the PAL and SECAM standards. In contrast, a
computer with a VGA screen has a resolution of 640 x 480 pixels, with a 256-colour
palette. On a television set the picture is extended to fill the entire screen, known as
overscan, so that part of the picture at the edges is lost. Computer screens use underscan, in
which the entire picture is visible, surrounded by a black border.
So conversion from analogue to digital video requires a decoder to convert
a composite video signal to an RGB signal and a scan converter to accelerate interlaced
video for a non-interlaced computer screen. In addition if computer graphics are to be
combined with the video signal, a synchronisation generator lock (genlock) will be
required to combine the two. This allows the system to set its timing to match the timing of
the video signal.
Creating videos on the desktop
The market for video adapters and related equipment has evolved rapidly.
Each generation of products is swiftly overtaken by the next, as compression methods are
improved, whilst at the same time proprietary techniques give way to developing
international standards.

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Video overlay boards
The first generation of adapter boards provided overlay and genlock
facilities - the ability to combine broadcast quality analogue video with computergenerated text and graphics. They were designed for use with videodisk players. It was
possible to mask part of the video image on-screen, so that the remaining part appeared to
be playing in a window, surrounded by text. However, the image itself could not .be
manipulated - its size and position thus remained constant.
Digitisers
These were followed by a range of digital video capture devices (digitisers
or frame grabbers) that could be used to accept PAL or NTSC signals from a videodisk
player, video cassette recorder or video camera, and digitise them. Single frames could be
'grabbed' and stored as still images. Some of these adapters could provide real-time
manipulation of the video image, including the ability to change its size, position,
brightness, saturation, contrast sharpness and hue. A full screen of video could be scaled to
any size and placed anywhere on the screen, within a window if desired.
Compression boards
In 1989 Intel introduced a new proprietary compression technology for
audiovisual applications called DVI. Intel itself supplied both processors and adapter
boards for real-time compression and decompression. These compressors can take a data
stream from a digitiser board, compress it and store it on hard disk in real time. Other
suppliers brought out adapters of their own, using Intel's processor set. More recent
products support the emerging international standards for image compression, JPEG and
MPEG. Although JPEG is essentially a standard for still images, in practice it has proved
to be popular for compressing motion video. This is because each frame is compressed
separately, thus making frame-by-frame editing much simpler. Several suppliers sell

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adapters that support motion video to the JPEG standard (known as Motion JPEG) with
synchronous audio.

Display

Digitiser

Computer
Sources

Fig. Configuration for video system

HUMAN FACTORS
An important aspect of developing multimedia systems is understanding of
the physical, psychological and social aspects of human response. For example, the
accurate reproduction of colour, using 16 bits, is more important than high resolution for
consumer applications - the opposite is true for business applications. The eye is not so

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demanding when images are in motion, so it is possible to combine low resolution and fullmotion video, whereas high resolution and good colour are required for a still image.
Multimedia, by its very nature, opens up new channels of communication
via the computer.

Whilst these new channels have the potential to increase our

understanding of the information relayed and the speed at which we can process it, they
may also bring further problems in their wake. New speech recognition facilities will mean
that we can give verbal instructions to computers. And the computers will be able talk
back, giving us audible help messages, for example.
Many offices now are open plan. In such offices there may be a constant
background noise and activity that makes it hard to make a conventional phone call using a
handset. The introduction of video PCs will mean that some of this background activity
will be transmitted over the video link. This is likely to be distracting to the person
receiving the call, as well as disrupting the quality of the transmission - limitations in
compression technology mean that a static background is preferable. If the video PC is to
be used for collaborative activities such as sharing documents, participants will need to use
both keyboard and mouse in addition to the handset. If a speaker and microphone are used
instead, there will be further problems with background noise. Headsets might be
preferable - but not for short casual calls.

TROUBLE SHOOTING
a) Problems with multimedia
Despite the real and potential benefits just outlined, the adoption of
multimedia by businesses has been very slow. There are several reasons for this reluctance.
Some early users seriously underestimated the costs of developing a multimedia system.

