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Parquet Sorting

Texture Analyses

D. Rozman, M. Brezak, I. Petrovic

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

challenging because of the strongly varying appearance of

wood. Various methods for automated visual inspection of

wooden surfaces have been developed [2].

In this work performance of various pattern recognition

techniques applied for wood sorting application have been

compared. Our goal was to find out how the performance of

color based wood inspection systems could be improved by

combining color and texture features. The performance of

proposed approach was tested in parquet slab inspection.

Standard DIN 280, part 2, defines three possible parquet slab

classes. According to this standard the class of the parquet is

determined by measuring the sizes, types and number of

defects and a distribution of color and texture regions on the

parquet slab surface. It is necessary to emphasize that the

parquet slab class definition described in sense of visual

information for observer and there are not any mathematically

defined criteria for the description of the parquet slab class.

The slab is classified to the best grade whose requirements it

fulfills. Of course human graders seldom follow strict

numerical definitions about the defects. Instead the grading is

based mainly on the general visual appearance of the parquet

slabs. Therefore the results are difficult to compare to the ones

achieved by human graders. Parquet slabs of three defined

classes are shown on the figures 1, 2 and 3.

automatic parquet slab sorting is described, as a part of a real

time automatic parquet slab sorting system. Various computer

vision algorithms and methods for automatic visual inspection

and automatic classification have been analyzed. Developed

algorithm consists of three main stages: color analysis, texture

analysis and defects detection. The color analysis is based on the

percentile values obtained from the cumulative histogram of the

image and texture analysis is based on the second order statistical

features obtained from gray level co-occurrence matrix.

Detection of defects is implemented as the segmentation method,

based on the adaptive binary threshold algorithm, which is based

on a local square regions and connected component analysis

methods. This way we have achieved a very accurate classifying

process with about 90 percent of accuracy, which greatly

outstands results of human inspector, that are about 60-70

percent.

I. INTRODUCTION

important role in the quality control. Traditionally, this job has

been mainly carried out by human inspectors. The use of

human workers in routine tasks like this should be avoided if

possible, because results in manual inspection are often worse

than one could expect, since the performance of a human

inspector has a strong tendency to drop radically in

uninteresting jobs. A human inspector is also quite insensitive

to gradually occurring small changes. Human made grading is

often inconsistent. There have been observations that the

correspondence between different graders is surprisingly low.

In a test of four grades two different graders gave the same

grade for only 60% of the boards [1].

To overcome these difficulties, in recent time visual

inspection has been introduced. The benefits of automated

inspection in wood industry are easily demonstrated. In lumber

production the product volumes are huge and therefore even

small improvements in quality result in considerable savings

and earnings because high graded wood is considerably more

expensive than low graded or nongraded wood.

For visual inspection of wood surfaces, grey level and color

cameras are used most often, but there are also numerous

applications where special sensors like X-ray, laser profile,

microwaves and electronic colorimeter are used. Usually the

color is considered to be important in grading of wood surfaces

and inspection of smooth uniformly colored surfaces can be

automated quite easily. But the quality of wood surfaces can

not be evaluated only on color, and also texture features must

be considered, which makes the automating problem much

1-4244-0497-5/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE

655

obtained for every color channel of RGB and HSI color space

of analyzed parquet image defined like:

based on the first order histogram of a color image. First

method is extraction of first order statistical features derived

from a normalized first order histogram. Second method is

based on a calculation of a so-called percentile values from a

first order cumulative histogram.

N-1IM-1

(1)

height, and 3 is a Kronecker delta function defined like:

8(i,j)=

i= J

i j

G-1

G-1

(i

(2)

p(i

-3

G-1

5

P)4 p (i) 3,

(i

i =O

G-1

=

[p(i)]

(5)

(6)

(y)

f f= (y1 )

x,

fk (y2 )

fjk (IOOo) f (O )

(1 1)

(12)

(13)

(7)

because of saturated noise in the images. Therefore it is safer to

use, for example, 950 and 50 percentiles. It should be noted

that color percentile features could be used in other color

spaces than RGB as well. The only requirement is that the

values measured cannot be circular, i.e. the smallest value is

close to the largest value. This is the case for example with the

hue in HSI color space. In this kind of situation the starting

point for calculating the cumulative histograms cannot be

defined.

i=O

G-1

(10)

different color channels, which give information about the

relative positions of histograms of different channels. This can

be useful in recognizing certain color defects. Invariance

against the width of the histogram can be achieved by

normalizing percentile differences. This is done by scaling with

the difference of maximum and minimum percentile values:

p(X).

f f= (Y1) fk (Y2).

