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Vorlesung Tiefbohrtechnik 1

Introduction to Rotary-Drilling Technology (inc. Rig Count)


Drilling a Well, Drilling methods
Rock Mechanics I
Drilling Mud: Functions, Properties, Rheology
Rock Mechanics II, Well stability
Borehole hydraulics, Overbalance vs. Underbalance
Drilling bits, Selection criteria
Drilling optimisation concepts
Drill-string basics
Downhole motors I (Theory, Moineu Motoren)
Downhole motors II (Turbinen, Selection Criteria)
Special drilling systems (Drilling Hammer, Coring)
Formation pressure, Frac-gradienten
Measuring drilling parameters
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Drilling Hydraulics Applications


Calculation of subsurface hydrostatic pressures that may tend to
burst or collapse well tubulars or fracture exposed formations

Several aspects of blowout prevention

Displacement of cement slurries and resulting stresses in the


casing string

Bit nozzle size selection for optimum hydraulics


Surge or swab pressures due to vertical pipe movement
Carrying capacity of drilling fluids

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Pressure drop in a well


Pp=Psc + Pdp + Pdc + Pdt + Pb + Pdca + Pdpa

DP

Less than 50%

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

>50%

DC

PP Pump pressure
PSC surface equipment
Pdp Drill pipe
Pdc Drill collar
Pb - Bit
Pdca Annulus in DC Range
Pdpa Annulus in DP range

TBT I 2014

Wellbore hydraulics

HYDROSTATICS

HYDRODINAMCS

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Buoyancy Force = weight of fluid displaced


(Archimedes, 250 BC)

Figure
4-9. Hydraulic forces acting on a foreign body
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Effective (buoyed) Weight

We W Fb
W - f V
W
W - f
s

We = buoyed weight
W = weight in air
f = fluid density
s = steel density
Fb = buoyancy force
V = volume

f
We W
1

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Effective (buoyed) Weight

f
We W
1

Buoyancy Factor (BF)

f
BF 1
s

Valid for a solid body or an open-ended pipe! (WHY?)


Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Types of Flow: Laminar Flow

Flow pattern is linear (no radial flow)


Velocity at wall is ZERO
Produces minimal hole erosion

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Types of Flow: Laminar Flow


Mud properties strongly affect pressure losses
Is preferred flow type for annulus (in vertical wells)
Laminar flow is sometimes referred to as sheet flow, or
layered flow:

* As the flow velocity increases, the flow type changes from laminar to
turbulent.

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

Types of Flow: Turbulent Flow

Flow pattern is random


(flow in all directions)
Tends to produce hole erosion
Results in higher pressure losses
(takes more energy)
Provides excellent hole cleaningbut
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

10

Types of flow : Turbulent flow


Mud properties have little effect on pressure losses
Is the usual flow type inside the drill pipe and collars
Thin laminar boundary layer at the wall
High turbulent flow is found under the bit and
sometime in the annular area around drill collars and
stabilizers

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Types of f low: Turbulent flow

Fig. 4-30. Laminar and turbulent flow patterns in a


circular pipe: (a) laminar flow, (b) transition between
laminar and turbulent flow and (c) turbulent flow

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Dpf = 11.41 v 1.75


turbulent flow

Dpf = 9.11 v
laminar flow

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

13

Turbulent Flow - Newtonian Fluid


The onset of turbulence in pipe flow is characterized
by the dimensionless group known as the Reynolds
number
_

N Re
In field units,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

vd

N Re

928 v d

TBT I 2014

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Turbulent Flow - Newtonian Fluid in SI units


_

N Re

vd

where fluid density, Kg/m3


lbm/gal
_

v avg. fluid velocity,m/sec


ft/s

m
d pipe I.D., in

viscosity of fluid, Pa
cp.
s

We often assume that fluid flow is


turbulent if Nre > 2,100
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Turbulent Flow - Newtonian Fluid in field units


_

N Re

928 v d

where fluid density, lbm/gal


_

v avg. fluid velocity, ft/s

d pipe I.D., in
viscosity of fluid, cp.

We often assume that fluid flow is


turbulent if Nre > 2,100
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Non-static Well Conditions


FLUID FLOW

Physical Laws

Rheological Models
Equations of State
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Physical Laws

Conservation of mass
Conservation of energy

Conservation of momentum

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Physical Laws
Conservation of mass
A1 v1 A2 v2 q constant
Conservation of energy
2

v
p 0 g h konstant
2

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Law of Conservation of Energy (Brnoulli)

States that as a fluid flows from A to B:

E 2 E1 p2V2

p1V1

1 2
2
g D2 D1
v 2 v1
2
W Q
In the wellbore, in many cases
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Q = 0 (heat)
= constant

TBT I 2014

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Physical Laws
Stokes Law

(c m ) g d
vs
18

Cutting transport

v r vs
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Settling velocity, after Bourgoyne et al.