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These costs reflect both the complexity of the technology involved and the need to acquire
the rights to use a large volume of material, usually owned by someone else. The quality of
some of these early systems proved to be disappointing as well. The developers had not
understood the need to use skilled designers for the interactive and audiovisual elements in
their systems.
As we shall see, some of these problems remain unresolved. Other, newer
problems are likely to arise in future. For example, there has been little investigation about
how users will react to the prospect of video communications on the desktop. How
acceptable will it prove? What codes of behaviour should users adopt? What about the
environment - will noise and movement in the background prove too distracting?

b) CD ROM Troubleshooting Tips


1) General
-Is the device plugged in and powered on?
-Are the CD-ROM and the Adapter on the HCL.
-Is it a SCSI CD-ROM or do you have a Windows NT driver for your non-SCSI CDROM?
-Is the Media clean and not scratched?
-Check cables.
-Double-check for conflicting scsi id's
2) If setup can not see the CD.
-Is the adapter found during the device scan? (If not check for I/O port, SCSI ID, IRQ,
memory -If

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you have multiple CD's on the system make sure that the media is in the lowest device
number.
-Is the media inserted correctly (ie. not upside down)
-Is the cabling correct?
3) Setup can not copy files.
-Check for loose cables.
-Is the destination device full?
-Is there all ready a file by the same name that may be READ/ONLY?
-Run CHKDSK /F on the destination device.
-If on a SCSI BUS, Check Termination, termination power, and device ID's.
4) If you all of a sudden see 6 extra drives in the Windows NT file manager
(that you really don't have)
-Double check the SCSI id's. You likely have two devices using the same id.

c) Technical barriers
Multimedia is surrounded by a barrage of new terminology, often involving
strings of acronyms, that are confusing to users. Many new and relatively untried
technologies are involved. Managers should be aware that they will need to upgrade their
infrastructure to provide:
Personal computers or workstations that can support and manage multimedia data,
including real-time video;
New file servers that can manage large volumes of data stored on optical or

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Some time at the Running the C.D. in C.D. player. It becomes Jammed in
player at the time of shooting. To avoid Trouble shooting there are certain way are as
given below :(1) Open the C.D. player by removing grew and take out C.D. outside.
(2) Press the button of C.D. drive and take out C.D. outside.
(3) Small hole is provided below the button of CD drive. Pin or small stick push inside the
hole in such case CD drive open and take CD outside.
(4)
Q.1) Why diagrams not open in another PC?
Ans :- And use an Executable file format. (exe.file)
Q.2) What is necessary to runs file ?
Ans :- It requires flash player of same version. ( We have created in Ver. 5 ).
Q.3) Why diagrams are not open in demo version of flash ?
Ans.:- Because soem file required to run the movie may be absent or corrupted.
Q.4) Why Movie shows different contrasting colour on different PC's ?
Ans :- These may be due to the different in colour setting from the control panel of
respective PC's.
(5) Why it is not possible to make changes in .swf file
Ans :- When movie open in .swf file no changes be made in thus file. This file is make by
pressing (control + Enter) both tab at a time. The changes can be made only in Executable
file. In that all tools are available, files are available, control panel is workable or it say
flash version is run well.

COSTING
a) Investment costs

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Against the positive economic benefits outlined above must be set the high
cost of implementing a multimedia system. Though the cost of technology is falling
steadily, the cost of development work remains very high. Such work typically requires the
assistance of one or more third party suppliers as very few organisations have the requisite
design skills available in house. Experience shows that most managers underestimate the
skills involved, the need for a new approach to product management and the length of
development time.
Unlike most other computer-based systems, multimedia involves a high
proportion of information (usually referred to as its content) in a form that is very
expensive to create and maintain. This is exacerbated in many cases by the need to pay
royalties or fees to the owners of copyright, since the ownership of much audiovisual
material is likely to lie outside the organisation.

b) Cost Sheet :Costing of single C.D. of Education Multimedia on Hydraulic & Pneumatic
circuits is as given below :-

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Sr.

Particulars

Charges in

No.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Rs.
Operator charges

6250/-

@ Rs.250/- per diagram x 25


Computer charges

3900/-

@ Rs.1300 per month x 3 months


Matter for MTC ( H & P Section )

235/-

(including Xerox, books )


Sound Recording

500/-

@ Rs.20/- per circuit diagram x 25


Feeding of Explanation of circuit

375/-

@ Rs.15/- per diagram x 25


C.D. Writing (including blank CD)

650/-

@ Rs.50/- per CD x 13
ReWritable C.D. ( Backup )

70/-

@ Rs.70/- per CD x 1 piece


Electric consumption 4 unit per day
@ Rs.3/-per unit x 4 Unit per day x 90 day (approximately)
Total Cost

1080/13060/-

DO CONSUMERS REALLY WANT MULTIMEDIA?