(4)

i =O

4 =

range [0%0, 100%]. As it can be seen, the concept of percentile

is extended to have any real value between 0 and 100, so the

name percentile might be misleading.

Percentile features are sensitive to intensity changes because

they measure direct values of color channels. Invariance

against the shift of the histogram can be achieved by

calculating differences of two percentiles as shown in (12):

i =O

G-1

(i)

fk (y)

(3)

_)2p(i),

(9)

C, (x) is known. If the color percentile feature value is

denoted with fk (y) the relationship is described as

i=O

2 =

H] .

x=O

distribution of pixels on a digital image, but do not give any

information on their relative positions. Thus, these are the

features characterizing contrast (strength of the patterns) and

the color distributions of the image, but not its spatial structure.

First order statistical features are defined according to [3]. It is

possible to define the following characteristic coefficients:

A = L,ip(Wi)

for wood inspection has been proposed [4]. The method is

computationally very simple and has performed very well in

various inspection problems. The color percentile features are

calculated from cumulative color channel histograms Ck(X),

which is the sum of normalized histogram p(i) of color channel

k for all the values that are smaller than or equal to x. It is

defined like the cumulative sum:

expression

I

14

B. Percentile values

First order statistical features are extracted from a

normalized image histogram, which is calculated using the

p(i) 1=

/'3

[i

(8)

i=o

the skewness, t4 is the kurtosis, E is the energy and H is the

entropy of analyzed image histogram.

After calculating given statistical features a feature vector is

obtained by combining those features. Feature vector is

656

feature vector composed of five different percentile values is

obtained for every color channel of RGB and HSI color space:

X

IX0.2

xI

x0

x50

C d(i,J)

(14)

x95

experiments.

As shown later in this paper, using only color analysis for

parquet slabs classification doesn't give satisfying results, so a

texture analysis is combined with color analysis. There are

many possible methods for texture classification, and in this

paper we use second order histogram statistical features as a

one of simplest and most used methods in texture analysis.

(m)=

i,

or

;T

(18)

M-1 N-1

= -E

(19)

i=O j=O

M-1 N-1

AV

E, E,

i=O j=O

i - jl CoC(d (in)

(20)

M-1 N-1

1DM= E

j)

d(' j)

I=Ei_j))2 Cd('nJ)

M-1 N-1

(21)

(22)

i=O j=0

a,

(n)= j},

=max (la -

(2,2)_

=EEc d(i,j)

M-1 N-1

Zd((i

Cs =

i=O j=O

(15)

d

(17)

i=O j=O

tan-' (m n) =

M-1 N-1

Second order statistical features consider pixels in pairs and

give information on their relative positions. Hence, they

characterize a texture by providing information on contrast and

spatial structure. A pair of pixels is determined by two values,

relative distance d and relative orientation a. For every

combination of d and a a two-dimensional histogram is

defined, according to [3], as a ratio between the number pixel

pairs at distance d in direction a with values (i, j) and the total

number of possible pairs of pixels. Mathematically this method

can be described with expression:

7(1,1)

L77(2,o) 7(2,1)

17(10,)

(d,a) with values (ij). R is the total number of possible pixel

pairs. The definition of the co-occurrence matrix implies its

symmetry, which enables further reduction and gives a

possibility of separating certain coefficients that efficiently

encode image texture.

From the GLCM, according to [3] it is possible to extract

many different statistical features. In this paper only six of

them were used, which gave the best grading results. These

features are:

10, 50 and 100 percent of cumulative histogram were selected

as a combination of values which give best results in the

I=

c|, |b - d|),

M-1 N-1

Cp

(16)

Y0((ij

i=O j=O

where NG is number of gray levels.

Relative distance d is measured by the number of pixels (d

1 for neighboring pixels, etc.). Relative orientation

can be

any angle between 00 and 3600, but the expression (15) ensures

symmetry around main diagonal of calculated second order

histogram matrix, called Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix,

GLCM, so in practice there are used only angles quantized in

four directions: horizontally or 00, diagonally or 450, vertically

900, and antidiagonally or 1350, or a sum of combination of

any given quantized angles.

