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# Vorlesung Tiefbohrtechnik 1

## Introduction to Rotary-Drilling Technology (inc. Rig Count)

Drilling a Well, Drilling methods
Rock Mechanics I
Drilling Mud: Functions, Properties, Rheology
Rock Mechanics II, Well stability
Borehole hydraulics, Overbalance vs. Underbalance
Drilling bits, Selection criteria
Drilling optimisation concepts
Drill-string basics
Downhole motors I (Theory, Moineu Motoren)
Downhole motors II (Turbinen, Selection Criteria)
Special drilling systems (Drilling Hammer, Coring)
Measuring drilling parameters
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Drilling Hydraulics Applications

Calculation of subsurface hydrostatic pressures that may tend to
burst or collapse well tubulars or fracture exposed formations

casing string

## Bit nozzle size selection for optimum hydraulics

Surge or swab pressures due to vertical pipe movement
Carrying capacity of drilling fluids

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Pressure drop in a well

Pp=Psc + Pdp + Pdc + Pdt + Pb + Pdca + Pdpa

DP

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

>50%

DC

PP Pump pressure
PSC surface equipment
Pdp Drill pipe
Pdc Drill collar
Pb - Bit
Pdca Annulus in DC Range
Pdpa Annulus in DP range

TBT I 2014

Wellbore hydraulics

HYDROSTATICS

HYDRODINAMCS

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Buoyancy Force = weight of fluid displaced

(Archimedes, 250 BC)

Figure
4-9. Hydraulic forces acting on a foreign body
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Effective (buoyed) Weight

We W Fb
W - f V
W
W - f
s

We = buoyed weight
W = weight in air
f = fluid density
s = steel density
Fb = buoyancy force
V = volume

f
We W
1

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

f
We W
1

f
BF 1
s

## Valid for a solid body or an open-ended pipe! (WHY?)

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Flow pattern is linear (no radial flow)

Velocity at wall is ZERO
Produces minimal hole erosion

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Types of Flow: Laminar Flow

Mud properties strongly affect pressure losses
Is preferred flow type for annulus (in vertical wells)
Laminar flow is sometimes referred to as sheet flow, or
layered flow:

* As the flow velocity increases, the flow type changes from laminar to
turbulent.

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

## Flow pattern is random

(flow in all directions)
Tends to produce hole erosion
Results in higher pressure losses
(takes more energy)
Provides excellent hole cleaningbut
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

10

## Types of flow : Turbulent flow

Mud properties have little effect on pressure losses
Is the usual flow type inside the drill pipe and collars
Thin laminar boundary layer at the wall
High turbulent flow is found under the bit and
sometime in the annular area around drill collars and
stabilizers

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Fig. 4-30. Laminar and turbulent flow patterns in a

circular pipe: (a) laminar flow, (b) transition between
laminar and turbulent flow and (c) turbulent flow

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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turbulent flow

Dpf = 9.11 v
laminar flow

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Turbulent Flow - Newtonian Fluid

The onset of turbulence in pipe flow is characterized
by the dimensionless group known as the Reynolds
number
_

N Re
In field units,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

vd

N Re

928 v d

TBT I 2014

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_

N Re

vd

lbm/gal
_

## v avg. fluid velocity,m/sec

ft/s

m
d pipe I.D., in

viscosity of fluid, Pa
cp.
s

## We often assume that fluid flow is

turbulent if Nre > 2,100
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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_

N Re

928 v d

_

## v avg. fluid velocity, ft/s

d pipe I.D., in
viscosity of fluid, cp.

## We often assume that fluid flow is

turbulent if Nre > 2,100
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Non-static Well Conditions

FLUID FLOW

Physical Laws

Rheological Models
Equations of State
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Physical Laws

Conservation of mass
Conservation of energy

Conservation of momentum

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Physical Laws
Conservation of mass
A1 v1 A2 v2 q constant
Conservation of energy
2

v
p 0 g h konstant
2

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## States that as a fluid flows from A to B:

E 2 E1 p2V2

p1V1

1 2
2
g D2 D1
v 2 v1
2
W Q
In the wellbore, in many cases
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Q = 0 (heat)
= constant

TBT I 2014

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Physical Laws
Stokes Law

(c m ) g d
vs
18

Cutting transport

v r vs
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Slip Velocity, after Bourgoyne et al.