In contrast to the office, the need for multimedia in the home is unclear. So
far most consumers have proved stubbornly resistant to its charms. The main reason for
this lack of interest is almost certainly lack of money. Quality - or the lack of it - is also a
key factor. Whilst people within the computing industry become wildly excited about
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digital video on PCs, because they are aware of the technological development that has
gone into achieving it, consumers automatically compare it with TV - where full-screen,
full-motion video means a 27-inch TV screen updated at least 25 frames per second. This
comparison is not encouraging. Furthermore some of the people who create titles for the
home market have more enthusiasm than design skill. The lessons that the film and
television industries learnt over many years have yet to be applied to multimedia.
Surprisingly little research and market testing seems to take place to
establish what consumers will and will not want to do with multimedia products. Instead
suppliers draw false analogies with other products. Because, for example, audio CDs were
successful, it is assumed that multimedia CDs will be equally so. Yet these products,
superficially similar, meet very different personal needs. Listening to music is not the same
as looking up information in an encyclopaedia or learning to play golf - two activities that
now feature on CD. Instead of one relatively uniform activity we have a multitude of
different ones, each with its own social setting. Multimedia for the home is a technology
that enables a diverse range of applications, many of which may attract comparatively
small markets.
Despite these caveats, many companies are interested In supplying the
home market. A wide and confusing array of products have already been announced and
more will follow. These products include:

CD players;
Set-top converters;
Home PCs;
Personal information devices (PIDs);
Consumer videophones;

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Electronic books.
Only the first three of these have the capability to support multimedia at
present. This project will therefore concentrate on applications for these product groups.

a) The information superhighway


There are currently two models of how the market for networked
information services should develop:
1. The restricted access or 'toll booth' model is very similar to existing cable and direct
broadcast to home by satellite (DBS) services.
2. The open access or 'gateway' model is similar to existing telephony services and,
especially, to the Internet - the impetus behind the Clinton-Gore vision of the Information
Superhighway.
In the first case, the target market is residential households that currently
take (or would like to take) cable television. Large amounts of centrally controlled
information, geared to a mass market, would be distributed over cable networks to the
domestic television and set-top box. The technology can support 500 channels, though
providing a near video-on-demand service could take up a large part of this capacity.)
In contrast, the target market for the second model is likely to include the
upper range of residential customers and home offices. These customers will seek out
information from a wide range of sources and download it over cable or telephone
networks to a platform that can support a high level of user interaction. Instead of 500
channels there will effectively be a single channel, tailored to the customer's requirements.
In future users should also be able to create and distribute information themselves.

b) Applications for CD players


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Compact disk players were described in Section .10.5. Games and
information are stored on disks, to be played back under user control with the standard
television screen as the display device. Although many titles have been published, the early
entrants - such as Commodore with CDTV (later CD32) and Philips with CD-I - have
made comparatively little impression in this area. To date the players have sold in hundreds
of thousands, rather than millions. Despite this experience, new players continue to appear.
Rather than making a breakthrough, these have added to the confusion and will probably
delay consumer acceptance still further. What is required by both developers and
consumers is a single industry-standard platform that will play any title.
Interactive games
Sega and Nintendo continue to dominate the existing highly profitable
market for video games. Both have expressed interest in the use of CD as an alternative to
their existing cartridge systems. This will enable them to include video clips showing
actors instead of or in addition to animation. However, whilst Sega went ahead with its CD
system, Nintendo drew back because it did not believe that CD was yet a mainstream
product. The cost of a CD player will have to drop to that of a cartridge system in order to
create a viable market for video games on compact disk. The Multiplayer from 3DO,
though backed with massive investment, has not yet made the looked-for breakthrough in
this area.
Photography
One interesting and innovative product in this area is the consumer version
of Kodak's Photo CD player, which might fit the slot in the market formerly occupied by
slide projectors. Photo CD may also have some common features with the successful
market for camcorders - consumers will provide the content but need editing facilities so
that they can add titles and build up slide shows.

