Vorlesung Tiefbohrtechnik 1
Introduction to RotaryDrilling Technology (inc. Rig Count)
Drilling a Well, Drilling methods
Rock Mechanics I
Drilling Mud: Functions, Properties, Rheology
Rock Mechanics II, Well stability
Borehole hydraulics, Overbalance vs. Underbalance
Drilling bits, Selection criteria
Drilling optimisation concepts
Drillstring basics
Downhole motors I (Theory, Moineu Motoren)
Downhole motors II (Turbinen, Selection Criteria)
Special drilling systems (Drilling Hammer, Coring)
Formation pressure, Fracgradienten
Measuring drilling parameters
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Drilling Hydraulics Applications
Calculation of subsurface hydrostatic pressures that may tend to
burst or collapse well tubulars or fracture exposed formations
Several aspects of blowout prevention
Displacement of cement slurries and resulting stresses in the
casing string
Bit nozzle size selection for optimum hydraulics
Surge or swab pressures due to vertical pipe movement
Carrying capacity of drilling fluids
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Pressure drop in a well
Pp=Psc + Pdp + Pdc + Pdt + Pb + Pdca + Pdpa
DP
Less than 50%
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
>50%
DC
PP Pump pressure
PSC surface equipment
Pdp Drill pipe
Pdc Drill collar
Pb  Bit
Pdca Annulus in DC Range
Pdpa Annulus in DP range
TBT I 2014
Wellbore hydraulics
HYDROSTATICS
HYDRODINAMCS
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Buoyancy Force = weight of fluid displaced
(Archimedes, 250 BC)
Figure
49. Hydraulic forces acting on a foreign body
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Effective (buoyed) Weight
We W Fb
W  f V
W
W  f
s
We = buoyed weight
W = weight in air
f = fluid density
s = steel density
Fb = buoyancy force
V = volume
f
We W
1
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Effective (buoyed) Weight
f
We W
1
Buoyancy Factor (BF)
f
BF 1
s
Valid for a solid body or an openended pipe! (WHY?)
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Types of Flow: Laminar Flow
Flow pattern is linear (no radial flow)
Velocity at wall is ZERO
Produces minimal hole erosion
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Types of Flow: Laminar Flow
Mud properties strongly affect pressure losses
Is preferred flow type for annulus (in vertical wells)
Laminar flow is sometimes referred to as sheet flow, or
layered flow:
* As the flow velocity increases, the flow type changes from laminar to
turbulent.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
Types of Flow: Turbulent Flow
Flow pattern is random
(flow in all directions)
Tends to produce hole erosion
Results in higher pressure losses
(takes more energy)
Provides excellent hole cleaningbut
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
10
Types of flow : Turbulent flow
Mud properties have little effect on pressure losses
Is the usual flow type inside the drill pipe and collars
Thin laminar boundary layer at the wall
High turbulent flow is found under the bit and
sometime in the annular area around drill collars and
stabilizers
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
11
Types of f low: Turbulent flow
Fig. 430. Laminar and turbulent flow patterns in a
circular pipe: (a) laminar flow, (b) transition between
laminar and turbulent flow and (c) turbulent flow
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
12
Dpf = 11.41 v 1.75
turbulent flow
Dpf = 9.11 v
laminar flow
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
13
Turbulent Flow  Newtonian Fluid
The onset of turbulence in pipe flow is characterized
by the dimensionless group known as the Reynolds
number
_
N Re
In field units,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
vd
N Re
928 v d
TBT I 2014
14
Turbulent Flow  Newtonian Fluid in SI units
_
N Re
vd
where fluid density, Kg/m3
lbm/gal
_
v avg. fluid velocity,m/sec
ft/s
m
d pipe I.D., in
viscosity of fluid, Pa
cp.
s
We often assume that fluid flow is
turbulent if Nre > 2,100
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
15
Turbulent Flow  Newtonian Fluid in field units
_
N Re
928 v d
where fluid density, lbm/gal
_
v avg. fluid velocity, ft/s
d pipe I.D., in
viscosity of fluid, cp.
We often assume that fluid flow is
turbulent if Nre > 2,100
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
16
Nonstatic Well Conditions
FLUID FLOW
Physical Laws
Rheological Models
Equations of State
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
17
Physical Laws
Conservation of mass
Conservation of energy
Conservation of momentum
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
18
Physical Laws
Conservation of mass
A1 v1 A2 v2 q constant
Conservation of energy
2
v
p 0 g h konstant
2
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
19
Law of Conservation of Energy (Brnoulli)
States that as a fluid flows from A to B:
E 2 E1 p2V2
p1V1
1 2
2
g D2 D1
v 2 v1
2
W Q
In the wellbore, in many cases
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
Q = 0 (heat)
= constant
TBT I 2014
20
Physical Laws
Stokes Law
(c m ) g d
vs
18
Cutting transport
v r vs
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
21
Settling velocity, after Bourgoyne et al.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
22
Slip Velocity, after Bourgoyne et al.
d s s
vs 1.89
1
f f
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
23
Particle Slip Velocity  small particles
138(s f )ds
vs
v s slip velocity, ft/s
s density of solidparticle, lbm/gal
f density of fluid, lbm/gal
ds diameter of particle, in
fluid viscosity, cp
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
24
Particle Slip Velocity other than laminar
Intermediate:
2.90d s ( s f ) 2/3
vs
( f a )1/3
Fully Turbulent:
d s ( s f )
vs 1.54
f
Note: all equations are in field units
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
25
Rheological Models
Newtonian
Bingham Plastic
Power Law
API PowerLaw
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
26
Typical Drilling Fluid Vs. Newtonian, Bingham and Power Law Fluids
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
27
Equations of State
Incompressible fluid
Slightly compressible fluid
Ideal gas
Real gas
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
28
Average Fluid Velocity (SI units)
Pipe Flow
Annular Flow
q
d
v
2
d
4
q
2
2
d12
WHERE
v = average velocity, m/s
q = flow rate, m3/s
d = internal diameter of pipe, m
d2 = internal diameter of outer pipe or borehole, m
d1 = external diameter of inner pipe, m
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
29
Average Fluid Velocity (field units)
Pipe Flow
q
v
2
2.448 d
Annular Flow
q
v
2
2
2.448 d 2 d1
WHERE
v = average velocity, ft/s
q = flow rate, gal/min
d = internal diameter of pipe, in.
d2 = internal diameter of outer pipe or borehole, in.
d1 = external diameter of inner pipe, in.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
30
Velocity Profiles (laminar flow)
(a) pipe flow and (b) annular flow
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
31
Representing the Circular Annulus as a Slot
Equal
Area
and
Height
Simpler
Equations
yet
accurate
Area of equivalent slot Wh r2 r1
2
Height of slot h (r2 r1 )
Width of slot W (r2 r1 )
{ slot approximation is OK if (d1/d2 > 0.3TBT
} I 2014
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
32
Free body diagram for fluid element in a narrow slot
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
33
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
F1 pWDy
dp f
F2 p 2 WDy p
L WDy
dL
F3 = WDL
F4 = y + DyWDL = + d Dy WDL
dy
Consider:
 pressure forces
 viscous forces
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
34
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
Summing forces along flow:
At steady state,
F = ma
F=0
F2 + F3 F4 = 0
d
dp f
pWDy  p L WDy WDL  y WDL 0
dL
dy
dp f
Simplifying,
d = 0
dL
dy
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
35
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
d dp f
=
dy
dL
dp f
y
0
dL
Separate variables and integrate:
Evaluate 0 at wall where y = 0
With Newtonian Fluid Model,
dv
So,
But,
dy
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
dv
= 
dy
TBT I 2014
36
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
dv
dp f