d s s
vs 1.89
1

f f
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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138(s f )ds
vs

## s density of solidparticle, lbm/gal

f density of fluid, lbm/gal
ds diameter of particle, in

fluid viscosity, cp
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Particle Slip Velocity other than laminar

Intermediate:

2.90d s ( s f ) 2/3
vs
( f a )1/3

Fully Turbulent:

d s ( s f )
vs 1.54
f

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Rheological Models

Newtonian

Bingham Plastic
Power Law

API Power-Law

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Typical Drilling Fluid Vs. Newtonian, Bingham and Power Law Fluids

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Equations of State

Incompressible fluid

Ideal gas

Real gas

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Pipe Flow

Annular Flow

q
d

v
2

d
4

q
2
2

d12

WHERE

## v = average velocity, m/s

q = flow rate, m3/s
d = internal diameter of pipe, m
d2 = internal diameter of outer pipe or borehole, m
d1 = external diameter of inner pipe, m
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Pipe Flow

q
v
2
2.448 d

Annular Flow

q
v
2
2
2.448 d 2 d1

WHERE

## v = average velocity, ft/s

q = flow rate, gal/min
d = internal diameter of pipe, in.
d2 = internal diameter of outer pipe or borehole, in.
d1 = external diameter of inner pipe, in.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## (a) pipe flow and (b) annular flow

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Equal
Area
and
Height

Simpler
Equations
-yet
accurate

2

## Height of slot h (r2 r1 )

Width of slot W (r2 r1 )

} I 2014

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

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## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Representing the Annulus as a Slot

F1 pWDy
dp f

F2 p 2 WDy p
L WDy
dL

F3 = WDL

F4 = y + DyWDL = + d Dy WDL
dy
Consider:
- pressure forces
- viscous forces
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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F = ma

F=0

F2 + F3 F4 = 0

d
dp f

dL

dy

dp f
Simplifying,
d = 0
dL
dy

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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d dp f
=
dy
dL

dp f
y
0
dL

## Separate variables and integrate:

Evaluate 0 at wall where y = 0

## With Newtonian Fluid Model,

dv
So,
But,
dy
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

dv
= -
dy
TBT I 2014

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## Representing the Annulus as a Slot

dv
dp f
-
=y
+ o
dy
dL

dv -

dp f

y 0 dy

dL

0 y
y dp f
v

v0
2 dL

Since v 0 when y 0,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

v0 0
TBT I 2014

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## Representing the Annulus as a Slot

Since v 0 when y h,

h 2 dp f 0 h
02 dL

h dp f
0 2 dL
Hence, substituting for v0 and 0 :
1 dp f
v
2 dL
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

hy y
2

TBT I 2014

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1 dp f
v =
2 dL

(hy - y 2 )

q vdA vWdy
W dp f
q
2 dL

hy y dy
h

Wh dp f
Integrating, q
12 dL

## But Wh (r2 2 r12 ) and h r2 r1

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Representing the Annulus as a Slot

dp f 2 2
2
q
(r2 r1 )(r2 r1 )
12 dL

Wh 3 dp f
q
12 dL

q
q
But average velocity, v
2
2
A (r2 r1 )
_

12 v
dp f

dL
(r2 r1 ) 2
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Representing the Annulus as a Slot

_

12 v
dp f

2
dL
(r2 r1 )
_

dp f
v

2
psi/ft, cp., ft/sec, in dL 1000(d 2 d1 )

In field units,

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Hydraulics Optimization

## The Art of Compromise

- Improve Annulus cutting transport versus Bit
flow regime (high velocity vs. Low pressure
drop)

Optimising Targets
- Maximizing Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP)
- Maximizing Impact Force (HIP)
- Maximizing Nozzle velocity (HNV)
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Horsepower

## Horsepower is defined as work per time

Hydraulic horsepower is calculated as follows:

Q DP
Where:
Q = Flowrate in cubic meters/minute
P = bit pressure drop in Pa

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Q DP
1714
Where:
Q = Flowrate in gallons/minute
P = bit pressure drop in psi

TBT I 2014

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Horsepower

## Please derive this equation for: flowrate in L/min

and pressure in bar

Q DP ?