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Movies
Compact disk could be a realistic alternative to videotape as a means of
distributing movies. In 1993 a small UK company, Nimbus, demonstrated the ability to
play back video from a compact disk on a special decoder. A CD to the Red Book
specification could hold up to 79 minutes of full-motion video, using MPEG-I
compression, whilst up to 135 minutes could be held on a double density disk. More
recently Philips has published its own specification for video on CD, the White Book.
Education
Compact disk is a natural platform for education in the home. Because it is
interactive, it offers benefits over conventional audiovisual materials based on linear audioand videotape. It can also hold much larger volumes of material, so that a whole language
course, for example, could be held on a single disk.
Information services
Current CD-ROM players are designed for playback from disk and thus
lack any communications capability. This will change under pressure from interactive
television. Philips has developed a CD-I player that can control information on a remote
disk, regardless of the transmission medium. Such a player could be used as an alternative
to the set-top converter for applications like home shopping, providing access to
electronic catalogues held on a central database.

APPLICATION IN MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia is often said to be a solution in search of a problem. This
attitude is a reaction to the view of multimedia as a separate technology in its own right,
endowed with almost magical properties. Multimedia is just a convenient term to
summarise a whole series of changes in the infrastructure of modern computing and

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telecommunications. These changes will enable us to use a much wider range of data types
in our systems. Part III describes their impact on existing and future applications.
Interactive videodisk has been used since the 1980s for computer-based
training systems. Although these systems proved to be cost-effective, they have remained
insulated from mainstream computing. They used analogue technology in standalone
systems that were usually developed by training departments. More recently point-ofinformation and point-of-sale systems have been developed by marketing groups using
similar equipment.
Digitisation has brought a number of changes that will lead to reduced costs
and will increase the assimilation of multimedia with IT. Some applications such as
document image processing already run on local area networks. Others will be supported in
future. The advent of the Multimedia PC and MS Windows 3.1 makes it possible to
incorporate audio and animation in desktop applications such as business presentations.
Help facilities in word processing and spreadsheet packages can be augmented with images
and audio messages. These features will familiarise users with multimedia and will raise
expectations for office automation.
The appearance of video PCs with ISDN interfaces that can support audio
and videoconferencing forms the basis for another-set .of applications that will include
multimedia mail and computer-supported co-operative work.
Multimedia and the single user
Until recently the use of multimedia was largely confined to
standalone implementations of two kinds of commercial application, computer-based
training (CBT) and kiosks - a short-hand way of referring to point-of-information (POI)
and point-of-sale (POS) systems. The earliest versions of these applications were
customised systems, built around the use of interactive videodisk (IV).

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Recent interest has centred on the use of CD-ROM with new digital
technology such as Intel's DVI. This trend towards digital media should increase as more
personal computers are shipped with integrated CD-ROM drives and system software that
provides support for multimedia. Customised software is expensive to develop and
maintain. The reduction in the cost of delivery platforms should encourage businesses to
look for software packages that can be purchased off-the-shelf. In addition to courseware,
such software will include new versions of existing products, such as spreadsheets, that
have been enhanced to allow the inclusion of multimedia data types. It is also likely to
include new applications such as tools that allow business users to develop multimedia
presentations on their own desktop computers.
Computer-based training
Multimedia has been used for some years to enhance CBT systems for offline training - the system whereby users leave their jobs for a day or a week in order to
train on a dedicated system. American Airlines, for example, has used a multimedia system
to train its flight attendants at Fort Worth, Texas. Typically the trainees would spend five
weeks at the training centre learning how to handle the service of food, medical and
emergency procedures. Forty per cent of that training was carried out by CBT using
multimedia applications based on a Wicat system with a laserdisk player. The system,
which incorporates audio and video, is also used for student tests.
More recently there has been much interest in the use of multimedia for
Just-in- time QIT) training - flexible training that can be accessed by the user at any time.
Bethlehem Steel, for example, has created an on-line help desk based on DVI technology
for its large mainframe systems. The system allows the operators to interrupt their
mainframe sessions and access the help desk when faced with a problem.