=y
+ o
dy
dL
dv 
dp f
y 0 dy
dL
0 y
y dp f
v
v0
2 dL
Since v 0 when y 0,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
v0 0
TBT I 2014
37
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
Since v 0 when y h,
h 2 dp f 0 h
02 dL
h dp f
0 2 dL
Hence, substituting for v0 and 0 :
1 dp f
v
2 dL
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
hy y
2
TBT I 2014
38
1 dp f
v =
2 dL
(hy  y 2 )
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
The total flow rate:
q vdA vWdy
W dp f
q
2 dL
hy y dy
h
Wh dp f
Integrating, q
12 dL
But Wh (r2 2 r12 ) and h r2 r1
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
39
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
dp f 2 2
2
q
(r2 r1 )(r2 r1 )
12 dL
Wh 3 dp f
q
12 dL
q
q
But average velocity, v
2
2
A (r2 r1 )
_
12 v
dp f
dL
(r2 r1 ) 2
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
40
Representing the Annulus as a Slot
_
12 v
dp f
2
dL
(r2 r1 )
_
dp f
v
2
psi/ft, cp., ft/sec, in dL 1000(d 2 d1 )
In field units,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
41
Hydraulics Optimization
The Art of Compromise
 Improve Annulus cutting transport versus Bit
flow regime (high velocity vs. Low pressure
drop)
Optimising Targets
 Maximizing Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP)
 Maximizing Impact Force (HIP)
 Maximizing Nozzle velocity (HNV)
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
42
Horsepower
Horsepower is defined as work per time
Hydraulic horsepower is calculated as follows:
Q DP
Where:
Q = Flowrate in cubic meters/minute
P = bit pressure drop in Pa
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
Q DP
1714
Where:
Q = Flowrate in gallons/minute
P = bit pressure drop in psi
TBT I 2014
43
Horsepower
Please derive this equation for: flowrate in L/min
and pressure in bar
Q DP ?
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
44
Input Horsepower Requirement
Input horsepower requirement is the
horsepower required to be used to develop the
desired output horsepower. Note that there is
always the efficiency that reduces the output/
 Function of Energy conversion efficiency