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Slip Velocity, after Bourgoyne et al.

d s s
vs 1.89
1

f f
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Particle Slip Velocity - small particles


138(s f )ds
vs

v s slip velocity, ft/s

s density of solidparticle, lbm/gal


f density of fluid, lbm/gal
ds diameter of particle, in

fluid viscosity, cp
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Particle Slip Velocity other than laminar

Intermediate:

2.90d s ( s f ) 2/3
vs
( f a )1/3

Fully Turbulent:

d s ( s f )
vs 1.54
f

Note: all equations are in field units

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Rheological Models

Newtonian

Bingham Plastic
Power Law

API Power-Law

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Typical Drilling Fluid Vs. Newtonian, Bingham and Power Law Fluids

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Equations of State

Incompressible fluid

Slightly compressible fluid


Ideal gas

Real gas

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Average Fluid Velocity (SI units)


Pipe Flow

Annular Flow

q
d

v
2

d
4

q
2
2

d12

WHERE

v = average velocity, m/s


q = flow rate, m3/s
d = internal diameter of pipe, m
d2 = internal diameter of outer pipe or borehole, m
d1 = external diameter of inner pipe, m
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Average Fluid Velocity (field units)


Pipe Flow

q
v
2
2.448 d

Annular Flow

q
v
2
2
2.448 d 2 d1

WHERE

v = average velocity, ft/s


q = flow rate, gal/min
d = internal diameter of pipe, in.
d2 = internal diameter of outer pipe or borehole, in.
d1 = external diameter of inner pipe, in.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Velocity Profiles (laminar flow)

(a) pipe flow and (b) annular flow


Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

31

Representing the Circular Annulus as a Slot

Equal
Area
and
Height

Simpler
Equations
-yet
accurate

Area of equivalent slot Wh r2 r1


2

Height of slot h (r2 r1 )


Width of slot W (r2 r1 )

{ slot approximation is OK if (d1/d2 > 0.3TBT


} I 2014

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

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Free body diagram for fluid element in a narrow slot

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

33

Representing the Annulus as a Slot


F1 pWDy
dp f

F2 p 2 WDy p
L WDy
dL

F3 = WDL

F4 = y + DyWDL = + d Dy WDL
dy
Consider:
- pressure forces
- viscous forces
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Representing the Annulus as a Slot

Summing forces along flow:

At steady state,

F = ma

F=0

F2 + F3 F4 = 0

d
dp f

pWDy - p L WDy WDL - y WDL 0


dL

dy

dp f
Simplifying,
d = 0
dL
dy

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

35

Representing the Annulus as a Slot

d dp f
=
dy
dL

dp f
y
0
dL

Separate variables and integrate:


Evaluate 0 at wall where y = 0

With Newtonian Fluid Model,

dv
So,
But,
dy
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik


dv
= -
dy
TBT I 2014

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Representing the Annulus as a Slot

dv
dp f
-
=y
+ o
dy
dL

dv -

dp f

y 0 dy

dL

0 y
y dp f
v

v0
2 dL

Since v 0 when y 0,
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

v0 0
TBT I 2014

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Representing the Annulus as a Slot

Since v 0 when y h,

h 2 dp f 0 h
02 dL

h dp f
0 2 dL
Hence, substituting for v0 and 0 :
1 dp f
v
2 dL
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

hy y
2

TBT I 2014

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1 dp f
v =
2 dL

(hy - y 2 )

Representing the Annulus as a Slot

The total flow rate:

q vdA vWdy
W dp f
q
2 dL

hy y dy
h

Wh dp f
Integrating, q
12 dL

But Wh (r2 2 r12 ) and h r2 r1


Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Representing the Annulus as a Slot

dp f 2 2
2
q
(r2 r1 )(r2 r1 )
12 dL

Wh 3 dp f
q
12 dL

q
q
But average velocity, v
2
2
A (r2 r1 )
_

12 v
dp f

dL
(r2 r1 ) 2
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

40

Representing the Annulus as a Slot


_

12 v
dp f

2
dL
(r2 r1 )
_

dp f
v

2
psi/ft, cp., ft/sec, in dL 1000(d 2 d1 )

In field units,

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

41

Hydraulics Optimization

The Art of Compromise


- Improve Annulus cutting transport versus Bit
flow regime (high velocity vs. Low pressure
drop)

Optimising Targets
- Maximizing Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP)
- Maximizing Impact Force (HIP)
- Maximizing Nozzle velocity (HNV)
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

42

Horsepower

Horsepower is defined as work per time


Hydraulic horsepower is calculated as follows:

Q DP
Where:
Q = Flowrate in cubic meters/minute
P = bit pressure drop in Pa

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Q DP
1714
Where:
Q = Flowrate in gallons/minute
P = bit pressure drop in psi

TBT I 2014

43

Horsepower

Please derive this equation for: flowrate in L/min


and pressure in bar

Q DP ?