A GLCM for pair (d, a) is defined as an NGxNG matrix,

where NG is the image depth. E.g. if NG= 3, then the image is

equal to:

Pi) + (j

(23)

Pi) + (j

(24)

(i -pi) ( j

(ij

(7i C7i

i=O j=

(25)

M-1 N-1

HC

i=

'lily

j=O

(26)

y

inverse difference moment, I is inertia or contrast, C is

correlation and HC is Haralicks correlation. vi and oj are

defined like:

NC -1

E=Y ( i -)2

i=O

657

NC -1

E

j=O

C, ( i j)

(27)

i)2Zci

C

j ) C

jO

(inj)

(')

ll

0.04

(28)

i=O

deviations of matrix rows and columns respectively.

From the given second order statistical features a feature

vector is composed as a combination, which gives best results

in experiments. Finally, feature vector is computed for every

channel of used color space and is defined like:

,

xcm

[E

AV

IDM

C]

(29)

where

Im

max

((I.)

(33)

150

/ ?l

h(max)

250

k(max)

-h

on

image

(34)

(35)

Classifiers

The main goal of our experiments was to find optimal set of

color and texture features, which gives the best classification

results.

We have compared performance of following classifiers:

Minimum Distance Classifier (MD) [13], Nearest Neighbor

Classifier (NN) [10], and K Nearest Neighbors Classifier

(KNN) [12].

These classifiers were chosen because of performance

reasons, as they have low complexity, but still give satisfying

results on high-dimension feature spaces.

The experiments were performed on 20 images of parquet

slabs of every class, all together 60 images. Because of

relatively small number of images, there was no possibility to

divide this set of images in two separate sets, one for learning

and one for testing, so we used Leave One-Out testing method

[11], which gives satisfying results on small learning sets.

B.

Color analysis

The first step was comparison of different color analysis

methods in order to obtain best classification results. As

already mentioned, best classification results are obtained with

feature vectors defined with (9) and (14). Using these feature

vectors, a comparison of different color spaces and different

classifiers is also performed. For every color channel of RGB

and HSI color spaces feature vectors were computed, so that

final feature vector can be defined like:

(31)

(32)

Intensity

A.

(30)

p- (Nma )

100

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

= max (p (i))

250

200

ax

Pma percentile value of

Imax intensity of maximum value Nma P,

cumulative histogram c, (i) for I and h, and k, are

experimentally defined percentile values of cumulative

histogram C, (i). The described threshold determination

method is illustrated in image 4.

boundary range for binary thresholding.

Adaptive thresholding boundaries h (max) and k (max) are

calculated using the following terms:

N

150

A. Adaptive thresholding

Adaptive thresholding is an extension of simple thresholding

techniques. In this paper adaptive thresholding boundaries are

recalculated for every new processed image using the image

cumulative histogram. Mathematically this method is described

with equation:

,

50

h (max) =c 1 (P

level;

3. Count up pixels of value 1 in thresholded image in every

single local rectangular regions

4. If a number of pixels in local rectangular region exceeds

defined limit number of pixels, name the analyzed region

as a defect

5. Using connected component analysis methods get the

position and size of every single defect

6. Using some classification method get the class (type) of

defect

else

Intensity

cumulative histogram

za

100

-a

Proposed defect detection method is based on a

segmentation method, which uses adaptive thresholding in

local rectangular regions. Segmentation method of defect

detection is a very fast and very effective method [5]. This

method consists of following steps:

1. Divide the parquet slab image on local rectangular

{1,

50

658

X-

[T -2T X3T]

(38), GLCM of every color channel of HSI color space was

calculated. Then the feature vector (29) of every channel was

calculated. Final texture analysis feature vector for all three

color channels was:

(36)

color space, or H, S and I channel of HSI color space, and xi is

feature vector of respective color channel defined with (9) or

(14).

Also the comparison of MD, NN and KNN classifiers was

performed, where numbers of nearest neighbors K of KNN

classifier were K = 3, K = 5 and K = 7. The results obtained

with Leave One-Out method of classification are shown in

Table I and Fig. 5. From the obtained results we can conclude

that the best method for color analysis is the one that uses

percentile features based on the HSI color space, which gave

the best results for all used classifiers.

TABLE I.

Features

Statistical

Statial

ercentile

Classifier

space

RGB

I-NN

3-NN

5-NN

7-NN

69.84

68.25

MD

71.43

71.43

66.67

77.78

65.08

77.78

71.43

82.54

71.43

77.78

66.67

71.43

71.42

66.67

HSI

HSI

RGB

77.78

69.84

66.67

65.08

x cms

_x

X

XCcm

--------4)

7d50

l40.