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Multimedia on the desktop
Increased support for multimedia on standard platforms has encouraged
sales of packaged software, making multimedia a feasible option for large-scale business
use. As a result the emphasis is starting to shift from customised software for training to
the development of software packages that incorporate multimedia for sale to the general
business market
Business presentation packages
Business presentations currently use 35-mm slides or foils for the overhead
projector. Suppliers are bringing to market a number of packages that they hope will
replace these aids. Desktop video editing tools such as MacroMedia's MediaMaker allow
users who are not videographics professionals to create presentations and output them to
videotape from a personal computer. Dynamic presentation tools such as Action! (also
from MacroMedia) will allow them to generate presentations that can be run on the
computer from magnetic or optical disk. These tools will be supported by disks containing
pre-packaged images, sounds and motion video-collectively known as clip media.
Such products are intended to appeal to creative directors, sales and
marketing executives, graphics artists and corporate designers. They will be able to capture
video from a camcorder on a personal computer, combine it with computer- generated
graphics and animations and output the result to a VCR. Using video, music, graphics and
animation improves the impact and effectiveness of a sales presentation, makes it more
professional and helps to present a consistent image - qualities that are especially important
at major conferences and exhibitions.
Information access
Users will be able to access information that is stored in multimedia
databases on optical disks. Already an increasing number of companies are using CD-

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ROM as a distribution medium for software. Some also use it to distribute information.
Apple, for example, uses it as a means of keeping its staff informed, whilst Sun has put its
entire third party software catalogue onto disks, including demonstration versions of some
of the packages. This in turn will ensure that CD-ROM drives are bundled with new PCs.
By the end of the decade most desktops will have access to such a drive, either locally or
over the network.
Most CD-ROMs for business use are still mainly text. However, just as
printed publications may contain illustrations, so increasingly will electronic ones. For
example, CID Publishing has produced a directory, aimed at the corporate travel and
entertainment market, which contains details on 5,000 venues in the UK. Each venue has a
text entry at no cost. Those that are willing to pay can have photographic images of their
rooms and grounds included on the disk.
Multimedia on networks
No sooner have we adjusted to the idea of developing multimedia
applications on CD-ROM instead of interactive video than the available technology seems
ready to take another leap forward. In future applications will run over networks, just as
other business applications already do. As we have seen, existing local area networks
require substantial enhancements to handle multimedia in a satisfactory manner. Advances
in wide area networking, especially broadband technologies and ISDN, will

already

support some business applications such as image transfer and videoconferencing. In


the home a range of new interactive applications are being developed to run over cable or
even telephony services.
Just-in-time training
Standalone training applications usually require staff to be absent from their
desks for long periods. Once CBT courses have been transferred from interactive videodisk

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to CD-ROM, the natural step to consider is whether these courses need to be on standalone
systems. Andersen Consulting, for example, developed a four-day self-study course on
CD-ROMs for its staff that is presently offered off-site. The development team now plans
to network its training courses, so that in future such courses can be used in the office as
part of a move towards short interactive training periods.
As multimedia becomes an integral part of personal computers, business
users will be able to receive audio instructions, pictures and animations that explain how to
carry out a complex command. Embedded help screens have long been provided as part of
standard spreadsheet or word processing packages. JIT training will enhance these existing
help facilities with photographs, audio and video clips. Lotus already provides a system
called Multimedia Smart Help for 1-2-3 for Windows. This enables users of personal
computers on LANs to access an animated help screen in order to learn how to use specific
features of the spreadsheet.
New retail applications
Existing standalone POI and POS applications are difficult to maintain.
Updating such systems by issuing new versions of the database on disk is a tedious
procedure - one that retailers will increasingly find can be replaced by the use of
networked services such as ISDN. At the same time the use of automated systems enables
them to present a consistent sales message. When combined with the use of smart cards,
business can be closed at the kiosk without the need for trained staff.
For banks in particular the automation of customer service facilities allows
them to eliminate jobs, thus achieving annual cost savings. The back office space that is no
longer needed for staff can be converted to customer use. The overheads associated with
branch locations can be eliminated. Banks want to reduce the amount of staff time that is
spent processing routine account transactions or answering basic product queries. New