Energy conversion to energy source (Diesel Engines, Generators)
Energy source to pump prime mover (Electric motor, Diesel Engine)
Prime mover losses through coupling (transmission, gearbox, belt slip, friction, etc.)
Pump efficiency
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
45
Setting Flow Rates
Q maximum
Q optimum
Q minimum
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
46
Q Minimum
Roller Cone Bits: Bottom Hole Cleaning
(removing cuttings and transport them in annular section)
 Additionally: Bit cooling and cleaning
Fixed Cutter Bits: Cutter cooling and
cleaning (temperature sensible tools)
 Additionally: Hole cleaning (why?)
Delay time to get cuttings samples to surface which
reduce the ability to react.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
47
Q Maximum
Hole erosion

Turbulent Flow (very controversial today)
E.C.D. effects

Fracture Gradient (max. Q > increase pressure loss)
R.O.P. Reduction (Why?)
Pump capacity (limited power)
Surface volume handling and treating
capacity
Energy expenses and costs
Equipment wear
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
48
Setting QMinimum
Hole Cleaning:
 Rule of Thumb (v = 0.3 to 0.8 m/s)
 Observation (experience)
 Slip Velocity (Stokes or other)
Bit Cooling and Cleaning:
 Empirical Recommendations
 Observation
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
49
Setting QMaximum
Hole Erosion

Turbulent Flow
Strength of Formation Being Drilled
E.C.D. Effects

Mud Rheology
Fracture Gradient
R.O.P. Reduction
Pump Capacity

Pressure Limits
Flow Rate Limits
Horsepower Limits
Surface Equipment Pressure Limitations
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
50
Setting QMaximum
Surface Volume Handling and Treating
Capacity

Solids Control Equipment Limits
Gas Handling Limits
Energy Expenses and Costs

High Horsepower Use Leads to Increased Fuel
Consumption
Equipment Wear

High Pressure and Flow Rates Leads to Increased Wear
and Tear on Equipment
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
51
Bit Hydraulics Optimization Methods
Hydraulic effectiveness can be optimized
two ways:
 Maximum hydraulic horsepower at the bit
 Maximum impact force at the bit
Maximum cleaning efficiency is limited by
surface equipment limits and energy limits
(i.e. pumps, lines).
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
52
Pressure Loss at the Bit
Dp b Dp p Dp v
Pump pressure
System losses
Hydraulic Horse Power at bit
H b Dp b q q Dp p Dp v
Flow rate
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
53
Jet velocity at bit nozzle
2 Dp b
vn
v n cd
2 Dp b
cd = 0,95  0,98
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
54
Maximum Impact Force at the Bit
McLean performed experimental work that
indicated that bit cleaning was maximized when the
impact force was maximized at the bit. This was
supported by studies performed by Eckel who found
that maximum impact force lead to maximum rate of
penetration.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
55
Maximum Horsepower at the Bit
Bit horsepower is maximized when the bit pressure
loss is equal to:
0.57 x Psystem
Psystem is limited by equipment and power available.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
56
Maximum Impact Force at the Bit
Kendall and Goins determined the impact force was
maximized when bit pressure loss is equal to:
0.47 x Psystem
Psystem is limited by equipment and power available.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
57
Maximum Horsepower at the Bit
Kendall and Goins derived a relationship for
maximizing horsepower at the bit. The derivation
of this relationship is left to the class participant.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
58
Setting QOptimum
Maximizing ROP
Cutting transport
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
Pump limitation
TBT I 2014
59
Example of Hydraulic calculations
Konzept
vj max
Hb max
HHP
Fj max
HIF
Pump pressure
pp [MPa]
25,00
25,00
25,00
Flow rate
qopt
[L/min]
800
1019
1209
Bit pressure Drop
pb [MPa]
18,66
15,69
11,33
System pressure loss
pv [MPa]
6,34
9,31
13,67
Total input Power
Hp [kW]
333
425
504
Bit (horse) power
Hb [kW]
248,77
266,50
228,31
Impulse force
Fj [N]
2675,88
3146,22
3312,30
Jet velocity
vj [m/s]
171,13
156,91
133,33
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
60
Example of Hydraulic calculations
80
Bit pressure drop
pressure loss
[%pp]
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
vj
HHP
HIF
optimization concept
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
61
Example of Hydraulic calculations
3500
Hb
250
Fj
vj [m/s]
Hb [kW]
200
3000
2500
2000
150
1500
vj
100
50
Fj [kW]
300
1000
500
0
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
Pump rate[L/min]
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
62
Pressure loss in surface equipment
Pump
Surface pipes
Mud Hose
Swivel
Kelly
1,86
q
Dp C
z
C = Pressure loss coefficient
z = Unit coefficient
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
63
Alternative Hydraulic Designs
Vortex
Nozzles
Clean Sweep
Mudpick
Switchblade
Asymmetric
Nozzles
All pictures courtesy of Schlumberger
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
64
Viewing the Well as a Manometer
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl und Erdgastechnik
TBT I 2014
65