----------------------

------------

-4-

-.0. HSI statistical features

--t--&3-NN

5-NN

Classifier

percentile features

percentile features

RGB

--s- HSI

NN

7-NN

MD

Considering texture analysis, best classification results are

obtained with feature vector of second order statistical texture

features based on GLCM and defined with (29). Because HSI

color space has manifested like the supreme color space in

color analysis, in texture analysis methods we also use HSI

color space. Thus, feature vector (29) is computed for every

channel of HSI color space. Here the comparison of

classification performance for different angles a and distances

d of GLCM is done.

GLCM was calculated with the following angles:

{1,3,5}.

(40)

Classifier

1-NN 3-NN

75.81 80.65

75.81 77.42

79.03 80.65

82.26 87.10

77.42 80.65

79.03 82.26

82.26 80.65

85.48 83.87

88.71 83.87

77.42 80.65

79.03 79.03

80.65 75.81

80.65 83.87

79.69

7.69

87.10

81.25

81.25

87.10

5-NN

80.65

80.65

72.58

87.10

80.65

74.19

79.03

82.26

83.87

83.87

79.03

74.19

87.10

82.81

82.81

70.97

7-NN

79.03

79.03

77.42

83.87

79.03

80.65

85.48

85.48

88.71

80.65

82.26

75.81

83.87

87.50

7.50

74.19

MD

75.80

74.19

72.58

75.80

74.19

72.58

72.58

72.58

74.19

79.03

74.19

72.58

77.42

78.13

78.13

70.97

classifier has increased compared to color only based

obtained with the second order statistical features obtained

from GLCM calculated with distance and angle pair a = 900

and d= 5.

In Fig. 6 results of the best method in color only analysis,

and results of the best combined color and texture analysis

method are shown. We can conclude that the combined color

and texture analysis rapidly increases accuracy of classification

compared to color only analysis methods.

(37)

angles. The compared distances d were:

d =

(39)

TABLE III.

Dist.

d

cc

1

00

2

5

1

450

2

5

1

900

2

5

1

2

1350

5

1

Combination

22

of angles

_____5

80<

20-

TABLE II.

RESULTS OF COMBINED COLOR AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

METHOD RESULTS OF COLOR ANALYSIS METHOD DESCRIBED AS CLASSIFIER

ACCURACY IN PERCENTS

Angle

30-

x cmI

number of nearest neighbors K of KNN were K = 3, K = 5 and

K = 7. The results obtained with Leave One-Out method of

classification are shown in Table II and Fig. 6.

90

,0

-T]T

XS

100-

00

obtained by combining the vectors (36) and (39), i.e. by

combination of percentile values and second order statistical

features of every channel of HSI color space, using the

expression:

CLASSIFIER AccURACY IN PERCENTS

Color

LkcmH

CM

(38)

659

REFERENCES

[1]

]

[2]

60X5040-

[3]

30

_

1010

NN

[4]

Xiy

@ CColorAnalysisl

i

_4- Combined Color and Texture Analysis

3-NN

5-NN

Classifier

7-NN

MD

[5]

Fig. 6. Comparison of only color analysis and combined color and texture

analysis.

[6]

VI. CONCLUSIONS

[7]

that only color information is not sufficient for accurate parquet

slab sorting. But with combination of color and texture

information we have achieved a very accurate classifying

process with about 90 percent of accuracy, which greatly

outstands results of human inspector, that are about 60-70

percent.

It must be emphasized that these results are obtained on a

relatively small learning set of parquet slab images. Using a

larger learning set with images of boundary parquet slabs in

combination with intelligent classifier, like neural network

based self organizing maps, even better accuracy could be

achieved.

Except of accuracy, our algorithm is relatively fast, and can

process about 15 parquet slabs per second running on a 2.4

GHz Pentium IV processor. This is achieved using fast

machine vision algorithms.

In addition, except for parquet slab sorting, our algorithm,

combined with new learning set of images, can be used for

very large number of visual inspection applications, like

surface inspection or sorting and classifying large number of

industry products.

Future work will include experiments with intelligent

classifiers, in order to improve classification results.

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

660

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Intelligence, 10:83-95, 1996

R. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, "Textural Features for Image

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H. KAUPPINEN, "Development of a Color Machine Vision Method for

Wood Surface Inspection", PhD thesis, University of Oulu, Oulu, 1999.

H. KAUPPINEN, "Two Stage Defect Recognition Methodfor Parquet Slab

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R. W. CONNERS, C. W. MCMILLIN, K. LIN, R. E. VASQUEZ - ESPINOSA,

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