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hardware already allows automatic teller machines, for example, to be combined with
information services. Several banks have already employed these in trial systems to give
their customers access to both account transactions and product transactions. Future
systems could combine this with videoconferencing equipment to provide remote access to
financial advisors.
Broadband applications
Some highly specialised networked multimedia applications have already
been developed as part of broadband trials. SuperJANET, a project worth 18 million over
four years, is a high-speed fibre optic network. Designed to link higher education and
research institutions throughout the UK, SuperJANET uses the latest broadband
technologies that can transmit data at up to 140 Mbit/s. In the first instance much of this
data is high-quality images - images of brain structure obtained using magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), weather satellite data and images of rare documents, for example.
The first applications fell into a number of core areas including distance
learning, group collaboration, remote access to information and visualisation of
supercomputer data. Supercomputers generate huge data sets in calculations for
computational fluid dynamics or global atmospheric modelling, for example. Scientists can
often only understand and interpret this data if they can visualise it on a workstation. In
one Super JANET project 3D images of molecular models are being transmitted between
the chemistry departments at Imperial College and Cambridge University, allowing
different research groups to pool their areas of expertise. These images, generated by
visualisation packages, can now be transmitted directly to the other users. In the past they
had to be translated into numbers and then back into images - a laborious process that
risked the loss of the original image. Users at each site can rotate, discuss and edit the

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images, supported by a videoconferencing link. These discussions can themselves be
captured as QuickTime movies, edited and submitted to scientific journals.
Videoconferencing
The introduction of video PCs will create opportunities for new applications
in the office. Although the quality of the early systems may prove to be disappointing,
video on the desktop will eventually be used to enhance existing communications systems.
Electronic mail packages, for example, will be extended to incorporate new data types.
Audio mail is already available. In future users will be able to include photographs and
video clips within mail messages that are sent to other users.
Present-day videoconferencing systems are expensive and often require
special suites of rooms. By the late 1990s users will be able to open up a window on their
desktop PC and talk directly to another user over an ISDN line. Users in decentralised
work groups will be able to use multimedia to support collaborative projects. As one user
modifies the document on-screen, the changes will appear on the copy of the document on
the other user's computer. Multimedia will play an important part in software that supports
such co-operative working, known as groupware
Multimedia in the home
The merging of home entertainment systems with multimedia and electronic
home shopping facilities has already excited the interest of a wide range of suppliers from
traditional retailers and manufacturers, through travel agents and mail order suppliers, to
banks and companies that offer financial services. The development of the consumer
market requires collaboration between these suppliers and the telecommunications
companies. New consortia are being established to create the necessary infrastructure.
In the UK Videotron can already offer users of its Videoway cable system a
choice of different camera locations for a televised sports event, thus allowing the viewer

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to exercise choice over the service he or she receives. BT has announced plans to provide
'video on demand' over standard telephone lines. Other mass market applications are likely
to appear later in the decade as set-top boxes based on MPEG compression technology
become available at competitive prices. These will be able to decode signals from
satellites, to support applications such as interactive home shopping.

CONCLUSION
In this project we have basically worked only for Hydraulic & Pneumatic
circuits.
It is very hard to understand working of Hydraulic & Pneumatic circuits due
to complicated arrangement consisting various valves like pilot operated valve, solenoid
operated valve, Direction control valve, check valves, flow control valve ....etc.

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We by using animation software "Flash" have made this industrial circuits
very easy to understand students, workers. How this circuit works & what happens when
these complicated valves are operated.
Also we open this field for making such type of education knowledge on the
subjects, which are mainly practical base and very difficult to understand only by reading.
This educational multimedia can be use to study following subjects # Fluid Power System
# Thermal Power system
# Machine Tool design system
This project defines multimedia systems as those computer platforms and
software tools that support the interactive use of audio, still image and video. This project
shows how these new types of data can be used to enhance a wide range of existing
applications.

REFERENCE
1) Multimedia in Practice ( Tech & Applications)
By : Judith Jeffcoate
2) Machine tool control system
By : Harry L. Stewart

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3) Machine Tool Control
By : A. Troitsky
4) Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing
By : M. Groover.
5) Operation Research Techniques
By : Hira & Gupta.
6) www.educationalmultimedia.com
7) www.micromedia.com
8) www.google.com

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INDEX
SR.

PARTICULARS

NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

INTRODUCTION
ELEMENT OF MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM
BENEFITS OF USING MULTIMEDIA
TRAINING IN MULTIMEDIA
MULTIMEDIA IN EDUCATION
WHY MTC IS FIRST CHOICE IN MULTIMEDIA
SIGN AND CONVERSIONS USED IN OUR CIRCUITS
WHY FLASH IS CHOSEN AS A ANIMATION SOFTWARE
STORAGE
HUMAN FACTORS
TROUBLE SHOOTING
COSTING
DO CONSUMERS REALLY WANT MULTIMEDIA
APPLICATION IN MULTIMEDIA
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE

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50
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