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Input horsepower requirement is the

horsepower required to be used to develop the
desired output horsepower. Note that there is
always the efficiency that reduces the output/
- Function of Energy conversion efficiency
-

## Energy conversion to energy source (Diesel Engines, Generators)

Energy source to pump prime mover (Electric motor, Diesel Engine)
Prime mover losses through coupling (transmission, gearbox, belt slip, friction, etc.)
Pump efficiency

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Q maximum
Q optimum
Q minimum

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Q Minimum

## Roller Cone Bits: Bottom Hole Cleaning

(removing cuttings and transport them in annular section)

## Fixed Cutter Bits: Cutter cooling and

cleaning (temperature sensible tools)

## Delay time to get cuttings samples to surface which

reduce the ability to react.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Q Maximum
Hole erosion
-

E.C.D. effects
-

## Fracture Gradient (max. Q > increase pressure loss)

R.O.P. Reduction (Why?)

## Pump capacity (limited power)

Surface volume handling and treating
capacity
Energy expenses and costs
Equipment wear
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Setting QMinimum

Hole Cleaning:
- Rule of Thumb (v = 0.3 to 0.8 m/s)
- Observation (experience)
- Slip Velocity (Stokes or other)

## Bit Cooling and Cleaning:

- Empirical Recommendations
- Observation
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Setting QMaximum
Hole Erosion
-

Turbulent Flow
Strength of Formation Being Drilled

E.C.D. Effects
-

Mud Rheology
R.O.P. Reduction

Pump Capacity
-

Pressure Limits
Flow Rate Limits
Horsepower Limits
Surface Equipment Pressure Limitations

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Setting QMaximum
Surface Volume Handling and Treating
Capacity
-

## Solids Control Equipment Limits

Gas Handling Limits

-

Consumption

Equipment Wear
-

## High Pressure and Flow Rates Leads to Increased Wear

and Tear on Equipment

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Hydraulic effectiveness can be optimized

two ways:
- Maximum hydraulic horsepower at the bit
- Maximum impact force at the bit

## Maximum cleaning efficiency is limited by

surface equipment limits and energy limits
(i.e. pumps, lines).
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Dp b Dp p Dp v
Pump pressure

System losses

## Hydraulic Horse Power at bit

H b Dp b q q Dp p Dp v
Flow rate

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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2 Dp b
vn

v n cd

2 Dp b

cd = 0,95 - 0,98

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## McLean performed experimental work that

indicated that bit cleaning was maximized when the
impact force was maximized at the bit. This was
supported by studies performed by Eckel who found
that maximum impact force lead to maximum rate of
penetration.

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Bit horsepower is maximized when the bit pressure

loss is equal to:

0.57 x Psystem
Psystem is limited by equipment and power available.

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Kendall and Goins determined the impact force was

maximized when bit pressure loss is equal to:

0.47 x Psystem

## Psystem is limited by equipment and power available.

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

57

## Kendall and Goins derived a relationship for

maximizing horsepower at the bit. The derivation
of this relationship is left to the class participant.

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Setting QOptimum
Maximizing ROP
Cutting transport

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Pump limitation

TBT I 2014

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Konzept

vj max

Hb max
HHP

Fj max
HIF

Pump pressure

pp [MPa]

25,00

25,00

25,00

Flow rate

qopt
[L/min]

800

1019

1209

pb [MPa]

18,66

15,69

11,33

pv [MPa]

6,34

9,31

13,67

Hp [kW]

333

425

504

Hb [kW]

248,77

266,50

228,31

Impulse force

Fj [N]

2675,88

3146,22

3312,30

Jet velocity

vj [m/s]

171,13

156,91

133,33

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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80

## Bit pressure drop

pressure loss
[%pp]

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
vj

HHP

HIF

optimization concept

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

61

3500

Hb

250

Fj

vj [m/s]

Hb [kW]

200

3000
2500
2000

150
1500

vj

100
50

Fj [kW]

300

1000
500

0
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

Pump rate[L/min]

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Pressure loss in surface equipment

Pump

Surface pipes

Mud Hose

Swivel

Kelly

1,86

q
Dp C
z
C = Pressure loss coefficient
z = Unit coefficient

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

63

## Alternative Hydraulic Designs

Vortex
Nozzles
Clean Sweep
Mudpick
Asymmetric
Nozzles
All pictures courtesy of Schlumberger

## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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## Dr. Catalin Teodoriu

Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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