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

44

Input Horsepower Requirement

Input horsepower requirement is the


horsepower required to be used to develop the
desired output horsepower. Note that there is
always the efficiency that reduces the output/
- Function of Energy conversion efficiency
-

Energy conversion to energy source (Diesel Engines, Generators)


Energy source to pump prime mover (Electric motor, Diesel Engine)
Prime mover losses through coupling (transmission, gearbox, belt slip, friction, etc.)
Pump efficiency

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

45

Setting Flow Rates

Q maximum
Q optimum
Q minimum

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

46

Q Minimum

Roller Cone Bits: Bottom Hole Cleaning


(removing cuttings and transport them in annular section)

- Additionally: Bit cooling and cleaning

Fixed Cutter Bits: Cutter cooling and


cleaning (temperature sensible tools)
- Additionally: Hole cleaning (why?)

Delay time to get cuttings samples to surface which


reduce the ability to react.
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Q Maximum
Hole erosion
-

Turbulent Flow (very controversial today)

E.C.D. effects
-

Fracture Gradient (max. Q > increase pressure loss)


R.O.P. Reduction (Why?)

Pump capacity (limited power)


Surface volume handling and treating
capacity
Energy expenses and costs
Equipment wear
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

48

Setting QMinimum

Hole Cleaning:
- Rule of Thumb (v = 0.3 to 0.8 m/s)
- Observation (experience)
- Slip Velocity (Stokes or other)

Bit Cooling and Cleaning:


- Empirical Recommendations
- Observation
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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Setting QMaximum
Hole Erosion
-

Turbulent Flow
Strength of Formation Being Drilled

E.C.D. Effects
-

Mud Rheology
Fracture Gradient
R.O.P. Reduction

Pump Capacity
-

Pressure Limits
Flow Rate Limits
Horsepower Limits
Surface Equipment Pressure Limitations

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

50

Setting QMaximum
Surface Volume Handling and Treating
Capacity
-

Solids Control Equipment Limits


Gas Handling Limits

Energy Expenses and Costs


-

High Horsepower Use Leads to Increased Fuel


Consumption

Equipment Wear
-

High Pressure and Flow Rates Leads to Increased Wear


and Tear on Equipment

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

51

Bit Hydraulics Optimization Methods

Hydraulic effectiveness can be optimized


two ways:
- Maximum hydraulic horsepower at the bit
- Maximum impact force at the bit

Maximum cleaning efficiency is limited by


surface equipment limits and energy limits
(i.e. pumps, lines).
Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

52

Pressure Loss at the Bit

Dp b Dp p Dp v
Pump pressure

System losses

Hydraulic Horse Power at bit

H b Dp b q q Dp p Dp v
Flow rate

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

53

Jet velocity at bit nozzle

2 Dp b
vn

v n cd

2 Dp b

cd = 0,95 - 0,98

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

54

Maximum Impact Force at the Bit

McLean performed experimental work that


indicated that bit cleaning was maximized when the
impact force was maximized at the bit. This was
supported by studies performed by Eckel who found
that maximum impact force lead to maximum rate of
penetration.

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

55

Maximum Horsepower at the Bit

Bit horsepower is maximized when the bit pressure


loss is equal to:

0.57 x Psystem
Psystem is limited by equipment and power available.

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

56

Maximum Impact Force at the Bit

Kendall and Goins determined the impact force was


maximized when bit pressure loss is equal to:

0.47 x Psystem

Psystem is limited by equipment and power available.


Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

57

Maximum Horsepower at the Bit

Kendall and Goins derived a relationship for


maximizing horsepower at the bit. The derivation
of this relationship is left to the class participant.

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

58

Setting QOptimum
Maximizing ROP
Cutting transport

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

Pump limitation

TBT I 2014

59

Example of Hydraulic calculations


Konzept

vj max

Hb max
HHP

Fj max
HIF

Pump pressure

pp [MPa]

25,00

25,00

25,00

Flow rate

qopt
[L/min]

800

1019

1209

Bit pressure Drop

pb [MPa]

18,66

15,69

11,33

System pressure loss

pv [MPa]

6,34

9,31

13,67

Total input Power

Hp [kW]

333

425

504

Bit (horse) power

Hb [kW]

248,77

266,50

228,31

Impulse force

Fj [N]

2675,88

3146,22

3312,30

Jet velocity

vj [m/s]

171,13

156,91

133,33

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

60

Example of Hydraulic calculations

80

Bit pressure drop


pressure loss
[%pp]

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
vj

HHP

HIF

optimization concept

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

61

Example of Hydraulic calculations


3500

Hb

250

Fj

vj [m/s]

Hb [kW]

200

3000
2500
2000

150
1500

vj

100
50

Fj [kW]

300

1000
500

0
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

Pump rate[L/min]

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

62

Pressure loss in surface equipment


Pump

Surface pipes

Mud Hose

Swivel

Kelly

1,86

q
Dp C
z
C = Pressure loss coefficient
z = Unit coefficient

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

63

Alternative Hydraulic Designs

Vortex
Nozzles
Clean Sweep
Mudpick
Switchblade
Asymmetric
Nozzles
All pictures courtesy of Schlumberger

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

64

Viewing the Well as a Manometer

Dr. Catalin Teodoriu


Institut fr Erdl- und Erdgastechnik

TBT I 2014

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